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Full text of "A history of Hatfield, Massachusetts, in three parts: I. An account of the development of the social and industrial life of the town from its first settlement. II. The houses and homes of Hatfield, with personal reminiscences of the men and women who have lived there during the last one hundred years; brief historical accounts of the religious societies and of Smith Academy; statistical tables, etc. III. Genealogies of the families of the first settlers"

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Hatfielh  Main  Street. 


^^    A  HISTORY  OF    '''" 

HATFIELD 


MASSACHUSETTS/ 


IN     THREE     PARTS 

I.  Aa  Account  of  the  Developmeat  of  the  Social  and  Induttrial  Life 

of  the  To  WD  from  iti  Fine  Settlement. 

II.  Tbe  HouBc*  and  Homei  of  Hatfield,  with  Personal  ReminiaceDcei 
of  tbe  Men  and  WomcQ  Who  Have  Lived  there  during  the  Lait 

One  Hundred  Ycari;  Brief  Hiitoricai  Accounti  of  the 

Religioue  Socieliea  and  of  Smith  Academy; 

Statiatical  Tables,  etc. 

IIL     Genealoliei  of  the  Pamiliei  of  the  First  Selllert. 


By  DANIEL  WHITE  SHELLS  ,„d 
REUBEN  FIELD  WELLS 


PUBLISHED  UNDER  THE  D 

F.  C.  H.  GIBBONS,  SPRINGFIELD,  MASS. 


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Copyright,  1910, 
By  Reuben  F.  Wells. 


TABLE  OF   CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Preface 7-9 

Introduction 11-15 


Part  I. — The  History  of  Hatfield. 

Chapter  I. — A  Chapter  of  Beginnings.   The  Migration  from  the  Coast 

to  the  Connecticut  Valley 19-28 

Chapter  H. — A  Chapter  of  Preparation.    The  Pioneers 29-38 

Chapter  III, — A   Chapter   of   Foundations.    The    Street   and   House 

Lots,  Division  of  Meadows,  Mill  and  Meeting 39-49 

Chapter  IV. — A  Chapter  of  Conflict.    The  Struggle  Leading  to  the 

Incorporation  of  Hatfield 50-56 

Chapter  V. — A  Chapter  of  Establishment.    The  Incorporation  of  the 

Town  and  the  Foundation  of  the  Church 57-64 

Chapter  VI. — A  Period  of  Growth  and  of  Preparation  for  the  Indian 

Wars,   1670-1675 65-74 

Chapter  VII. — King  Philip's  War,  1675-6,  and  the  Indian  Massacre 

of  1677 75-98 

Chapter  VIII. — A  Period  of  Peace,  1677-1688.    A  Time  of  Important 

Beginnings.    The  Revolution  of  1688 99-115 

Chapter  IX. — King  William's  War,  1688-1698.    Progress  in  the  Town. 

Purchase  of  the  Denison  Farm.     The  "Hatfield  Addition" 116-130 

Chapter  X. — Another  Period  of  Peace,  1698-1703.    The  Purchase  of 

the  Bradstreet  Farm.     Building  the  Second  Meetinghouse 131-138 

Chapter  XI. — Manners  and  Customs  of  the  Seventeenth  Century 139-148 

Chapter  XII. — Queen  Anne's  War,  1703-1713.     An  Interval  of  Peace. 

Father  Rasle's  War,  1722-1725 149-165 

Chapter  XIII. — A  Period  of  Great  Prosperity,  1725-1765.    The  Golden 

Age.     Prominent  and  Influential  Citizens 166-178 

Chapter  XIV.— A   Period  of   Strife,    1765-1789.    The   Revolutionary 

War.    The  Ely  Insurrection.     Shays's  Rebellion 179-201 

Chapter  XV. — Life  in  Hatfield  at  the  Close  of  the  Eighteenth  Cen- 
tury   .'^Sa-T^Ti 


4  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CnAiTKR  XVI.— A  Long  Period  of  Peace  and  Prosperity,  1800-1861. 

Industrial   Changes.      Immigration 214-224 

Cii.MTKR  XVII.— The  Civtt  War,  1861-1865 225-233 

Ch.aitkr  XVI it.— a  Period  of  Qianges,  1865-1910 234-243 

Part  II. — Rkmixisckxcks  and  Historical  Sketches. 

1. — Kctninisccnccs  of  Samuel  1).  Partridge 247-292 

II. — Keminiscences  of   Daniel  W.  Wells 293-342 

I II. — History  of  the  Religious  Societies 343-349 

IV. —  The  Smith  Family  and  the  Institutions  Founded  by  Them 350-362 

V. —  The  Development  of  the  Manufacturing  Industries  Since  the  Civil 

War 363-365 

I\\RT  III. — Family  Genealocies. 

Allis    i-amily 369-371 

Harjlwfll   I-'amily 371-374 

Beldin}{  or  HeUien   h'amily    374-v^7S 

MilliuRs  l-'amily ' 379-3S4 

Mrown    l-'amily 3S4 

Cowies  l-amily 384-386 

Curti.s    l-amily 386-388 

Dickin>on    I-amily 388-396 

Field  l-amily 396-406 

I-'itoh    l-'amily 406-407 

I'Vary   h'amily 407-40P 

C  Jerry  l-'amily . . . 409 

<iraves  l'*a!nil\ 409-417 

I lastinvis  l''amii\ 417-420 

lluM.ard  l-amil.N 420-422 

LtMikrlev    l"'amilv 423 

Mai^li   I'amily   l  First   l-'amily ) 423 

^  Second    Family ) 424-425 

Morton  l-'amily   k  l-'irst  I'amily) 426-431 

I  Svcnml  Family  ) 431 

Partri.iuv    l-'amily 431-433 

Portor   l-".imiiy 433-436 

Smith   l-\iniil> 436-44<) 

StriMiji    l-'amil>     440-441 

Wai'a-  FamilN     442-444 

WariK-r    l\i:inl>       444-447 

WolN    l-amih         447-451 

Wins-  !\.-ni!>  .  451-455 

A rr »  \ :  r  \         457-4% 

?\l't  \     .  .  4  ^7-5y^ 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


PAGE 

Hatfield   Main   Street Frontispiece 

An  Old  Indian  Deed 26 

The  Connecticut  River  at  Hatfield 34 

A  View  in  the  Meadows 36 

One  of  Hatfield's  Oldest  Houses 44 

A  Comer  of  the  Old  Burying  Ground 62 

A  Page  from  the  Proprietors'  Records — Earmarks  of  the  Cattle 70 

"September  19,  1677," 91 

A  View  on  Middle  Lane 129 

The  Curve  of  the  Hatfield  Street 142 

4 

Old-Time  Furniture   145 

A  Corner  Cupboard 171 

Dr.  Joseph  Lyman  and  Mrs.  Lyman 181 

The   Hubbard  Tavern 196 

Lieut,  and  Mrs.  David'  Billings 197 

Map  of  Hatfield  in  1795 204 

Ruins  of  an  Old-Fashioned  Chimney 210 

The  Dr.  Daniel  White  Tavern 215 

A  Tobacco  Field 221 

Town  Officers  During  the  Civil  War 226 

Rev.  John  M.  Greene,  D.D 228 

An  Onion  Storage  Warehouse 235 

Samuel  H.  and  Caleb  Cooley  Dickinson 2Z1 

Rev.  Robert  McEwen  Woods,  D.D 242 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  D.  Partridge 246 

"The  Jenny  Lind  Elm" 259 

"The  Old  Elm" 261 

House  Built  by  Lieut  David  Billings 272 

Doorway  of  the  John  Dickinson  House 275 

The  Oldest  House  in  Town 286 

Memorial  Hall  and  the  Congregational  Church 296 

The  Birthplace  of  Sophia  Smith 305 

A  View  on  Elm  Street 309 

Negro  Cabin  on  the  Road  to  Northampton 313 

St.  Joseph's  Church 348 

Office  Furniture  of  Oliver  Smith ^^V 


Q  ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PACE 

Sophia  Smith 353 

Smith  Academy  356 

The  Lathe  Shop 363 

The  Gun  Shop 364 

Elijah  Bardwell  372 

Reuben  Belden   372 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sanford  S.  Belden 378 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Morris  Billings 381 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  D.  Billings 382 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lucius  G.  Curtis 387 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Dickinson    393 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Frary   408 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Solomon  Graves 411 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Levi  Graves 412 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jonathan  S.  Graves 414 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Justin  Hastings   419 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Roswcll  Hubbard 421 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Moses  Morton  427 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jonathan  Porter  434 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  \V.   Warner 446 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Elisha  Wells  449 

Views  of  Hatfield.  England 462 


PREFACE. 

The  publication  of  a  history  of  Hatfield  has  been  urged 
many  times  by  those  interested  in  the  subject,  but  nothing 
more  formal  than  historical  sketches  has  heretofore  ap- 
peared. With  the  assistance  of  my  father,  Daniel  W.  Wells, 
who  for  more  than  thirty  years  has  been  engaged  in  gene- 
alogical and  antiquarian  researches  and  who  has  contributed 
the  genealogies  and  part  of  the  reminiscences  for  this  work, 
I  have  undertaken  to  bring  together  the  various  threads  into 
something  that  shall  form  a  record  of  the  life  in  Hatfield  for 
the  last  two  hundred  and  fifty  years. 

The  field  has  not  been  wholly  unexplored,  and  the  sketch 
of  the  town  contributed  to  the  **Historv  of  the  Connecticut 
Valley''  by  Silas  G.  Hubbard  and  Dr.  J.  G.  Holland's  account 
in  his  **History  of  Western  Massachusetts,''  as  well  as  the 
contributions  to  periodical  literature  that  have  appeared  from 
time  to  time,  have  been  of  great  assistance.  No  student  of 
the  early  history  of  the  towns  of  the  Connecticut  valley  can 
fail  to  appreciate  the  value  of  the  painstaking  research  of 
Sylvester  Judd,  both  in  his  **History  of  Hadley"  and  the 
collection  of  his  unpublished  manuscript  now  in  the  Forbes 
Library  in  Northampton.  We  are  indebted  to  him  for  both 
historical  and  genealogical  material.  The  accurate  scholar- 
ship of  the  veteran  Deerfield  historian,  George  Sheldon,  has 
also  been  of  great  aid  in  the  story  of  the  Indian  wars.  He 
has  very  kindly  given  help  and  suggestion  during  the  prog- 
ress of  my  work.  I  have  also  made  use  of  Trumbull's 
^'History  of  Northampton'*  and  the  two  histories  of  the  town 
of  Whately  by  Temple  and  Crafts. 

Wherever  possible,  however,  it  has  been  my  aim  to  con- 
sult original  sources  for  the  purpose  of  verification.  These 
original  sources  are  the  archives  of  the  states  of  Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut,  and  New  York,  the  public  records  of  the 
towns  from  which  the  early  settlers  came  and  of  neighboring 


g  PREFACE. 

towns, — those  of  greatest  importance  being  those  of  Hadley 
and  Hatfield, — the  Court  records  of  Hampshire  and  Hamp- 
den counties,  letters,  account  books,  diaries,  newspapers 
(since  1787,  when  the  Hampshire  Gazette  was  founded),  and 
contemporary  accounts  such  as  are  in  several  instances 
quoted  in  these  pages.  Among  the  most  interesting  and 
valuable  descriptions  of  the  life  in  the  early  part  of  the  last 
century  are  the  reminiscences  of  Samuel  D.  Partridge,  which 
are  incorporated  in  full  in  this  history  by  permission  of  his 
relatives. 

From  these  many  sources  the  task  has  been  one  of  com- 
pilation of  a  connected  account  of  the  development  of  the 
town,  the  weighing  and  sifting  of  evidence  where  records  or 
accounts  conflicted,  and  the  pursuit  of  clues  to  elusive  facts. 
Accuracy  has  been  the  aim,  but  further  investigation  or 
discovery  may  cause  a  change  in  some  of  the  statements  and 
possibly  mistakes  have  occurred  in  transcribing  in  some 
instances.  A  great  deal  of  matter  has  necessarily  been 
omitted,  it  is  hoped  nothing  of  vital  importance.  Traditional 
evidence  has  not  been  wholly  neglected,  though  it  is  not  well 
to  place  too  much  faith  in  oral  tradition,  especially  where  it 
has  been  handed  down  for  several  generations. 

In  some  matters  relating  to  the  history  of  later  years 
reliance  has  been  placed  on  the  memory  of  people  who  were 
witnesses  of  things  of  which  no  written  record  can  be  found. 
To  mention  all  who  have  assisted  in  this  way  would  be  to 
present  a  long  list.  Thanks  are  here  given  to  all  who  have 
in  any  way  assisted  in  the  preparation  of  this  work.  All 
custodians  of  public  archives  have  been  very  courteous  in 
putting  the  information  in  their  control  at  my  disposal. 

To  Lewis  H.  Kingsley  and  Vernet  H.  Keller,  both  of 
Hatfield,  I  am  indebted  for  loan  of  photographs  for  many  of 
the  illustrations.  The  pictures  of  former  citizens  were 
secured  from  members  of  their  families.  The  drawing  repre- 
senting the  Indian  attack  of  Sept.  19,  1677,  is  the  work  of 
Miss  A.  Marie  Elder  of  Chester.  The  facsimile  of  the  old 
Indian  deed  was  obtained  from  the  Hall  of  Records  in 
Springfield;  the  other  facsimiles  from  the  Hatfield  records. 
Some  of  the  portrait  cuts  were  loaned  by  Rev.  C.  A.  Wight 
of  Chicopee  Falls. 

Whatever  the  future  mav  have  in  store,  the  historv  of  the 


PREFACE.  9 

first  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  is  a  record  of  which  the 
inhabitants  of  Hatfield  may  well  be  proud,  and  it  is  with  a 
feeling  of  reverence  that  these  chronicles  have  been  written. 
While  emphasis  has  been  placed  on  times  and  events  that 
seemed  of  greatest  importance  to  the  writer  or  of  more 
striking  prominence,  the  idea  of  a  truthful,  well-balanced 
account  has  been  kept  in  mind  constantly,  with  no  attempt 
to  minimize  uncreditable  performances  or  unduly  exalt  he- 
roic achievements.  It  will  be  noted  that  no  period  has  been 
termed  the  modern  period.  "We  see  dimly  in  the  present 
what  is  great  and  what  is  small/*  says  Lowell,  and  with  this 
in  mind  the  events  of  the  last  half  century  have  been  only 
lightly  touched  upon,  for  no  proper  perspective  can  be  gained 
at  such  short  range.  What  we  call  modern  to-day  may  be 
called  old-fashioned  to-morrow,  and  if  the  study  of  the  past 
has  revealed  anything,  it  is  the  fact  that  the  men  and  women 
who  made  Hatfield's  history,  at  whatever  day  they  lived, 
were  always  abreast  of  or  in  advance  of  their  times. 

REUBEN  F.  WELLS. 

Hatfield,  Massachusetts,  May,  1910. 


INTRODUCTION. 

The  history  of^a  town  is  the  story  of  the  lives  of  its 
inhabitants,  the  rearing  of  the  structure  upon  the  foundations 
laid  bv  the  first  settlers.  The  aim  of  this  volume  is  to  trace 
the  development  of  the  social  and  industrial  life  of  the  people 
of  Hatfield,  two  phases  which  are  so  closely  interwoven 
that  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  separate  them,  the  chapter 
on  the  industries  of  the  town  in  Part  II.  being  merely  a 
gathering  together  of  loose  threads  in  a  connected  account 
in  a  special  place  and  the  treatment  of  the  development  of 
certain  phases  of  the  industrial  life.  So  with  the  chapters 
on  the  history  of  religious  societies;  they  are  very  fit- 
tingly a  part  of  the  town  history  into  the  narrative  of  which 
they  enter  in  large  degree,  but  it  seemed  best  to  devote  a 
space  to  separate  treatment  of  the  subject.  In  a  broad 
sense  the  development  of  the  religious  life  of  a  community 
so  far  as  it  finds  outward  expression  is  as  much  a  part  of  its 
history  as  the  social  and  industrial,  and  as  hard  to  sepa- 
rate. 

A  characteristic  of  the  town  of  Hatfield  has  been  a  unity 
of  spirit  and  harmony  of  action  during  its  whole  two  hundred 
and  fifty  years  of  existence,  in  spite  of  many  differences  of 
opinion.  Its  founders  were  men  of  pronounced  views,  differ- 
ing widely  from  some  of  their  neighbors:  they  held  firmly 
to  these  views,  but  thev  contended  onlv  when  conflict  seemed 
unavoidable.  Every  issue  once  joined  has  been  squarely 
met  and  fought  to  a  decisive  finish. 

The  movement  that  led  to  the  foundation  of  the  town 
was  separatist  in  its  nature,  inevitable  under  the  circum- 
stances, a  continuation  of  the  separatist  movement  that 
peopled  Massachusetts  Bay  with  English  colonists.  The 
removal  was  accomplished  after  struggle  and  with  diffi- 
culty. The  incorporation  of  the  town  was  the  inevi- 
table  result   of  a   division,   partly   geographical,   but   reallY 


12  INTRODUCTION. 

more  fundamental  in  its  origin.  After  a  hard  fought  fight 
Hadley  and  Hatfield  separated,  but  even  at  that  day  the 
real  issue  was  only  one  of  the  time  when  the  separation 
should  take  place,  and  their  citizens,  mindful  of  a  common 
ancestry  and  history,  have  since  worked  loyally  together 
for  mutual  protection  and  mutual  improvement,  though 
sometimes  their  private  interests  have  clashed. 

Nor  did  the  dividing  process  cease  with  the  incorporation 
of  Hatfield.  At  a  later  date  Whately  and  Williamsburg 
were  set  off  from  Hatfield — without  a  struggle — and  con- 
tinued as  separate  towns  the  development  in  the  beginnings 
of  which  Hatfield  settlers  played  an  important  part.  The 
restless  and  adventurous  spirit  characteristic  of  all  Xew 
Englanders  led  many  Hatfield  men  to  identify  themselves 
with  new  and  growing  communities  throughout  the  western 
part  of  the  colony. 

Within  the  town  itself  and  among  the  permanent  res- 
idents differences  of  opinion  over  many  vital  matters  have 
been  reconciled  without  serious  difficulty,  even  when  at 
times  party  feeling  ran  high,  notably  during  the  war  for 
independence  and  at  the  time  of  Shays's  rebellion.  To 
what  this  is  due  we  make  no  assured  answer,  but  certainly 
two  factors  are  of  importance,  the  common  sense  and 
discretion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town,  noticeable  in  each 
generation,  and  the  character  of  the  leaders  of  thought  and 
action.  The  democratic  principle  of  majority  rule  has 
always  guided,  with  the  rights  of  the  minority  usually 
conceded  and  respected,  while  the  minority  party  has 
yielded  as  gracefully  as  possible  to  the  situation.  With 
friction  to  a  large  degree  eh'minated,  the  progress  of  the 
town  along  all  lines  has  been  steadily  forward  with  few 
periods  of  decline. 

The  leaders  in  affairs  civil  and  ecclesiastical  have  been 
courageous  and  determined  men,  of  good  judgment  and 
firm  faith,  upright  in  life  and  conscientious  in  the  perform- 
ance of  duty,  who  have  commanded  the  res])ect  of  their 
fellow  townsmen  so  that  their  leadership  was  followed. 
Comparatively  few  have  been  figures  of  state  or  national 
importance,  but  if  their  field  of  service  was  limited  and 
their  place  among  the  rank  and  file,  they  grasped  the 
op])ortunity   before   them    and   served    in    the   ranks   to   the 


INTRODUCTION.  13 

best  of  their  ability.  Good  sergeants  and  corporals  are  as 
necessary  to  the  army  as  the  commissioned  officers. 

As  the  wave  of  national  expansion  that  peopled  a  conti- 
nent swept  westward  its  crest  bore  Hatfield  men,  descend- 
ants of  those  first  settlers  who  in  their  generation  brought 
to  the  western  part  of  the  Commonwealth  the  free  insti- 
tutions that  had  been  established  in  the  little  fringe  of  towns 
along  the  coast — not  conspicuous  leaders,  but  men  who  bore 
their  share  of  the  burden.  Among  the  pioneers  to  the  central 
part  of  New  York  state  were  William  Allis  and  John 
Billings;  the  building  up  of  the  Western  Reserve  was  aided 
by  Dickinsons,  Graves,  and  Whites;  to  the  fertile  prairies 
of  Illinois  went  some  of  the  Mortons.  Across  the  ]\Iissis- 
sippi  the  prosperous  city  of  St.  Louis  numbered  among 
its  citizens  Arthur  and  Joseph  Billings,  George  Cutter 
and  others,  while  manv  other  western  states  have  received 
recruits  from  the  little  town  by  the  banks  of  the  Con- 
necticut. The  rush  to  the  gold  fields  of  California.  Dakota, 
and  Alaska  attracted  Hatfield  men  and  some  have  pushed 
on  to  the  shores  of  island  possessions.  Still  more  dis- 
tant parts  have  shared  the  influence.  Much  of  the 
wealth  of  Hatfield  farms  has  gone  to  distant  lands  to  spread 
the  gospel  of  Christ  and  men  and  women  trained  in  its 
schools  have  labored  in  "India's  coral  strand"  and  the 
islands  of  the  sea. 

In  men  and  women  of  distinction  the  town  has  not  been 
lacking.  The  heroic  deeds  of  Benjamin  Waite  and  his 
companion  Stephen  Jennings  are  worthy  of  high  place 
among  the  annals  of  colonial  warfare  against  the  Indians. 
Col.  Samuel  Partridge  was  "the  most  important  man  in 
Western  Massachusetts  after  the  death  of  Col.  Pvnchon 
[of  Springfield]  in  1703.''  Col.  Israel  Williams,  "ye  mon- 
arch of  Hampshire''  and  one  of  "the  river  gods,''  was  at  one 
time  commander  of  all  the  western  troops  in  the  campaign 
against  the  French  and  Indians.  Rev.  Joseph  Lyman, 
pastor  of  the  church  from  1772  to  1828,  was  a  man  ol 
intense  patriotism,  who  exerted  more  than  local  influence  in 
the  struggle  against  Great  Britain.  Hon.  John  Hastings 
served  as  representative  in  the  provincial  and  state  legis- 
latures   almost    continuously    from    1775    to    1807. 

In   the   field  of  education   the   town  has   been   especially 


14  INTRODUCTION. 

prominent,  furnishing  the  founders  of  two  colleges,  Wil- 
liams and  Smith,  and  early  presidents  of  two  other  colleges, 
Elisha  Williams,  third  president  of  Yale  College,  and 
Jonathan  Dickinson,  first  president  of  the  institution  in 
New  Jersey  that  became  Princeton.  Part  of  the  wealth 
that  established  Smith  College  set  up  Smith  Academy  in 
Hatfield.  The  founder  of  Smith's  school  in  Northampton 
planned  for  agricultural  education  and  industrial  training 
long  before  these  had  become  prominent  in  the  school 
svstem  of  the  state. 

The  Smith  Charities  and  the  Dickinson  Hospital  in 
Northampton  relieve  the  want  and  suffering  of  many  from 
neighboring  towns,  including  not  a  few  born  far  from  the 
shores    of   America. 

The  list  might  be  continued  farther,  but  enough  has 
been  given  to  show  the  important  contributions  to  the  life 
of  the  larger  social  organizations  of  which  the  town  forms 
a  unit.  The  following  pages  record  the  part  played  by  its 
citizens  in  all  the  conflicts  which  have  torn  this  nation. 
Hatfield  has  performed  willingly  its  full  duty  in  all  the 
wars  for  liberty,  for  the  defense  of  home  and  fireside,  and 
for  the  rights  of  the  oppressed. 

But  in  the  main  the  history  of  the  town  is  one  of  peace. 
It  has  not  been  the  scene  of  armed  conflict  since  Sept.  19, 
1677,  the  day  of  the  terrible  Indian  massacre.  The  official 
seal,  adopted  in  1896,  has  for  its  motto  the  words  **Industry 
and  Prosperity.''  (See  Appendix,  Note  1.)  The  attention 
of  its  citizens  has  been  directed  toward  the  development 
of  its  resources  and  it  has  been  known  from  an  earlv  date 
as  a  wealthy  and  prosperous  community. 

The  influence  of  the  home  has  been  so  potent  in  its 
development  that  the  chapters  on  houses  and  homes  in 
Part  II.  are  deemed  an  integral  part  of  the  "History  of 
Hatfield."  The  first  work  of  the  first  settlers  was  to  build 
their  homes,  their  first  fighting  was  for  the  protection  of 
those  homes,  and  in  succeeding  years  it  has  been  for  them 
that  they  and  their  descendants  and  all  others  who  have 
joined  the  community  have  labored  and  fcnight. 

Nor  should  the  influence  of  the  women  of  the  town  be 
lightly  appreciated.  The  birthplace  and  home  of  Sophia 
Smith  has  always  had  a  high  regard  for  women,  allow-ed 


INTRODUCTION.  15 

them  most  of  the  opportunities  provided  for  the  men,  and 
been  nobly  served  by  many  devoted  women.  Lowell 
says : — 

"He  sings  to  the  wide  world,  and  she  to  her  nest, — 
In  the  nice  ear  of  Nature  which  song  is  the  best?" 

What  impelled  Waite  and  Jennings  to  brave  the  hardships 
and  dangers  of  a  winter  journey  to  Canada  through  a 
wilderness  untrodden  before  by  the  English — what  but 
the  love  for  wife  and  children?  The  story  of  little  Sally 
Coleman  trudging  bravely  beside  her  savage  captors  in 
the  northward  journey  is  a  moving  incident  of  "Hatfield's 
Great  Calamity/*  Little  did  she  think  on  that  weary 
march  that  in  time  she  would  be  the  wife  of  John  Field, 
and  that  among  her  descendants  would  be  found  a  justice 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  Stephen  J. 
Field;  the  first  man  to  establish  telegraphic  communication 
across  an  ocean,  Cyrus  W.  Field;  and  a  merchant  prince  of 
the  land,  Marshall  W.  Field.  Canada  Waite  never  dreamed 
in  her  wigwam  hut  in  far  Sorel  that  she  would  be  the 
mother  of  the  frugal  Smiths,  who  in  later  years  would 
scatter  charity  and  learning  w^ith  lavish  hands. 

The  following  pages  record  the  filial  affection  of  Lu- 
cretia  Williams,  daughter  of  the  imprisoned  Tory,  Col. 
Israel  Williams,  and  the  business  ability  of  Lucy  Hubbard, 
the  tavern  keeper,  but  fuller  mention  might  also  have  been 
made  of  the  intelligence  and  stately  grace  of  Mabel  Par- 
tridge, wife  of  Col.  Samuel  Partridge,  of  the  beauty  and 
tact  of  Hannah  Lyman,  the  pastor's  wife,  and  of  other 
"mothers  in  Israel,''  whose  lives  and  services,  whether 
recorded  or  not,  are  part  of  the  heritage  of  every  resident 
of  Hatfield  of  the  past  or  of  the  present  and,  we  may 
confidently  assume,  of  all  that  are  to  follow. 


PART  I. 


THE  HISTORY  OF  HATFIELD 


HISTORY  OF  HATFIELD. 


CHAPTER  I. 


A    CHAPTER   OF    BEGINNINGS.     THE   MIGRATION    FROM    THE 
COAST   TO   THE   CONNECTICUT   VALLEY. 

"  Westward  the  course  of  empire  takes  its  way." 

« 

Removal  of  colonists  from  Massachusetts  Bay  to  Connecticut  towns. — 
Dissensions  in  the  Hartford  and  Wethersfield  churches. — Grants  for  the 
settlement  of  a  new  town  above  Northampton. — The  Engagers. — Settlement 
of  Hadley. — The  west  side,  or  Hatfield  Engagers. — Assignment  of  land  for 
use. — Boundary  troubles. — Bradstreet's  and  Denison's  grants  and  their  pur- 
chase by  the  town. — Purchase  of  land  from  the  Indians. 

The  desire  for  full  political  and  religious  liberty,  the 
impelling  motive  that  drove  the  first  settlers  to  the  shores 
of  New  England,  was  also  the  chief  cause  of  many  of  the 
interior  settlements  in  the  region  during  the  first  one 
hundred  years  of  its  history.  When  dissensions  arose, 
as  was  inevitable  among  the  independent  pioneers,  who 
would  brook  no  authority  they  could  not  conscientiously 
yield  to,  groups  of  kindred  spirits  departed  to  settle  new 
communities  in  the  wilderness.  The  possibility  of  increased 
economic  independence  was  also  a  consideration  of  great 
influence  on  adventurous  minds. 

Early  in  the  course  of  the  building  up  of  Massachusetts 
Bay  Colony  a  fundamental  diflference  of  opinion  led  many 
of  the  settlers  under  the  lead  of  Rev.  Thomas  Hooker  of 
Cambridge,  then  called  Newtown,  to  move  to  Connecticut. 
A  man  liberal  and  democratic  in  his  tastes  and  his  views 
of  both  temporal  and  spiritual  authority.  Hooker  could 
not  live  in  harmony  with  the  other  leading  clergyman 
of  the  colony,  the  aristocratic  and  autocratic  Rev.  John 
Cotton  of  Boston.  Both  leaders  wiselv  refrained  from  an 
open  quarrel,  and  in  1635  permission  was  obtained  by  the 
first  mentioned  from  Governor  William  Bradford,  not  with- 


...1j 


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V. 


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Sfceme.    n :  • 
vtere  "Pi    .  ■" 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  21 

details  of  the  dispute  which  deeply  stirred  the  whole  colony 
of  Connecticut  and  was  the  cause  of  many  ecclesiastical 
councils.  The  chief  point  of  contention  was  the  so-called 
"Half-way  Covenant,"  by  which  children  of  parents  not 
members  of  the  church  could  be  baptized.  Other  issues 
concerned  church  membership  and  the  rights  of  the  brother- 
hood.    (See  Appendix,  Note  2.) 

At  this  day  people  can  with  difficulty  appreciate  the 
tremendous  conflict  which  the  issues  seemed  to  involve. 
While  a  democracy  has  been  evolved  from  the  institutions 
established  by  the  New  England  pioneers,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  their  first  form  of  government  was  a  theocracy 
or  church  state  in  which  control  was  in  the  hands  of  the 
relatively  small  number  of  church  members. 

A  crisis  was  reached  in  1658  in  the  Connecticut  towns 
and  preparations  were  begun  for  another  migration.  The 
fertility  of  the  valley  of  the  Connecticut  was  by  that  time 
well  known.  Men  were  sent  to  view  the  lands  to  the  east 
and  north  of  Northampton  and  application  was  made  to 
the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony  for  a 
grant  of  land.  This  was  readily  obtained  and  in  1659  an 
agreement  was  made  to  settle  above  Northampton  on  both 
sides  of  the  river  at  a  place  known  as  Norwottuck,  or 
Nonotuck,  meaning  "in  the  midst  of  the  river."  The  grant 
by  the  Massachusetts  authorities  was  made  conditional 
upon  an  orderly  hearing  of  the  diflferences  between  the 
Withdrawers,  as  they  were  called,  and  their  brethren  from 
Hartford.  Accordingly  a  council  was  summoned,  a  recon- 
ciliation was  eflfected,  and  those  who  were  to  journey 
forth  again  to  new  homes,  many  of  them  for  the  third 
time,  took  their  w-ay  in  peace. 

The  General  Court  of  Connecticut  in  appointing  a  day  of 
thanksgiving  in  November,  1659,  gave  as  one  of  the  reasons 
for  thanks  "the  success  of  the  endeavors  of  the  reverend 
elders  of  the  last  council,  for  composing  the  sad  differences 
of  Hartford." 

The  prospect  of  receiving  these  Massachusetts  men  back 
into  the  Bay  Colony  w-as  pleasing  to  the  General  Court  and 
to  the  inhabitants  of  the  other  vallev  towns.  Thev  were 
men  of  ability  and  in  comfortable  circumstances,  if  not  of 
great  wealth,  of  good  social  standing,  law  abiding  and  firm 


22  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

in  religious  faith.  Many  of  them  were  already  well 
acquainted  with  the  Springfield  and  Northampton  settlers. 

Negotiations  were  entered  into  with  Northampton  for 
the  Capawonk  meadows  belonging  to  that  town  and  in 
October,  1658,  Northampton  voted  to  "give  away"  Capa- 
wonk on  four  conditions:  that  the  Hartford  men  were 
to  settle  two  plantations,  one  on  each  side  of  the  river; 
to  maintain  a  sufficient  fence  against  hogs  and  cattle;  to 
pay  £10  in  wheat  and  peas;  and  to  inhabit  by  the  follow- 
ing May.  This  oflfer  was  not  taken  up  then,  though  the 
land  was  subsequently  purchased  and  became  a  part  of 
Hatfield.  An  agreement  or  engagement  of  those  who 
intended  to  remove  from  Connecticut  to  Massachusetts  is 
dated  at  Hartford,  April  18,  1659,  concerning  which  Judd 
tells  at  length  in  his  ^'History  of  Hadley." 

The  records  of  the  doings  of  the  early  settlers  are 
meager  in  regard  to  many  important  details  and  it  is  hard 
to  fix  upon  exact  dates.  Judd  says  of  the  settlement  of 
Hadley:  "It  may  be  presumed  that  the  broad  street  and 
homelots  were  laid  out  in  1659;  that  a  number  of  the 
Engagers  came  up  to  inhabit  at  the  said  plantation,  in 
1659,  and  built  rude  dwellings,  where  they  lived  during 
the  next  winter.  Who,  or  how  many,  passed  the  winter 
there,  cannot  be  known.  The  seven  men,  chosen  Nov.  9, 
1659,  *to  order  all  public  occasions,'  and  called  Townsmen, 
were  at  the  new  plantation  and  made  a  rate,  Nov.  22, 
1659,  and  they,  or  a  majority  of  them,  probably  wintered 
there  with  others.  One  of  these  Townsmen,  Thomas 
Stanley,  made  his  will,  Jan.  29,  1659-60,  in  which  he  dis- 
posed of  his  house  and  land,  *that  are  here  at  the  new 
plantation,'  proving  conclusively  that  he  then  lived  in  the 
new  town."  The  date  of  the  will  is  given  in  old  style 
reckoning,  which  w-as  used  by  the  first  settlers.  The  error 
in  computing  the  length  of  the  solar  year  in  the  so-called 
Julian  calendar  was  corrected  by  Pope  Gregory  in  1582, 
but  the  new  style  of  reckoning  was  not  adopted  in  England 
or  her  colonies  till  1752.  In  the  old  style  reckoning 
March  25  was  the  beginning  of  the  year.  After  the 
adoption  of  the  new  style,  or  Gregorian  calendar,  January 
1  was  taken  as  the  beginning  of  the  year  and  double 
dates  are  often  used  to  indicate  the   time  between  Jan.    1 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  23 

and  Mar.  25.  There  was  an  error  of  J 1  days  in  the  reckon- 
ing, which  must  be  added  to  any  date  given  in  the  old 
style  to  change  it  to  the  new. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  the  house  of  Andrew  Warner 
in  Hadley,  Oct.  8,  1660,  the  following  provisions  were 
made:  that  no  person  should  be  owned  as  an  inhabitant 
or  have  liberty  to  vote  or  act  in  town  aflfairs  until  he 
should  be  legally  received  as  an  inhabitant;  that  the  in- 
habitants on  the  west  side  of  the  river  should  be  one  with 
those  on  the  east  side  in  both  ecclesiastical  and  civil  mat- 
ters which  were  "common  to  the  whole/*  they  paying  all 
charges  from  their  engagement  and  all  purchase  charges 
from  the  beginning;  that  those  admitted  for  inhabitants 
on  the  west  side  should  be  inhabiting  there  in  houses  of 
their  own  by  the  next  Michaelmas,  Sept.  29,  1661 ;  and  that 
they  should  sign  an  engagement  by  themselves  or  others  for 
them.  There  were  twenty-eight  persons  who  signed  the 
votes  and  agreements  at  this  meeting,  perhaps  all  who  had 
up  to  that  time  signified  an  intention  of  becoming  settlers 
of  the  new  town  and  including,  very  likely,  some  who  had 
not  brought  up  their  families  from  Connecticut. 

The  name  Hadley.  or  Hadleigh,  was  chosen  from  the 
Hadleigh  in  Suflfolk  County,  England.  The  church  of 
Hadley  probably  dates  from  the  establishment  of  the  town. 
as  there  is  no  record  of  a  reorganization,  and  those  who 
removed  from  Wethersfield  comprised  the  pastor,  Rev. 
John  Russell,  and  the  majority  of  his  church,  though  not 
of  his  congregation   or  of  the  town. 

Some  of  those  who  intended  to  settle  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Connecticut  signed  an  engagement  at  this 
October  meeting,  or  their  friends  for  them,  others  in 
January,  February,  and  March  of  the  next  year.  By 
Mar.  25,  1661,  twenty-five  heads  of  families  had  engaged 
to  settle  on  the  Hatfield  side:  Aaron  Cook,  Thomas 
Meekins,  William  Allis.  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  John 
Coleman,  Tsaac  Graves  (with  his  father,  Thomas  Graves), 
John  Graves,  Samuel  Belding,  Stephen  Taylor,  John  White, 
Jr.,  Daniel  Warner,  Richard  Fellows,  Richard  Billings, 
Edward  Benton,  Mr.  Ritchell  (with  his  son).  Ozias  Good- 
win, Zechariah  Field,  Lieut.  Thomas  Bull,  Gregory  Wilter- 


24  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

ton,  Nathaniel  Porter,  Daniel  White,  William  Pitkin,  John 
Cole,  Samuel  Church,  Samuel  Dickinson. 

Of  these  prospective  settlers  Cook  and  Church  did  not 
move  across  the  river;  Goodwin,  Bull,  Wilterton,  and  Pit- 
kin remained  at  Hartford;  Mr.  Ritchell  and  Edward  Benton 
at  Wethersfield;  and  Nathaniel  Porter  at  Windsor;  leaving 
sixteen  who  became  residents  of  Hatfield.  Two  of  these, 
Thomas  Meekins  and  William  Allis,  belonged  to  the  Bay 
Colony  and  lived  at  Braintree.  Of  the  others  ten  came 
from  Hartford:  Billings,  Cole,  Fellows,  Field,  John  and 
Isaac  Graves,  Taylor,  Warner,  John  White,  Jr.,  and  Daniel 
White;  four  were  from  Wethersfield:  Belding,  Coleman, 
and  the  Dickinsons. 

What  the  proposed  boundaries  of  the  new  plantation 
were  to  be  may  be  seen  by  the  report  of  the  committee 
to  the  General  Court,  Sept.  30,  1639.  The  report  was  not 
accepted  by  the  magistrates  and  Hadley  never  extended 
its  boundaries  as  far  as  expected.     It  ran  as  follows: — 

"In  obedience  to  an  order  of  the  much  Honored  General  Court  in  May 
last,  appointing  us  whose  names  are  subscribed,  to  lay  out  the  bounds  of  the 
new  plantation  at  Norwottuck  on  the  river  Connecticut!  for  the  supply  of 
those  people  that  are  to  settle  there;  considering  what  people  are  to  remove 
thither  and  the  quality  of  the  lands  thereabouts,  we  have  thought  good  to 
lay  out  their  bounds  on  both  sides  of  said  River,  viz.  on  the  East  side  of 
said  river  their  southerly  bounds  to  be  from  the  head  of  the  falls  above 
Springfield  and  so  to  run  east  and  by  north  the  length  of  nine  miles  from 
the  said  river;  And  their  Northerly  bounds  to  be  a  little  brook  called  by  the 
Indians  Nepasoaneage  up  to  a  mountain  called  Quunkwattchu,  and  so  running 
eastward  from  the  river  the  same  length  of  nine  miles;  from  their  southerly 
bounds  to  the  northerly  bounds  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  is  about  11  or  12 
miles.  And  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  their  bounds  on  the  south  are  to 
join  or  meet  with  Northampton  bounds,  (which  said  bounds  are  called 
Capawonk  and  Wequittayyagg)  And  on  the  north  their  bounds  to  be  a  great 
mountain,  called  Wequomps:  and  the  North  and  South  bounds  are  to  run 
west  two  miles  from  the  great  river ;  And  from  North  to  South  on  that 
side  the  river  is  about  6  or  7  miles. 

John  Pynchon 
Elizur  Holyoke 
Sigrned  by  Samuel  Chapin 

William  Holton 
RuHAkn  Lyman." 

The  mountain  called  Quunkwattchu  was  Toby:  We- 
quomps was  Mt.  Sugar  Loaf.  The  northern  bounds  of 
Northampton  were  about  the  same  as  at  present. 

During  the  years  1639  and  1660  no  allotments  of  land 
were  made,  but  the  settlers  cultivated  parts  of  the  common 
land  temporarily  assigned  them  for  use.     It  was  uncertain 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  ?S 

how  many  of  the  Engagers  would  really  settle  in  the  new 
town.  Many  were  discouraged  at  the  difficulties  encoun- 
tered in  fixing  the  boundaries  of  the  township  and  in 
securing  a  sufficient  amount  of  meadow  land.  Negotiations 
were  being  made  for  the  purchase  of  lands  from  the  Indians 
w^ith  the  assistance  of  Maj.  John  Pynchon  and  other  Spring- 
field men,  but  grants  by  the  General  Court  to  individuals  of 
parts  of  the  same  territory .  complicated  the  matter. 

For  the  first  forty  years  of  its  history  the  colonial  gov- 
ernment was  accustomed  to  give  large  grants  of  land  to 
individuals  of  rank,  either  in  payment  for  services  to  the 
colony,  or  in  grateful  acknowledgment,  or  both,  or  in  the 
settlement  of  claims.  Such  grants  were  for  the  most  part 
made  arbitrarily,  with  little  regard  to  township  lines,  and 
sometimes  the  grantee  was  allowed  to  choose  his  own 
location;  usually  in  a  town  grant  a  clause  was  inserted, 
"reserving  properties  formerly  granted  to  any  person." 

In  1659.  the  same  year  that  a  grant  was  made  to  the 
Connecticut  Engagers  for  their  proposed  town,  a  grant  of 
500  acres  was  made  by  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony  to 
Simon  Bradstreet,  a  Magistrate  and  later  governor  of  the 
colony,  and  one  of  500  acres  to  Maj.  Gen.  Daniel  Denison 
with  the  liberty  to  locate  anywhere  west  of  the  Connecticut 
river  full  six  miles  from  the  place  intended  for  the  North- 
ampton meeting-house  in  a  straight  line.  Mr.  Bradstreet, 
who  had  the  first  choice,  took  his  grant  in  Hatfield  North 
Meadow,  extending  one  mile  west  from  the  river.  Maj. 
Gen.  Denison  took  his  part  just  north  of  the  division  of  the 
meadows  known  from  earliest  times  as  Bashan,  extending 
250  rods  from  the  river  and  one  mile  north  and  south. 
Thus  these  two  proprietors  had  some  of  the  best  interval 
or  meadow  land  in  the  new^  township  and  on  the  ground 
that  they  were  not  six  miles  from  the  Northampton  meeting- 
house the  Engagers  petitioned,  but  without  avail,  to  have 
the  location  of  the  grants  changed.  The  struggle  went  on 
for  five  years  and  finally  the  town  of  Hadley  in  justice 
to  the  west  side  settlers  was  obliged  to  purchase  of  Mr. 
Bradstreet  the  North  Meadows.  His  terms  were  £200  and 
1000  acres  of  land  elsewhere.  The  money  was  paid  by  the 
town  and  the  General  Court  granted  him  the  land,  which 
he  took  just  north  of  the  Denison  farm  one  mWe  ^.wtV  ?^  \v^\ 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.      .  27 

north  and  south  on  the  river  and  including  a  large  part 
of  the  meadow  land  now  in  the  limits  of  the  township  of 
Whately.  His  west  line  was  a  little  west  of  the  present 
Straits  road  and  his  north  one  the  upper  side  of  the  wood  lot 
north  of  the  S.  W.  Allis  farm ;  the  south  line  of  the  Denison 
grant  was  along  the  bank  of  the  swamp  below  the  village 
of  Bradstreet.  Both  these  grants  were  within  what  were 
supposed  to  be  the  limits  of  the  new  township  of  Hadley. 
The  farms  were  later  bought  by  a  company  of  proprietors 
made  up  in  Hatfield  and  division  was  made  to  private 
owners.  Samuel  Symonds  and  Gen.  Humphrey  Atherton, 
who  also  received  grants  at  Norvvottuck,  took  their  land 
elsewhere  to  accommodate  the  new  town. 

The  early  settlers  took  pains  to  secure  valid  title  to  their 
lands  by  purchase  from  the  Indians.  These  purchases 
were  not  costly,  payments  being  made  in  clothing,  trinkets, 
and  wampum,  the  currency  of  the  Indians,  at  that  time 
legal  tender  for  debts  to  the  value  of  40  shillings.  The 
deeds  are  now  on  record  at  the  Hall  of  Records  in  Spring- 
field. The  first  purchase  from  the  Indians  was  made  Dec. 
25,  1658,  and  comprised  the  territory  east  of  the  Connecti- 
cut from  the  mouth  of  Fort  river  and  Mt.  Holyoke  on  the 
south  to  the  mouth  of  the  Mohawk  brook  and  Mt.  Tobv 
on  the  north,  a  distance  of  about  nine  miles,  and  running 
east  nine  miles  into  the  woods.  The  price  paid  was  220 
fathoms  of  wampum  and  one  large  coat,  equal  in  value  to 
£62,  10s.  The  deed  was  signed  by  the  Norwottuck  sachems 
Umpanchala,  Chickwallop,  and  Quonquont,  who  claimed 
ownership  on  both  sides  of  the  river  and  had  forts  and 
planting  grounds  at  intervals. 

The  land  for  the  town  of  Hatfield  was  secured  in  three 
purchases.  The  first,  made  July  10,  1660,  comprised  the 
land  west  of  the  Connecticut  between  the  Capawonk  brook, 
now  Mill  river,  on  the  south,  **to  the  brook  called  Wunck- 
compas  which  comes  out  of  the  Great  Pond,''  following  the 
line  of  the  brook  and  extending  west  into  the  woods  for 
nine  miles.  The  price  paid  was  300  fathoms  of  wampum 
and  small  gifts,  equal  in  all  to  £75  in  value.  The  deed  was 
signed  by  the  sachem  Umpanchala  and  approved  bv  his 
brother  Etowonq.  They  reserved  for  their  use  the  "Chick- 
ons  or  planting  Field'' — now  Indian   Field —  ?vt\(\  \\V>eT\.N  N.c> 


V 


28  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

hunt  and  fish,  to  set  wigwams  on  the  common  and  to  cut 
trees    for    use. 

The  next  purchase  was  the  meadow  called  Capawonk, 
south  of  the  brook  of  that  name.  This  meadow  had  been 
bought  by  Northampton  of  the  chief  Chickwallop  in  1657» 
for  50  shillings.  It  was  deeded  by  the  Northampton 
settlers,  Jan.  22,  1663,  for  £30.  These  tw^o  purchases 
included  all  the  land  claimed  by  Hatfield  at  the  time  of  its 
incorporation  in  1670.  The  third  was  the  tract  of  land 
north  of  the  North  Meadow,  including  Bradstreet  and  most 
of  the  township  of  Whately,  from  the  heirs  of  Quoncjuont. 
The  deed  was  signed  Oct.  19,  1672,  by  the  sachem's 
widow  Sarah  Quanquan,  or  Quonquont,  his  son  Pocuno- 
house,  his  daughter  Majessit  and  two  others,  Mattatabange. 
a  squaw,  and  Momecuse.  The  price  paid  was  fifty  fathoms 
of  wampum  valued  at  five  shillings  to  the  fathom.  The 
northern  boundary  was  where  the  Pocumtuck  path  crossed 
the  Weekioanuck  brook,  the  line  running  east  to  the  **great 
river"  and  west  for  six  miles. 

Upon  these  deeds  from  the  Indians  rest  the  titles  of  all 
later  possessors  and  the  reservations  made  by  the  red 
men  of  the  hunting  and  fishing  privileges,  the  use  of  wood 
and  timber,  and  the  liberty  to  pitch  wigwams  are  in  oper- 
ation at  the  present  day  if  their  descendants  should  wish 
to  take  advantage  of  them. 


CHAPTER  II. 

A    CHAPTER   OF   PREPARATION.     THE    PIONEERS. 

"  They  were  men  of  present  valor,  stalwart  old  iconoclasts." 

The  journey  from  Connecticut. — The  first  inhabitants  and  their  families. — 
Topography  of  the  township  in  1660. — Changes  caused  by  action  of  the 
Connecticut  river. — Work  of  the  pioneers  in  preparation  for  settlement. — 
Annual  burning  of  the  land  by  the  Indians. — Scarcity  of  timber. — Intervals  or 
meadows. — Domestic  animals. 

In  spite  of  the  many  difficulties  in  the  way,  the  Engagers 
kept  coming  in  greater  numbers  and  some  others  joined 
with  them  in  the  attempt  to  settle  the  northernmost  valley 
towns.  The  journey  from  Connecticut  was  a  difficult  one, 
as  the  cart  roads  were  not  built  at  that  time  and  all  streams 
had  to  be  forded.  The  route  was  up  the  valley  to  West- 
field,  then  called  Woronoke,  to  Springfield  and  Northamp- 
ton. The  tradition  is  that  ten  days  were  needed  to 
accomplish  the  trip. 

The  Hadley  street  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  was 
laid  out  in  1661  and  house  lots  assigned.  It  is  probable 
that  several  families  established  themselves  on  the  Hatfield 
side  as  early  as  1660  and  passed  the  winter  there,  for,  at 
a  meeting  held  in  Hadley  in  January,  1661,  *Tt  was  voted  and 
agreed  upon  that  all  those  that  have  taken  up  allotments 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  put  into  the  Rate  that 
is  to  be  made  for  this  year  and  shall  pay  all  charges  for 
this  present  year  as  we  ourselves  on  this  side  of  the  river 
doe."  Others  kept  adding  themselves  to  the  first  comers 
till  by  the  year  1668  most  of  the  original  Engagers  had 
taken  up  their  lands  and  the  west  side  settlement  numbered 
about  100  souls.  It  is  very  difficult  to  determine  accurately 
when  the  different  settlers  established  themselves  in  their 
new  homes.  Richard  Fellows  was  probably  the  first  to 
locate  on  the  west  side  of  the  river.  He  built  a  house  at 
what  seemed  to  him  a  desirable  location  and  the  Hatfield 
street  was  later  laid  out  from  his  house  northward.  John 
Cole  is  also  often  mentioned  as  being  one  of  the  pioneers, 


30  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

but  this  is  doubtful  because  the  Hadley  records  indicate 
renewals  of  his  grant  of  a  house  lot,  showing  that  he  did 
not  fully  keep  the  terms  of  his  engagement  and  reside  with 
his  family  on  his  grant.  He  may  have  returned  to  Con- 
necticut in  1660.  His  home  lot  was  the  one  next  north  of 
Fellows's.  There  were  probably  at  least  four  others  resid- 
ing on  the  west  side  of  the  river  in  1660,  Zechariah  Field, 
Richard  Billings,  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  and  John  White, 

Jr. 

Richard  Fellows  was  in  Hartford  in  1643.     He  removed 

to  Springfield  in  1659  and  from  there  to  Northampton.  He 
had  a  family  of  five  children  when  he  located  in  the  new 
settlement  that  became  the  town  of  Hatfield, — Richard, 
Samuel,  Sarah,  John,  who  was  baptized  Nov.  1,  1646,  and 
Mary,  baptized  Feb.  9,  1650,  the  oldest  probably  nearing 
manhood.  He  died  soon  after  and  his  widow,  Ursula 
Fellows,  took  his  place  in  the  distribution  of  land.  Widow 
Fellows  is  mentioned  in  the  Hadley  records  Dec.  19,  1661. 
His  homestead,  as  stated,  was  at  the  southern  end  of  the 
street  as  originally  laid  out,  though  the  place  is  now  south 
of  the  end  of  Main  Street.  The  house  on  the  Fellows  allot- 
ment is  now  occupied  by  Mrs.  Samuel  Fellows  Billings  and 
her  family.  They  are  not  descendants  of  Richard  Fellows, 
but  the  name  was  given  to  Samuel  Fellows  Billings  because 
of  the  fact  that  he  was  born  on  the  spot  where  Fellows 
built,  according  to  tradition,  the  first  house   in  town. 

Zechariah  Field  was  also  living  in  Northampton  at  the 
time  of  the  settlement  of  Hadley.  He  chose  for  a  building 
site  the  one  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Maple  streets.  As 
the  three  men  first  mentioned  selected  their  homesteads 
close  together  near  the  fertile  meadows  it  is  probable  that 
thev  and  the  other  three  had  familiarized  themselves  with 
the  proposed  location  of  the  new  village  before  any  other 
settlers  took  up  residence  and  it  was  their  prospecting  that 
determined  the  location  of  the  west  side  street  and  its 
house  lots.  The  other  three  pioneers  chose  sites  adjoining 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  a  little  farther  north, 
the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth  house  lots  as  laid  out  in  1661.  It 
is  not  certain  whether  these  six  pioneers  moved  their 
families  and  possessions  at  first  to  their  new  homes.  The 
chanp^e    of    residence    seems    to    have    been    accomplished 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  31 

gradually  during  a  period  of  several  years,  for  the  records 
of  the  Connecticut  towns  show  that  the  men  who  moved 
to  the  Massachusetts  towns  at  least  had  real  estate  holdings 
after  their  departure  for  the  settlements  farther  up  the 
river. 

John  Cole  was  a  resident  in  Farmington  in  1652,  later 
moving  to  Hartford.  The  name  was  also  spelled  Coule  and 
later  became  Cowls  and  Cowles.  The  date  of  his  birth  is 
not  known,  but  there  is  a  record  of  his  death  in  Hatfield 
in  September,  1675.  He  was  made  a  freeman  in  1666.  His 
family  at  the  time  he  settled  in  Hatfield  consisted  of  his 
wife  and  seven  children,  the  eldest  probably  about  19  years 
old,  John,  Hannah,  Sarah,  Mary,  Elizabeth,  Samuel,  and 
Esther.  Little  has  been  discovered  concerning  him  pre- 
vious to  his  coming  to  Hatfield.  The  Cowles  homestead 
remained  in  the  hands  of  direct  descendants  till  1898  when 
the  property  was  sold  by  Rufus  H.  Cowles  to  Patrick  T. 
Boyle. 

Concerning  Zechariah  Field  much  information  has  been 
preserved  in  the  Field  genealogy  compiled  by  Frederick 
Clifton  Pierce  of  Chicago.  He  was  a  man  of  over  three- 
score years  at  the  time  he  settled  in  Hatfield,  having  been 
bom  in  East  Ardsley,  Yorkshire,  Eng.,  in  1596,  the  son  of 
John  Field  and  the  grandson  of  John  Field,  the  English 
astronomer.  He  probably  came  to  New  England  through 
Wales,  sailed  from  Bristol,  arrived  in  Boston  in  1629  and 
settled  in  Dorchester.  At  the  time  he  removed  to  Con- 
necticut he  was  in  the  prime  of  life  and  was  one  of  the 
42  men  furnished  by  Hartford  to  take  part  in  the  Pequot 
war.  His  house  in  Hartford  was  upon  Sentinel  Hill  near 
the  present  north  end  of  Main  Street.  He  was  prosperous 
and  the  owner  of  a  large  amount  of  land,  upon  part  of 
which  is  Asylum  Street.  The  land  records  of  Hartford 
contain  a  number  of  transfers  made  bv  or  to  him  from  1639- 
62.  He  removed  to  Northampton  in  1659  and  engaged  in 
business,  trading  extensively  with  the  Indians.  He  was 
one  of  the  twenty-five  west  side  Engagers  and  was  one  of 
the  committee  to  lay  out  the  street  and  house  lots.  He 
also  had  to  renew  the  terms  of  his  engagement.  His  allot- 
ment was  on  the  west  side  of  the  street  at  the  corner  of 
the  highway  leading  to  Northampton.     A  house  on  the  lot 


32  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

is  now  owned  by  Reuben  Field  Wells,  a  direct  descendant, 
though  the  place  has  had  many  changes  of  ownership.  In 
1660  Field's  family  consisted  of  his  wife  and  five  children: 
Mary,  aged  17,  Zechariah,  15,  John,  12,  Samuel,  9,  Joseph. 
2.  He  continued  his  trading  operations  in  Hatfield,  then 
the  Hadley  west  side,  but  the  business  was  not  very 
profitable  and  he  made  an  assignment  in  1664.  He  died 
June  30,   1666. 

Of  Richard  Billings  not  very  much  has  been  discovered. 
He  was  in  Hartford  in  1640.  His  wife's  name  was  Margery 
and  they  had  one  child  Samuel,  probably  a  man  of  mature 
years  at  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  Hatfield  for  the 
allotment  was  made  to  the  two  men  together.  Their  place 
was  on  the  east  side  of  the  street,  the  third  house  lot  from 
the  south  end,  and  it  has  remained  in  the  hands  of  direct 
descendants  down  to  the  present  day,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Bil- 
lings Dickinson  owning  the  house  on  the  original  allotment. 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  was  a  youth  of  seventeen  when 
he  came  to  Hatfield,  if  the  record  of  his  birth  is  correct, 
Aug.,  1643.  He  was  probably  married  at  that  time  or 
expected  to  be  soon,  for  he  shared  in  the  distribution  of 
lands  with  the  other  heads  of  families.  He  was  born  in 
Wethersfield,  where  his  father  was  a  man  of  prominence, 
town  clerk  in  1645,  representative  in  1646-56.  Nathaniel, 
Sr.,  removed  to  Hadley  in  1659  and  was  made  a  freeman  in 
1661.  He  w^as  a  deacon  and  the  first  recorder,  or  town 
clerk.  The  homestead  of  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  in  Hat- 
field was  the  fourth  from  the  south  on  the  east  side  of  the 
street,  the  lot  on  which  the  Sophia  Smith  house  stands. 
He  w^as  made  a  freeman  in  1690  and  died  Oct.  11,  1710. 

Of  John  White,  Jr.,  not  very  much  is  known.  His  father. 
Elder  John  White,  who  was  born  in  Chelmsford,  Essex 
County,  Eng.,  probably  before  1600,  was  a  passenger  on  the 
ship  Lyon  which  sailed  from  England,  June  22,  1632,  arriv- 
ing in  Boston,  Sept.  16:  he  settled  in  Cambridge.  John 
White,  Sr.,  moved  to  Hartford  with  Mr.  Hooker's  company 
and  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  aflfairs  of  the  town  and 
of  the  South  Church  of  which  he  was  an  elder.  His  name 
stands  fifth  on  the  list  of  Engagers  to  settle  the  Norwottuck 
plantations  and  he  was  one  of  the  first  Townsmen  chosen 
at   Hadley  to  "order  all   publick   occasions.'*     He  returned 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  33 

to  Hartford  about  1670  and  died  about  the  first  of  the  year 
1684.  John  White,  Jr.,  the  third  of  the  six  children  of 
Elder  John,  was  buried  in  Hatfield,  Sept.  15,  1665.  His  age 
is  not  known,  but  it  was  probably  less  than  thirty-five  years^ 
His  house  lot  was  the  next  above  that  of  Nathaniel  Dick- 
inson, now  owned  by  Daniel  White  Wells,  who  is  not, 
however,  a  direct  descendant.  He  was  a  man  of  some 
wealth  and  owned  a  house  and  land  in  Hartford,  of  which 
he  retained  possession  after  leaving  that  town. 

These  men  and  the  others  who  soon  came  to  aid  them  in 
establishing  the  town  were  for  the  most  part  men  well 
along  in  years.  It  has  been  stated  that  the  average  age 
of  all  the  persons  who  made  the  journey  from  Connecticut 
was  thirty-three,  but  it  must  be  taken  into  consideration 
that  there  was  a  large^  number  of  children,  and  few  very 
old  persons  attempted  the  trip.  From  what  has  been  said 
it  will  be  seen  that  they  were  already  experienced  in  the 
building  and  governing  of  towns.  The  founders  of  Hat- 
field were  men  in  the  prime  of  life,  of  maturity  of  judgment, 
and  experienced  in  the  work  before  them. 

Comparatively  few  natural  obstacles  had  to  be  overcome 
to  prepare  the  chosen  site  for  habitation.  The  region  of 
the  Connecticut  vallev  was  described  bv  travelers  who  had 
explored  it  as  a  pleasant  land.  The  general  features  of 
the  country  in  the  vicinity  of  Hatfield  at  the  time  the  first 
settlers  came  were  much  the  same  as  now.  There  was  the 
same  broad  expanse  of  fertile  meadow  land  near  the  river; 
the  same  small  streams,  ponds,  and  marshy  places,  probably 
in  about  the  same  locations;  the  same  upland  plains  with 
sandy  soil:  the  same  surrounding  hills.  The  "great  river'' 
was  probably  much  the  same  in  appearance  then  as  now, 
with  its  banks  fringed  w^th  trees  and  bushes,  its  sand  bars 
and  stretches  of  sandy  beach,  its  ever  shifting  channel  and 
its    destructive    tendencies    in    time    of   flood. 

These  floods  have  been  the  cause  of  great  changes  in  the 
bed  of  the  Connecticut  river  since  the  settlement  of  its 
valley  by  the  whites.  A  gradual  wearing  away  of  the 
bank  on  one  side  and  addition  on  the  other  is  constantly 
going  on.  The  oxbow  at  the  point  known  as  the  **Turn 
of  the  River"  above  Hatfield  village  was  formed  by  the 
river  cutting  an  entirely  new  course  in    1862.     The  wear- 


34  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

iiig  away  on  the  Hadley  bank  and  the  gains  on  the  Hat- 
field side  have  been  particularly  noticeable  at  the  curve 
where  the  river  swings  to  the  westward  at  the  north  end 
of  the  Hadley  streets.  Judd  writing  in  1847  said,  "Opposite 
to  this  grass  meadow,  the  inroads  of  the  river  upon  Hadley 


^^; 

i; 
\ 

1— • 

s 

£»■       Vvt*.- 

1 

have  been  destructive.  The  homesteads  where  some  of  the 
early  settlers  lived  and  died,  the  lands  which  they  culti- 
vated, and  the  highways  which  they  traveled,  iiave  been 
carried  away,  and  more  serious  consequences  have  been 
threatened." 

The  serious  consequences  threatened — the  possibility  of 
the  river  cutting  off  another  oxbow  and  taking  its  course 
through  the  village — have  been  guarded  against  by  the 
"rip-rapping"  of  the   Hadley  bank  by  the  state  authorities. 

A  similar  protection  on  the  Hatfield  side  was  gained  by 
the  building  of  a  dike  in  19l>4  running  from  the  street  to 
the  river  on  the  lot  given  the  town  by  Samuel  H.  Dick- 
inson and  southward  along  the  crest  of  the  first  elevation 
above  the  bank.  Disastrous  effects  were  feared  from  the 
strength  of  the  current  that  flowed  unchecked  through  the 
home  lots  on  the  east  of  the  street  at  every  time  of  high 
water.  The  opening  back  of  John  McHugh's  house  and 
the  ditch  across  the  lots  were  dug  in    1706  to  allow  the 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  35 

water  to  drain  out  of  the  lots  back  into  the  river,  but  it 
afforded  an  inlet  as  well  as  an  outlet  during  floods.  (See 
Appendix,  Note  3.) 

A  large  part  of  the  wearing  away  on  the  Hatfield  side 
from  the  ferrv  to  Indian  Hollow  has  been  done  within  the 
memory  of  the  men  of  the  last  two  generations.  The  piece 
of  land  owned  by  Mrs.  H.  S.  Hubbard  a  short  distance 
below  the  Old  Bridge  Place  contains  only  about  four  acres, 
whereas  it  was  formerly  fourteen.  Bishop  F.  D.  Hunting- 
ton, who  died  in  1906,  stated  that  he  remembered  the  time 
in  his  boyhood  when  the  land  between  his  father's  barns 
in  North  Hadley  and  the  river  was  less  than  half  an  acre  in 
extent.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  at  that  point  five 
apple  trees  set  fifty  feet  apart  in  a  row  running  east  and 
west  have  disappeared  one  after  another  in  the  water  within 
the   memory   of   men    now   living. 

The  Connecticut  river  abounded  in  fish  in  the  earlv  davs 
so  that  its  waters  were  an  important  source  of  food  to  the 
savages  and  the  whites  and  also  a  source  of  considerable 
revenue  before  the  dams  were  built  across  it.  Salmon  and 
shad  used  to  come  up  the  stream  to  spawn,  the  latter  being  so 
common  that  at  one  time  they  were  not  thought  worthy 
of  a  place  on  the  table  and  families  surprised  by  unexpected 
guests  would  apologize  if  shad  happened  to  be  on  the 
bill  of  fare.  Often  they  were  thrown  contemptuously  back 
into  the  water  as  "pumpkin  seeds"  are  when  hooked  by  the 
angler  to-day. 

It  is  not  likely  that  Mill  river,  the  Capawonk  brook  of 
Indian  times,  has  changed  its  winding  course  to  any  appre- 
ciable extent  since  the  first  coming  of  the  white  settlers. 
Some  of  the  swamps  have  been  drained  by  the  residents  of 
the  town  and  some  ponds  created  by  artificial  means. 

The  clearing  of  forests  was  not  a  part  of  the  work  of 
the  first  settlers  in  preparation  for  establishing  themselves 
in  their  new  homes,  for  the  meadows  and  uplands  were  kept 
free  from  underbrush  and  to  a  large  extent  of  trees  by  the 
annual  burnings  by  the  Indians  every  November  to  check 
the  growth  of  brush  so  that  they  could  get  about  more 
easily  to  hunt  and  fish  and  to  have  cleared  land  for  culti- 
vation. The  fires  once  started  were  allowed  to  burn  them- 
selves out  and  consumed  the  young  forest  growth  iov  \v\\\^s 


36 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


around.  It  is  doubtful  if  there  was  much  timber  withii 
the  present  boundaries  of  the  township,  a  reason  for  th« 
specification  in  the  Indian  deeds  of  the  right  to  cut  tree; 
for  use.     The  forest  growth  now  covering  the  hills  at  tht 


west  of  the  town  and  parts  of  the  plains  is  of  comparatively 
recent  development. 

The    early    settlers    made    stringent    regulations    against 
the  unnecessary  felling  of  any  tree  and  the  town  of  Hatfield 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  3/ 

voted  in  1671,  the  year  after  its  incorporation,  that  no  man 
should  sell  clapboards,  shingles,  or  rails  out  of  town,  and 
coopering  stuff  was  not  to  be  delivered  out  of  town  unless 
made  into  casks.  For  white  pine  in  any  quantity  they  had 
to  go  as  far  as  Northfield.  Pine  and  chestnut  and  other 
soft  woods  could  not  stand  the  ravages  of  the  fires,  but 
there  was  probably  a  considerable  quantity  of  oak  and  elm 
scattered  about  through  the  meadows,  standing  in  clumps 
or  as  isolated  trees.  The  swamps  were  heavily  wooded, 
mostly  with  oak.  The  elm  in  front  of  the  Congregational 
church  that  blew  down  in  1868  was  probably  there  before 
the  white  men  came. 

The  first  white  inhabitants  adopted  the  Indian  custom 
of  annual  burning  to  keep  the  unused  land  free  from  bushes, 
which  became  a  source  of  great  annoyance  if  allowed  to 
grow  imchecked.  1^he  practice  was  common  throughout 
the  colony  and  was  continued  till  1750  or  later,  when  the 
danger  from  unlimited  burning  of  the  woodlands  was  finally 
realized  and  the  practice  stopped.  The  colonial  govern- 
ment of  Massachusetts  in  1743  passed  a  law  to  restrain 
such  fires  because  they  impoverished  the  soil,  prevented 
the  growth  of  wood,  and  destroyed  fences. 

The  intervals  or  meadows  thus  cleared  by  burning  were 
readv  for  immediate  cultivation  and  thev  were  covered  with 
a  growth  of  native  grass  which  could  be  cut  at  once  for 
live  stock.  The  earlv  settlers  deemed  most  desirable  the 
grass  from  the  low  bottom  lands,  or  as  they  called  them 
*'boggy  meadows."  Grass  seed  was  not  sowed  for  some 
years  after  the  settlement  and  there  arc  some  parts  of 
Indian  Hollow  to-day  which  perhaps  have  never  been 
plowed  and  reseeded.  That  part  of  the  meadow  was 
the  best  for  hay  and  commanded  the  highest  price  per  acre 
of  any  land  in  town  till  1862  when  the  disastrous  flood 
of  that  year  buried  it  deep  in  sand.  The  higher  parts  of 
the  intervals  were  used  by  the  first  settlers  for  cultivated 
crops. 

Few  domestic  animals  were  brought  by  the  pioneers 
on  account  of  the  length  and  difficulty  of  the  journey  from 
Connecticut  and  their  nmnbers  increased  slowly  during  the 
early  years  of  the  settlement.  Cows  and  oxen  wxre  of 
course  necessary,  and  some  sheep  and  hogs  were  kept  and 


38  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

probably  some  poultry.  Horses  were  not  abundant  and 
were  not  indispensable,  for  they  were  of  little  use  except  in 
the  saddle,  as  there  were  no  carriages  in  any  of  the  valley 
settlements  and  almost  all  the  farm  work  was  done  with 
oxen. 


CHAPTER  III. 

A    CHAPTER    OF    FOUNDATIONS.     THE    STREET    AND    HOUSE 
LOTS.   DIVISION    OF   MEADOWS,    MILL   AND   MEETING. 

•  They  huilded  beltr-r  than  they  knew." 

First  Steps  in  the  establishment  of  the  west  side  plantation. — Laying  out 
of  street  and  assignment  of  house  lots. — Names  of  the  proprietors  and 
subsequent  changes  in  ownership. — Meaning  of  the  term  "estate." — Lumber 
used  by  first  settlers  and  its  preparation. — Building  of  the  gristmill. — Division 
of  the  meadow  lands. — The  common  land. — Fencing  the  meadows  and  house 
lots. 

It  was  necessary  for  those  of  the  Hadley  Engager> 
who  intended  to  take  up  their  residence  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Connecticut  to  be  inhabiting  the  spot  by  Sept.  29. 
1661,  to  fulfill  the  terms  of  their  engagement,  and  there 
was  little  delay  about  the  matter.  Following  the  lead  of 
the  six  pioneers  the  other  west  side  Engagers  took  definite 
steps  to  lay  the  foundations  of  their  town.  The  purpose 
to  have  at  first  two  villages  of  one  town  separated  by  the 
river  as  they  had  been  at  Hartford  is  evident,  but  later 
developments  cannot  be  well  explained  except  on  the  sup- 
position that  in  the  minds  of  some  at  least  was  the  plan 
for  two  distinct  towns  as  soon  as  they  were  large  enough. 
The  fact  that  a  majority  of  the  west  side  Engagers  were  ^ 
from  Hartford  has  been  pointed  out  in  Chapter  I.  Many 
of  those  who  came  soon  after  the  first  settlement  were  from 
places  other  than  Wethersfield  and  while  the  views  of  the 
settlers  on  both  sides  of  the  river  were  in  general  in  accord 
with  those  of  the  pastor.  Rev.  John  Russell,  it  seems  a 
reasonable  inference  that  some  of  his  congregation  early 
hoped  to  be  able  to  have  as  their  leader  a  more  discreet 
and  tactful  man  such  as  Mr.  Hooker  had  shown  himself 
to  be.  Mr.  Russell  had  a  successful  pastorate  in  Hadley 
and  was  able  and  courageous,  but  he  was  engaged  in  many 
controversies  and  the  last  vears  of  his  life  were  embittered 
by  a  quarrel  over  the  school  funds.  Agreement  was  made 
to  have  two  ministers  if  necessary,  probably  one,  as  ?lss\s1- 


40  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

ant,  to  give  his  attention  to  the  work  on  the  west  side  of 
the  river,  but  the  Hatfield  men,  independent  to  the  last 
degree,  merely  bided  their  time  and  when  another  minister 
was  secured  it  was  to  be  the  settled  pastor  of  the  church 
of  a  town  wholly  free  and  independent.  Rev.  Samuel 
Hooker,  son  of  Rev.  Thomas  Hooker,  was  preaching 
at  Springfield  and  the  settlers  of  the  Norwottuck  plan- 
tations appointed  a  committee  in  1660  to  **confer  together 
and  send  propositions  to  Mr.  Hooker  about  his  removal  to 
us."  Under  date  of  Dec.  12,  1661,  this  entry  appears  on 
the   Hadlev   records: — 

"The  Inhabitants  on  the  West  side  of  the  river  proposing  that  there  might 
be  some  of  them  added  to  the  committee  chosen  for  the  looking  out  for 
another  minister  that  soe  they  might  be  one  with  us,  According  to  a  former 
agreement : 

"The  town  ordered  that  Gdman  Meekins  and  Gdman  Alice  should  be 
added  to  the  committee  aforesaid/' 

The  negotiations  did  not  accomplish  anything  and  Mr. 
Russell  continued  alone   in   his  labors   in   Hadlev. 

Jan.  21,  1660/61,  a  committee,  consisting  of  William 
Westwood.  Xathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr.,  Samuel  Smith,  Thomas 
Coleman.  Peter  Tilton,  and  Zechariah  Field,  was  appointed 
**to  lav  out  a  tract  of  land  on  the  West  side  of  the  river  for 
houselots."  The  4th  of  March,  William  Allis,  Zechariah 
Field,  Isaac  Graves,  Thomas  Stanlev,  Andrew  Warner, 
Philip  Smith,  and  Samuel  Porter  were  "to  take  a  survey 
of  the  land  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  and  as  near  as 
they  can  to  equalize  the  ap])ortionmcnt  of  those  that  have 
taken  u])  lots  there;  and  the  Inhabitants  on  the  other  side 
of  the  river  are  to  remain  there :  and  to  make  report  to  the 
town  thereof:  and  if  both  parties  cannot  agree  to  a  free 
choice  then  a  lot  to  determine  it." 

The  street  was  surveyed  that  spring  or  summer,  probably 
without  the  aid  of  a  compass.  Its  location  was  the  same  in 
width  and  extent  as  at  the  present  day,  running  nearly 
north  and  south  for  the  distance  of  a  mile.  A  wide  space 
was  reserved  near  the  south  end  for  a  common  as  was  the 
custom  in  most  Xew  England  towns,  following  the  English 
practice.  This  helps  to  confirm  the  supposition  that  the 
likelihood  of  two  towns  was  borne  in  mind  by  the  founders. 
The  street  was  ten  rods  wide  through  most  of  the  part  built 
upon   at   first.     The   upper   end   is   now   and   probably  was 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  41 

then  somewhat  narrower,  but  for  what  reason  is  unknown 
unless  it  was  to  equalize  the  acreage  of  the  house  lots, 
keeping  the  frontage  the  same.  Few  of  the  house  lots 
at  the  upper  end  were  assigned  till  after  the  incorporation 
of  Hatfield.  They  were  probably  staked  out  at  the  begin- 
ning, however,  and  reserved  for  later  comers  as  was  the 
case  with  the  meadow  lands  when  they  were  distributed. 
Some  of  these  lots  at  the  upper  end  were  assigned  by  the 
west  side  inhabitants  previous  to  their  separation  from 
Hadley.  i 

The  committee  made  allotments  to  28  individuals  of  192 
acres  on  both  sides  of  the  street.  All  the  lots  on  the  east 
side  were  16  rods  wide  except  that  of  John  Wells,  which 
was  18  rods.  The  proprietors  in  order  beginning  at  the 
south  were  Thomas  Bull,  Daniel  Warner,  Richard  Billings, 
Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  John  White,  Jr.,  Edward  Benton,  ii 
Samuel  Dickinson,  William  Gull,  Samuel  Belding,  John 
Coleman,  John  Wells,  Samuel  Gillett,  Philip  Russell.  The 
allotment  of  Thomas  Bull  was  the  place  now  owned  by 
A.  W.  Morton  at  the  corner  of  Bridge  Lane  and  that  of 
Philip  Russell  is  part  of  the  W.  H.  Dickinson  estate,  his 
north  line  being  near  the  large  buttonball  tree  in  front  of 
the  Dickinson  house.  The  width  of  the  lots  has  not  been 
changed  much,  though  some  of  the  homesteads  have  passed 
through  several  changes  of  ownership.  The  distance  be- 
tween the  south  line  of  Thomas  BulTs  allotment  and  the 
north  line  of  Philip  Russell's  was  210  rods  with  no  highway 
to  the  east  between.  Fixed  points  to  measure  from  are 
the  north  line  of  the  Billings  allotment  and  the  boundaries 
of  the  John  White,  Jr.,  allotment,  which  are  believed  to  be 
the  same  as  when  originally  staked  out.  Both  these  home- 
steads, as  noted  in  the  previous  chapter,  have  been  passed 
down  in  the  family,  though  not  without  change  of  name. 
After  the  lapse  of  250  years  there  is  not  a  single  place  that 
has  been  handed  down  from  father  to  son  in  an  unbroken 
line  from  the  beginning. 

The  lots  on  the  west  side  of  the  street  varied  somewhat 
in  width.  Those  of  Richard  Fellows  and  John  Cole  were 
south  of  the  highway  to  Northampton.  They  contained 
eight  acres  each.  Eleazer  Frary's  allotment  of  four  acres, 
six  rods  in  width,  was  exactly  in  the  middle  of  that  side  o( 


42  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  Street  between  the  highway  to  Northampton  and  the 
Middle  Lane,  or  Mill  Lane,  now  School  Street.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  Roswell  Billings.  Many  changes  have  been 
made  in  the  original  boundaries  of  the  lots  by  subsequent 
transfers.  South  of  Eleazer  Frary's  were  the  house  lots  of 
John  Graves,  Isaac  Graves,  Stephen  Taylor,  Ozias  Goodwin, 
and  Zechariah  Field,  each  twelve  rods  wide  and  containing 
eight  acres.  North  of  Eleazer  Frary's,  allotments  were 
made  to  Thomas  Meekins,  William  Allis,  Daniel  White,  Jr., 
and  John  Allis  of  eight  acres,  twelve  rods  in  width,  and  to 
Obadiah  Dickinson  and  Samuel  Kellogg  of  four  acres  each, 
six  rods  wide.  Above  Middle  Lane,  for  which  eight  rods 
were  reserved,  was  the  allotment  of  John  Hawks  of  four 
acres  and  sixteen  rods  wide.  The  highway  to  Northampton 
was  eight  rods  wide ;  the  distance  from  the  northern  boun- 
dary of  Hawks's  lot  to  the  southern  side  of  the  Northampton 
road  was  158  rods,  from  the  south  side  of  Middle  Lane  to 
the  north  of  the  Northampton  road,  126  rods.  School 
Street  is  now  only  four  rods  wide,  three  rods  having  gone 
to  the  lot  on  which  Smith  Academy  and  the  buildings  west 
of  it  stand  and  one  rod  to  the  lots  on  the  north  of  the 
street.  The  lots  on  the  west  side  of  the  street  ran  back 
to  Mill  river  as  far  as  its  course  was  north  and  south: 
beyond  that  they  had  a  depth  of  80  rods.  The  boundary 
between  the  Academy  lot  and  the  Israel  Morton  place, 
the  original  allotments  of  Samuel  Kellogg  and  Obadiah 
Dickinson  respectively,  has  never  been  changed.  Directly 
opposite  their  line  was  the  boundary  between  William 
Gull  and  Samuel  Belding. 

The  chart  on  the  opposite  page  shows  the  location  of 
the  first  house  lots  with  the  width  of  each  and  the  location 
of  the  highways.  Against  the  name  of  each  settler  is  put 
his  ^'estate."  This  did  not  mean  the  amount  of  his  prop- 
erty. Some  were  undoubtedly  possessed  of  more  than  the 
amounts  set  against  their  names  and  others  had  less,  but 
as  will  be  seen  the  estates  ranged  from  £50  to  £200,  most 
bein^  £100.  The  amount  of  each  one's  estate  was  set 
arbitrarily  with  the  desire  to  secure  a  substantial  equality 
among  all  the  settlers  and  to  serve  as  a  basis  for  distribut- 
ing the  land.  Church  members  and  freemen  had  no 
advantage  over  others.     Thomas  Graves  had  no  house  lot 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


43 


l-lsIAIc. 


Acres. 


Rods  wide.      R(xls  wide.  Acres. 

16    Philip  Russell  4 


l<:sUte. 


16    Samud  Gillett 


18 

John  Wells 

4^ 

4 

John  Hawks 

16 

16 
16 

John  Coleman 
Samuel  Belding 

4 

Middle  Lane  or  Mill  Lane 

8 

4 

4 

Samuel  Kellogg 
Obadiah  Dickinson 

6 
6 

8 

8 

John  Allis 

12 

16 

William  Gull 

8 

£100 
200 
200 

{00        00        00 

Daniel  White,  Jr. 
William  Allis 
Thomas  Meekins 

12 
12 
12 

16 
16 

Samuel  Dickinson 
Edward  Benton 

8 
8 

50 
100 
150 

4 
8 
8 

Eleazer  Frary 
John  Graves 
Isaac  Graves 

6 
12 
12 

16 
16 

John  White,  Jr. 
Nath'l  Dickinson,  Jr 

8 
.  8 

50 

8 

Stephen  Taylor 

12 

16 

Richard  Billings 

8 

100 

8 

Ozias  Goodwin 

12 
12 

16 
16 

Daniel  Warner 
Thomas  Bull 

8 

125 

8 

Zechariah  Field 

8 

Hig 

:hway  to  Northampton 

8 

150 

8 

John  Cole 

100 

8 

Richard  Fellows 

ilOO 


100 


100 


100 

100 
100 


100 
150 

100 

100 

125 


Pla.n  or  Tin:  House  Lots  in  Hatfield  Allotted  1661-1670. 
[nclosure  shows  the  line  of  first  stockade,  built  in  King  Philip's  War. 


l:S    r-lfZ    isAiC    lO 

zr-;^:   erv^eii  in 
:  ■*>.     zLiri;    the 

:c    ,  -  —     'jravei 

:   >   i  — i::er  oi 

:rr;    :■:    lo^?    are 

ty  3.-  :   ilatfieM 


r-  iil'i  in  l*"*'!.  were  plenty  ol  sawyers 
I  -oine  mere  ?ui>>tantial  dwellings  and 
ii^y  have  Ijeeii  Imllt  at  the  very  begiti- 

ulier  ha^  been  alliideil  to.  White  oak 
■\Mirk.  hewed  .tikI  sqiiared  by  hand. 
1  building;  material  did  not  seein  to  be 
■;irly  settlers  in  tlii>  rcfiion  and  niany 
lay   wliifli   date  baek   ti)  colonial   times 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  45 

are  framed  and  studded  with  oak.  Oak  seems  to  have  been 
used  in  preference  so  that  the  scarcity  of  pine  probably 
caused  the  first  settlers  little  concern. 

Boards  had  to  be  sawed  by  hand  in  a  saw  pit.  The  man 
who  stood  above  and  guided  the  saw  was  called  the  **top- 
nian/'  and  received  a  little  higher  wages  than  his  fellow 
laborer  in  a  pit  below,  who  was  called  the  **pit-man.'' 
Wages  of  2s.  and  2s.  6d.  per  day  were  common  for  this  work 
and  two  men  were  expected  to  saw  100  feet  of  boards  a  day 
when  the  logs  were  hewed  and  drawn  to  the  saw  pit.  Oak 
was  the  commonest  material  for  boards  also,  chestnut,  of 
which  there  was  some  quantity  accessible,  being  used 
chiefly  for  fences.  The  price  of  sawed  boards  was  very 
high.  Judd  says  that  before  Pynchon  built  his  sawmill  in 
Springfield  in  1667  they  were  7s.  per  100  feet,  afterwards 
4s.  6d.  Tfie  edges  of  the  boards  were  chamfered  by  hand 
to  make  a  snug  joint. 

The  side  covering  of  houses  and  barns  was  in  many  cases 
clapboards  nailed  to  the  studs.  They  were  split  by  hand 
like  shingles  and  could  be  made  much  more  rapidly  and 
easily  than  boards.  Any  wood  that  could  be  split  easily 
was  called  "rift  timber"  or  "cleft  timber."  The  wages  of 
"rivers  of  clapboards"  were  regulated  by  law  in  some  parts 
of  the  colony.  Coffin's  "History  of  Xewbury"  gives  this 
derivation :  "Clapboards  were  originally  cloven,  not  sawn, 
and  were  thence  called  clove-boards,  and  in  process  of  time 
doboards,  claboards,  clapboards.''  They  were  of  varying 
length,  three  to  five  or  six  feet,  and  made  smooth  by 
hewing  or  shaving. 

There  was  probably  no  interior  finish  in  most  of  the 
houses.  Lath  for  plastering  is  rarely  mentioned  in  any  con- 
temporary accounts  in  the  seventeenth  century.  The  windows 
were  closed  with  shutters,  as  glass  did  not  come  into  general 
use  till  after  1700  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  getting  it. 
Possibly  oiled  paper  or  some  similar  material  was  used  as 
a  substitute.  One  of  the  settlers,  Philip  Russell,  was  a 
glazier  by  trade.     He  came  to  Hatfield  about  1666. 

The  roofs  were  covered  with  split  shingles  two  or  three 
feet  long.  Barns  and  perhaps  some  of  the  houses  at  first 
were  thatched.  There  was  plenty  of  clay  at  hand  for 
making  bricks  for  chimneys  or  for  laying  up  chimneys  of 


\ 


\ 
\ 


45  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Stone  in  clay.     For  hearthstones  there  was  red  sandstone 
in    abundance. 

The  old  expression  "to  mill  and  to  meeting"  is  significant 
of  many  things.  The  corn  mill  and  the  meetinghouse 
were  the  first  public  structures  necessary  to  the  early  set- 
tlers and  thev  both  ministered  to  wants  which  could  not 
well  be  met  without  them.  Public  worship  in  Hadley  was 
conducted  on  the  east  side  of  the  riv^er  where  the  pastor. 
Rev.  John  Russell,  lived  and  the  first  mill  was  set  up  on 
the  vvest  side.  Negotiations  for  its  building  were  begun  in 
April,  1661,  and  in  December  after  he  had  "expended  con- 
siderable estate  in  building  a  miir'  the  town  of  Hadley 
voted  to  have  all  the  grain  ground  by  Thomas  Meekins 
"provided  he  make  good  meal."  In  the  same  month  prep- 
arations were  begun  to  build  a  meetinghouse,  but  it  was  not 
raised  until  1665  and  probably  not  wholly  finished  until 
1670.  A  house  was  hired  in  which  to  seat  the  congregation 
while  the  building  operations  were  under  way. 

Thomas  Meekins  was  a  millwright  by  trade.  His  mill  was 
built  on  the  Capawonk  brook,  which  thereafter  was  called 
Mill  river,  near  the  site  of  the  present  Hatfield  gristmill. 
The  ridge  of  red  sandstone  that  shows  outcroppings  at 
various  points  in  the  vicinity  made  a  waterfall  in  the 
brook  and  the  stone  was  easily  quarried  for  millstones.  It 
is  not  known  whether  any  dam  was  built  at  first,  but 
probably  greater  power  was  secured  by  throwing  some 
sort  of  obstruction  across  the  stream.  Meekins  was  given 
twenty  acres  of  land  near  the  mill  and  he  moved  from  the 
street  and  built  a  house  on  the  hill  where  M.  \V.  Bovie 
has  his  residence. 

The  east  side  inhabitants  brought  their  grain  across  the 
Connecticut  to  be  ground.  The  Hadley  records  show  that 
on  the  8th  of  November,  1662.  they  agreed  with  Thomas 
Wells  and  John  Hubbard  to  carry  their  grain  over  the  river 
to  mill  on  the  second  and  sixth  days  of  the  week  and  bring 
back  the  meal,  at  threepence  per  bushel,  to  be  paid  in 
wheat  at  3s.  6d.,  and  Indian  corn  at  2s.  3d.  per  bushel. 
No  corn  mill  was  built  on  the  east  side  till  1671,  when  a 
portion  of  the  Hopkins  Grammar  School  funds  was  in- 
vested in  a  mill  at  North  Hadlev.  It  was  burned  in  1677 
and  the  Hadley  people  again  brou^^ht  their  grist  across  the 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  47 

river;  rebuilt  in  1678  or  1679,  and  was  operated  by  the 
Boltwoods  for  a  while,  finally  coming  back  to  the  trustees 
of   the   Hopkins   Grammar  School   fund. 

The  meal  and  flour  were  bolted  at  home  or  used  unbolted. 
Bolting  mills  moved  by  water  power  were  not  at  all  common 
in  England  when  the  colonists  first  left  the  mother  country 
and  they  did  not  come  into  use  in  New  England  for  nearly 
one  hundred  years.  Sometimes  the  bran  was  separated 
from  the  flour  by  the  use  of  sieves. 

Thomas  Meekins  also  assisted  in  setting  up  corn  mills 
in  other  towns.  He  built  the  first  sawmill  in  Hatfield  in 
1669  and  had  one  in  operation  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  perhaps  as  early  as  1662  in  company  with  Robert 
Boltwood.  They  were  granted  liberty  to  build  a  saw- 
mill in  Hadley  in  that  year.  Dec.  19,  1670.  the  town  of 
Hatfield  voted  that  Meekins's  sawmill  should  be  free  from 
the  town  rate  for  three  years.  It  is  thought  to  have  been 
located  about  where  Maj.  C.  S.  Shattuck's  gun-shop  stands. 

In  the  distribution  of  the  meadow  land  made  from  1661 
to  1663  the  estates  of  the  different  settlers  served  as  a 
basis  for  divisions.  Drawings  were  by  lot  and  those  whose 
lots  came  out  first  had  first  choice.  Each  flOO  estate 
drew  27  acres  and  60  rods  on  the  west  side  of  the  river 
and  larger  estates  correspondingly  larger  amounts.  The 
east  side  proprietors  also  drew  lots  on  the  west  side  and  it 
is  difficult  to  ascertain  the  amount  of  land  divided  on  the 
Hatfield  side  because  the  lands  of  several  of  the  proprietors 
are  not  recorded.  Considerable  allowance  was  made  for 
swamps,  ponds,  and  light  lands.  It  is  estimated  that  about 
1,200  acres  were  included  in  the  four  main  divisions  of  the 
Hatfield  meadows  as  follows : — 

1.  The  Great,  North,  or  Upper  Meadow,  purchased  of  Mr. 
Bradstreet  and  including  a  swamp  adjoining,  was  separated 
into  six  divisions, — Fifty  Pound  Lots,  Long  Lots,  Cow 
Bridge,  Turn  of  the  River,  Upper  Hollow,  and  Bashan. 
Each  west  side  proprietor  received  a  lot  in  each  division 
and  some  were  reserved  for  others.  The  names  given  to 
the  divisions  are  those  in  use  at  the  present  time,  but  they 
probably  were  applied  at  a  very  early  day. 

2.  Little  Meadow  was  at  the  north  end  of  the  street 
and  part  of  it  east  of  the  North  Meadow.     It  was  in  twof 


,^  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

divisions,   Little   Meadow  proper  and  Little   Meadow   Hol- 
low. 

3.  The    South    Meadow,    or    **the    meadow   adjoining   to 
the   street"   in   the   early  records,   was   called   Wequetayag 
hv  the  Indians  and  Great  Pansett,  Pontius,  or  Ponsett  in 
the  records  of  Peter  Tilton,  the  first   recorder  of  lands  in 
Hadlev.     It    contained    about    430    acres    at    the    time    of 
division   with  little  waste  land.     The   east  side  or   Hadlev 
proprietors  had  the  west  part,  called  205  acres,  and  the  w^est 
side  proprietors  the  east  part.  225  acres,  including  Indian 
Hollow   or   Indian    Bottom.     The   divisions   known    at    the 
present    dav.    East    and    Middle    Divisions,    Great    Ponsett, 
Brix^k  Hollow.  Indian  Hollow,  The  Nook,  and  Indian  Field, 
were   probably   so  called   very   early   in   the   history   of   the 
town  and  the  roads  through   this  meadow  were  the   same 
as  noNN«     Hcforo  the  choice  of  lots  was  made  the  roads  were 
staked  out.      Tbo  road  that  led  to  the  landing  at  the  north 
v>t  the   Hadlev  street   was  the  one  by  the   Richard   Fellows 
!iou<c.  now   \*alley  Street.     A  road  was  laid  out  along  the 
Im\»\\    of   the    hill    above    Indian    Hollow   and   Indian    Field 
w  Inoh   IS  not    in    use   as   a   traveled   way   at  present   during 
Hx  \\lu»le  extent.     The  so-called  Baker's  Ferry  road,  across 
\\w  lot^  m  hnlian  Hollow,  is  of  later  origin. 

)     I  ho    StMit Invest,    or    Capawonk   Meadows,   also    called 

Vinponi'hn^.    Little   Pansett.   Ponsitt,  or  Ponsett.  was  sepa- 

\A\v\\   lioni   (iieat    Ponsett  by  the   Capawonk  brook,  or,  as 

someinne''    i-.illecl.     Napanset    river.     The    east    side     pro- 

luirloi^  h.nl  nil  <»f  this  except  the  upper  part  called  the  Plain, 

winir  iIm'  west   side  proprietors  had  the  Plain  at  two  acres 

l,ii   oitr       The  extent  of  this  meadow  after  rejecting  ponds 

,iihl   wMillilrss  swamps  probably  did  not  exceed  275  acres. 

I  hi  :  iiphnul  pl.'iin  was  considered  of  little  value  until  quite 

titiHlU    .nid  w;is  tised  for  corn  and  rye  land.     The  names 

III  Ihi   iliN  I'HMiis.  .Scotland,  Lower  Plain,  New  Field,  Thomp- 

MiiM   I  Ml.  uihI  the  Park,  are  of  comparatively  recent  origin. 

I  hi     iMiniber    of    west    side    proprietors    who    drew    lots 

{,,  ih)    '.iiiiih  ;umI  Little  Meadows  was  22,  the  amount  of  the 

i.|.,li  :    I  *.M)0:  23  drew   in  the  North  Meadow.     Probably 

iimI    -ill    llii-    l'.ii^»agers   had   arrived   when   the  division   was 

Minh        HIM)  rstjites  drew  as  follows  and  larger  or  smaller 

|f  o    Ml    |ilM|inl  tinn  : 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  49 

Acres.  Rods. 

In  3  divisions  in  South  Meadow 8  144 

In  the  Meadow  Plain 2  55 

In  2  divisions  in  Little  Meadow 2  22 

In  6  divisions  in  North  Meadow 13  159 

27  "SQ 

The  rest  of  the  land  was  used  in  common  for  wood 
and  pasturage  and  there  was  no  call  for  a  division  of  the 
upland  plains  west  of  the  town  for  many  years. 

A  large  amount  of  fencing  had  to  be  done  as  a  protection 
against  roving  animals.  Fences  were  built  of  posts  and 
rails  and  often  had  a  ditch  and  embankment  on  the  out- 
side. Some  traces  of  the  ditch  in  the  South  Meadow  could 
still  be  found  in  the  nineteenth  century.  The  house  lots 
probably  did  not  have  ditches  with  the  fences.  All  fences 
were  to  be  sufficient  protection  against  horses,  cattle,  sheep, 
and  hogs,  and  were  four  or  five  rails  high  with  gates  where 
needed.  It  was  considered  a  serious  misdemeanor,  pun- 
ishable by  a  heavy  fine,  to  leave  a  gate  open.  Great  and 
Little  Ponsett  were  fenced  as  early  as  1662  by  united  labor 
of  the  settlers  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  the  Hadley  men 
doing  about  500  rods  of  the  southern  part.  In  that  year 
also,  Indian  Field  was  ordered  to  be  fenced  "after  the 
proportion  of  2  rod  to  each  £100  estate."  It  was  then  used 
by  the  savages  for  their  planting  ground.  Fence  viewers 
were  appointed  yearly,  usually  two  on  each  side  of  the 
river.  In  1663  each  proprietor  was  ordered  to  have  his 
land  marked  by  "meer-stones"  and  it  was  common  to  have 
initials  cut  on  the  posts  of  the  fences  to  indicate  the  owner- 
ship of  the  lots.  There  was  a  division  fence  between  the 
land  owned  by  the  east  and  west  side  proprietors  in  South 
Meadow.  The  meadows  north  of  Hatfield  were  fenced, 
at  least  in  part,  before  1670. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

A  CHAPTER  OF  CONFLICT.    THE  STRUGGLE  LEADING  TO  THE 

INCORPORATION   OF   HATFIELD. 

"  They  have  rights  who  dare  maintain  them." 

The  early  town  records. — Local  self-government  by  the  west  side  inhab- 
itants at  their  "side  meetings.'' — Desire  for  full  independence. — Petition  to 
the  General  Court  for  separation  and  its  signers. — Number  of  families  on 
the  west  side  in  1667. — Counter  petition  of  east  side  inhabitants. — Attempted 
adjustment  of  the  dispute. — Preparations  of  west  side  inhabitants  for  a 
minister  and  house  of  worship. — The  end  of  the  conflict. — Articles  of  agree- 
ment. 

The  public  records  of  the  settlers  on  both  sides  of  the 
river  during  the  ten  years  following  1660  are  quite  full, 
containing  many  votes  that  now  seem  of  slight  importance 
though  they  were  at  the  time  no  doubt  the  cause  of  rnuch 
serious  debate.  On  the  other  hand  many  things  were  not 
recorded  that  would  throw  great  light  on  the  proceedings 
if   fully   known. 

The  west  side  inhabitants  were  allowed  from  the  first 
a  large  degree  of  local  self-government  and  held  frequent 
"side  meetings/'  of  w^hich  a  record  has  been  preserved. 
The  first  entry  bears  the  date  of  Mar.  31,  1662.  How  the 
notes  of  the  transaction  of  public  business  wxre  kept  at  the 
start  is  not  certain,  or  by  whom,  perhaps  on  loose  sheets 
of  paper,  but  they  were  written  out  in  their  present  form 
in  a  bound  volume  by  the  first  town  clerk  of  Hatfield, 
John  Allis,  about  1670.  The  inference  is  that  he  also,  kept 
the  records  for  the  first  ten  vears.  The  entries  are  not  in 
chronological  order. 

During  the  first  part  of  this  ten  year  period  the  desire 
for  full  independence  on  the  part  of  the  west  side  settlers 
was  growing  till  it  led  to  a  sharp  contest  and  culminated  in 
the  separation  of  Hadley  and  Hatfield  in  1670.  The  num- 
ber of  families  did  not  increase  as  rapidly  as  was  expected 
and  it  was  not  practical  to  separate  till  each  settlement 
could  support  itself  alone. 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  5I 

In  March,  1665,  the  .town  of  Hadley  voted  that  the  inhab- 
itants on  either  side  should  nxake  and  maintain  all  their  \ 
own  highways  and  bridges  except  the  mill  bridge,  the 
expense  of  which  was  borne  equally,  and  in  June  of  the 
same  year  it  was  voted  to  carry  on  the  work  of  the  town 
and  church  as  one  "until  the  Lord  makes  it  appear  that 
one  part  of  us  have  a  call  to  be  a  society  of  ourselves." 
The  subject  of  separation  seems  to  have  been  agitated 
by  the  west  side  inhabitants. 

No  petition  on  the  subject  was  sent  to  the  General  Court 
for  two  years,  but  from  1667  that  body  was  flooded  with 
petitions  and  letters  about  the  controversy.  The  first  one 
given  in  full  below  is  dated  May  3,  1667: — 

"To  the  Honored  Governor,  Dep.  Governor,  Assistants  and  Deputies,  now 
in  General  Court  assembled: 

"The  petition  of  us  whose  names  are  underwritten,  being  inhabitants  of 
the  west  side  of  the  river  at  Hadley,  sheweth — (May  3,  1667,) — that,  whereas 
it  hath  pleased  God  to  make  you  the  fathers  of  this  Commonwealth,  and  it 
hath  pleased  the  Lord,  by  your  great  care  and  diligence  under  him,  to 
continue  our  peace  and  plenty  of  outward  things,  and  in  a  more  especial 
tnanner  the  chief  test  and  principal  of  all,  the  Gospel  of  peace,  with  the 
liberty  of  his  Sabbaths,  which  mercies  your  humble  petitioners  desire  to  be 
thankful  unto  God  and  you  for,  that  you  are  so  ready  and  willing  for  to 
help  those  that  stand  in  need  of  help,  which  hath  encouraged  us  your  humble 
petitioners  for  to  make  this  our  address,  petition  and  request,  to  you  for 
relief  in  this  our  present  distressed  state  and  condition. 

"First,  your  petitioners,  together  with  their  families  within  the  bounds  of 
Hadley  town,  upon  the  west  side  of  the  river,  commonly  called  by  the  name 
of  Connecticut  river,  where  we  for  the  most  part  have  lived  about  6  years, 
have  attended  on  God's  ordinances  on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  at  tine 
appointed  seasons  that  we  could  or  durst  pass  over  the  river,  the  passing 
being  very  difficult  and  dangerous,  both  in  summer  and  winter,  which  thing 
hath  proved  and  is  an  oppressive  burden  for  us  to  bear,  which,  if  by  any 
lawful  means  it  may  be  avoided,  we  should  be  glad  and  thankful  to  this 
honored  court  to  ease  us  therein,  conceiving  it  to  be  a  palpable  breach  of  the 
Sabbath,  although  it  be  a  maxim  in  law:  nemo  debet  esse  judex  in  propria 
causa,  yet  by  the  Word  of  God  to  us,  it  is  evidently  plain  to  be  a  breach  of 
the  Sabbath :  Ex.  xxxv :  2 ;  Levit.  xxiii :  3,  yet  many  times  we  are  forced  to  it ; 
for  we  must  come  at  the  instant  of  time,  be  the  season  how  it  will.     Some- 
times we  come  in  considerable  numbers  in  rainy  weather,  and  ^je  forced  to 
stay  till  we  can  empty  our.  canoes,  .that  are  half  full  of  water,  apd  before 
we  can  get  to  the  meetinghouse,  are  wet  to  the  skin.    At  other  times,  in 
winter  seasons,  we  are  forced  to  cut  and  work  them  out  of  the  ice,  till  our 
shirts   be   wet  upon  our  backs.    At  other  times,  the   winds   are  high   and 
waters  rough,  the  current  strong  and  the  waves  ready  to  swallow  us— our 
vessels  tossed  up  and  down  so  that  our  women  and  children  do  screech,  and 
arc  so  affrighted  that  they  are  made  unfit  for  ordinances,  and  cannot  hear 
so  as  to  profit  by  them,  by  reason  of  their  anguish  of  spirit ;  and  when  they 
return  some  of  them  are  more  fit  for  their  beds  than  for  family  duties  and 
God's  services,  which  they  ought  to  attend. 

"In  brevity  and  verity,  our  difficulties  and  dangers  that  we  undergo  are  to 
us  Extreme  and  intolerable;  oftentimes  some  of  us  have  i^allen  jnto  the 
river. through  the  ice,  and  had  they  not  had  better  help  than  themselves,  they 
had  been  drowned.    Sometimes  we  have  been  obliged  to  carry^otbcil^vjV^^n 


S>  HISTORY    OF   HATFIELD. 

they  have  broken  in,  to  the  knees  as  they  have  carried  them  out,  and  that 
none  hitherto  hath  been  lost,  their  lives  are  to  be  attributed  to  the  care  and 
mercv  of  God. 

••"there  is  about   four  score  and  ten  persons  on  our  side  of  the  river, 
that  are  capable  of  receiving  good  by  ordinances,  but  it  is  seldom  that  above 
half  of  them  can  go  to  attend,  what  through  the  difficulty  of  passage  and 
staying  at  home  by  turns  and  warding,  some  being  weak  and  small  whkh, 
notwithstanding,  if  the  means  on  our  side  the  river,  they  might  have  the 
benetit  of  the  ordinances  which  now  they  are  deprived  of  to  the  grief  of  us 
all     Further,  when  we  do  go  over  the  river,  we  leave  our  relatives  and 
estates  King  on  the  outside  of  the  colony,  joining  to  the  wilderness,  to  be  a 
prev  to  the  heathen,  when  they  sec  their  opportunity.    Yet,  notwithstanding, 
our  greatest  anxiety  and  pressure  of  spirit  is  that  the  Sabbath,  which  should 
he  kept  bv  us  hvJy  to  the  Lord,  is  spent  with  such  unavoidable  distractions, 
Knh  of  the  mind  and  of   the  body.    And   for   the   removing  of   this,  we 
onaniiDixisIv  have  made  our  address  to  our  brethren  and   friends   on  the 
ocher  side  of  the  river,  by  a  petition  that  they  would  be  pleased  to  grant  us 
;i«^^^-  lo  I*  a  society  of  ourselves,  and  that  we  might  call  a  minister  to 
dt<Mr:»  ih*  ^'^^  ^^^  ^'*^*  ^^  "^'  ^"*  ^*^^^'  ^y  t^iem,  would  not  be  granted, 
a^^wH^  «i  the  OKMUh  of  June,  in  the  year  1665,  it  was  agreed  and  voted 
It  1  ^**tl  me^tii^.  that  when  the  west  side  had  a  call  of  God  thereto,  they 
9Rw:>^*  V  a  JOciet,v  of  themselves.     We  sent  a  second  time  to  them,  entreating 
SjJ"^xNWins  u^  J^i^J  agreement  they  would  grant  our  request  to  put  it  to  a 
ScM»*-Tt«.  Nit  they  will  not.  so  that  we,  your  humble  petitioners,  have  no  other 
iiAx  oc  tiKvanis  thai  wc  know  of,  but  to  make  our  humble  address  to  this 
S.CN>r<si  cv^rt   for  relief,  in  this  our  distressed  state,  humbly  praying  this 
S^Ny^  AHirt   to  vouchsafe  your  poor  petitioners  that   favor  as   to  be  a 
«.vtcO  V**  \Hir*clvos.  and  have  liberty  to  settle  a  minister  to  dispense  the 
0«\h«v*wixs  of  the  Lord  unto  us,  which  wc  hope  will  be  for  the  furtherance 
v^t  W  ^^^''^  **'  ''^^*  l.oTiX  amongst  us,  and  for  our  peace  and  safety.    Not 
tHai  ^v  desirt'  to  make  any  breach  among  brethren,  for  to  attain  our  desires, 
^H^  \<^  ^^  hinder  the  groat  work  of  the  Lord  amongst  us,  but  that  which  we 
aim  at  i*  ^^^^  \>*ntrary.    Thus,  committing  our  cause  to  God  and  this  honored 
xNHiit.  A«^J  «*'*  **'****'"  >■**"*'  ^'<^?R*^ty  affairs,  we  leave  to  the  protection  and 
*>»hM«kv  of  the  .Mniighty,  which  is  the  prayer  of  your  humble  petitioners.— 

*'Vh\^^>^'*  NU^kins,  Sk..     Danifx  White.  John  Allis. 

\\  M    \n»!*»  John  Weixes,  Ob.\diah  Dickinson, 

Km^n  iVn^*.  Sh  .  Nath'l  Dickinson,  Jr.,  Samuel  Gilet, 

)\vv*   i;n\\>**,  lu.KAZER  Frary,  John  Field, 

Kuiivtii^  Mm  I  IN*;,  Samuel  Billing,  John  Coule,  Jr., 

\\  M    lirii.  Samuel  Dickinson,  Ursula  Fellows, 

VvMUi^i    IUn»rN.  Thomas  Meekins,  Jr..  Mary  Field." 

ioMN  tinvN^**.  Samuel  Kelog. 

\\\\i»ii   Wnmnim.  Harnahas  Hinsdell, 

rho    \i\*i\    lNVt>   signatures   were   those   of  the  widows  of 

|<hlwu»l    lM*llt)\vs   anil  Zechariah   Field,  who  had  represen- 

t^ion  a**  llu*  huatls  of  their  families.     Fellows  died  in  1663 

i\\\\\   l'h*l»l  in   !(»(>(>.     Two  of  the  other  original  settlers  had 

^In^l.    h»lni   Wliito.  Jr.,  and  Stephen  Taylor,  both  in    1665. 

I  h^Mu   lurnlv  tivo  families  were  surely  living  on  the  west 

mIiIu  mI  Ihr  rt»nnooticut  in  1667.     The  names  of  John  Cole- 

Mhui.   rhilip  Ktissull,  Samuel  Allis,  and  Benjamin  Waite  do 

jiill  n|>|M'<n  «»ii  til**  petition:  perhaps  they  had  not  then  taken 

^Ik  ii)iMi    n^sidunor   on    the   west   side   though   they   did   so 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  53 

very  soon  after.  Benjamin  Waite's  name  first  appears  on 
the  town  records  in  1664,  when  four  acres  of  meadow  land 
were  granted  him  "in  some  place  or  places  as  convenient.** 

A  counter  petition  on  the  part  of  the  town  of  Hadley — 
the  east  side  inhabitants — was  also  sent  to  the  court, 
stating  their  view  of  the  matter,  their  principal  objections 
being  that  the  communities  were  not  yet  strong  enough 
to  separate  and  that  to  have  granted  the  request  of  those 
who  desired  to  withdraw  would  have  been  to  "sin  against 
the  Lord,  ourselves,  and  them.''  It  ^  was  signed  by  forty- 
four  people. 

The  town  sent  the  pastor,  Rev.  John  Russell,  to  Boston 
with  Samuel  Smith  and  Peter  Tilton  to  look  after  its 
interests,  while  the  west  side  inhabitants  were  represented 
by  Thomas  Meekins,  William  Allis,  and  Isaac  Graves.  The 
court  judged  it  best  to  make  no  division  at  that  time,  but 
advised  that  the  two  parties  in  the  dispute  jointly  settle  ' 
another  minister.  The  petition  of  the  west  side  people  was 
presented  again  in  the  month  of  September,  1667,  but  no 
agreement  was  reached.  An  attempt  was  then  made  to  settle 
the  matter  between  the  factions  by  correspondence,  lasting 
for  over  a  year.  The  east  side  did  not  object  to  having  a 
second  minister,  but  would  not  consent  to  the  formation  of 
two  societies  and  expected  the  west  side  to  worship  with 
them  except  when  crossing  the  river  was  difficult.  The 
west  side  people  were  firm  in  their  intention  to  have  a 
minister  constantly  with  them  and  to  be  a  society  by  them- 
selves. 

In  April,  1668,  the  east  side  made  another  answer  by 
petition  to  the  General  Court  written  by  Mr.  Russell,  part 
of  which  ran  as  follows : — 

"When  we  moved  to  this  plantation,  we  engaged  to  each  other  to  have 
two  ministers.  We  gave  to  poor  men  liberty  to  suit  themselves,  and  those 
who  had  more  estate  denied  themselves,  not  taking  up  half  as  much  as  they 
might  have  done,  no  man  having  more  than  45  acres  of  interval  land.  This 
was  done  in  respect  to  maintaining  the  ministry  and  ordinances.  When 
those  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  took  up  land  there,  they  did  it  on 
condition  that  they  were  to  be  one  with  us  and  to  come  to  the  east  side  on 
the  Sabbath  except  in  extraordinary  times,  one  of  the  ministers  would  go 
over  to  them.  The  meetinghouse  was  to  be  set  where  it  is,  for  their  sakes, 
to  our  great  inconvenience.  The  difficulties  of  crossing  the  river  were  pre- 
sented to  them  at  first,  and  they  chose  to  go.  In  some  other  towns,  the 
river  is  crossed  on  the  Sabbath.  It  is  doubtful  whether  they  can  make  a 
plantation  of  themselves.  The  place  does  not  afford  boggy  meadows  or  such 
like,  that  men  can  live  upon,  but  their  subsistence  must  be  from  theu  Vvomt^ 


54  HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 

lots  and  intervals.    A  great  part  of  these  men  are  in  near  relation  to  us 

and  we  would  not  injure  them.    If  the  Court  judge  that  our  brethren  have 

a  call  of  Grod  to  be  by  themselves,  we  trust  we  shall  do  our  duty  wiUiout 

disturbance.    Our  place  is  hard,  remote  and  inconvenient.    In  asking  that 

the  river  may  be  the  bounds  between  them  and  us,  and  all  the  land  on  tliat 

^y    side  pay  public  charges  to  them,  they  demand  what  is  unjust.    We  are  about 

'    46  or  4/  families,  and  if  the  river  be  the  bounds,  we  shall  not  have  so  mudi 

\  land  to  maintain  public  ordinances  as  they,  who  are  a  little  more  than  half 

as  many." — Signed  by  Henry  Clarke,  John  Russell,  Jr.,  William  Goodwin, 

Andrew  Bacon,  and  William  Lewis,  in  the  name  of  the  rest  of  the  inhabitants 

of  Hadley,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river." 

In  reply  Willialm  Allis  and  Isaac  Graves  contended  that 
while  the  west  side  inhabitants  stood  by  the  covenant  of 
1660,  they  "did  not  suppose  such  a  covenant  perpetual 
when,  things  should  so  change  as  to  require  an  alteration." 
They  felt  that  they  had  a  clear  call  of  God  to  be  a  society. 
They  pointed  out  the  danger  from  the  Indians  and  men- 
tioned the  fact  that  one  of  their  houses  was  burned  on  the 
Sabbath  not  long  before. 

And  so  the  struggle  continued  at  Boston  and  at  home 
and  much  bitter  feeling  was  aroused.  The  west  side  people 
were  so  determined  to  have  a  minister  of  their  own  at  the 
least  that,  without  waiting  for  further  authority  from  the 
colonial  governfment  or  agreement  with  their  fellow  towns- 
men, a  committee  was  appointed  Nov.  6,  1668,  to  provide  a 
boarding  place  for  a  minister  during  the  winter  and  make 
arrangements  for  his  comfortable  support.  At  the  same 
time  it  was  also  voted  to  choose  a  committee  to  draw  up  a 
list  of  all  the  timber  necessary  for  building  a  meetinghouse 
30  feet  square,  and  to  assign  work  to  each  man  in  felling 
timber  or  getting  it  ready  for  use. 

The  next  day,  Nov.  7,  the  General  Court  at  Boston 
voted :  "In  answer  to  the  petitioners  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river  at  Hadley,  the  Court  judgeth  it  meet  that  they  be 
allowed  to  procure  an  able  minister  to  settle  with  them  on 
their  side  of  the  river,  for  whose  maintenance  they  are 
carefully  and  comfortably  to  provide,  and  shall  be  freed 
from  the  maintenance  of  the  minister  on  the  east  side,  unless 
the  inhabitants  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  and  they  shall 
agree  together  for  the  maintenance  and  allowance  of  both 
jointly;  provided  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  west  side 
shall  not  rate  any  of  the  estates  or  lands  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  east  side  lying  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  toward 
the  maintenance  of  their  ministry." 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  55 

On  Nov.  21st  at  a  "side  meeting"  it  was  voted  to  choose 
Thomas  Meekins,  Jr.,  William  Allis,  and  John  Graves  a 
committee  to  procure  a  minister,  and  on  the  17th  of  the 
succeeding  May,  1669,  it  was  "manifested"  that  they  were 
willing  to  call  Rev.  Hope  Atherton  to  the  ministry  and  a 
salary  of  £50  was  authorized.  Evidently  word  of  the  action 
was  hastened  to  Boston,  for  in  the  same  month  Thomas 
Meekins  and  Isaac  Graves  informed  the  General  Court 
of  what  had  been  done  about  the  meetinghouse  and  that 
they  had  "already  pitched  upon  a  man  who  is  recommended 
to  us  by  sundry  reverend  and  godly  persons  and  hope  we 
shall  obtain  his  help.  The  man  whom  we  have  in  our  eye 
is  one  Mr.  Atherton,  a  son  of  the  late  Worshipful  Hum- 
phrey Atherton  of  Dorchester."  Very  likely  Mr.  Atherton 
had  been  preaching  in  his  new  field  during  the  preceding 
winter. 

Mr.  Russell  and  his  followers  still  fought  against  the 
separation,  raising  again  the  difficulty  of  dividing  the  land 
as  an  issue,  and  the  lack  of  sufficient  "boggy  meadows," 
but  they  finally  yielded  as  gracefully  as  they  could  to  the 
inevitable  and  the  conffict  was  ended  on  the  22d  of  Decem- 
ber, 1669,  by  the  following  agreement,  here  given  in  full, 
signed  by  men  from  each  side  of  the  river : — 

"Articles  of  agreement  between  the  inhabitants  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  in  Hadley  with  those  of  the  same  town  on  the  west  side  of  the  river. 

"1.  It  is  covenanted  and  agreed  that  those  on  the  east  side  of  the  river 
do  grant  and  give  to  those  on  the  west  side,  liberty  to  be  a  distinct  town  or 
township  of  themselves,  and  so  of  and  among  themselves  to  carry  on  all 
their  common  or  town  occasions;  and  this  to  take  place  as  soon  as  the 
Gen.  Court  shall  grant  their  approbation  or  allowance  thereof. 

"2.  For  the  bounds  of  each  society  or  town,  those  on  the  east  side  are 
to  have  and  enjoy  now  and  forever  the  free  and  full  disposal  of  all  the  land 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  for  the  maintaining  of  all  common  charges 
respecting  things  ecclesiastical  or  civil. 

"And  on  the  west  side,  the  bounds  between  the  two  societies  or  towns 
are  to  be  the  highway  between  their  several  furlongs  of  land,  viz.  the 
highway  running  from  the  river  to  the  Widow  Fellows  her  house;  and  from 
thence  downwards,  the  fence  to  be  the  bounds  until  it  comes  to  the  Mill 
river,  and  then  the  river  to  be  the  bounds  until  it  meets  with  Mr.  Webster's 
lot  in  Little  Ponsett;  and  from  thence  the  fence  of  Little  Ponsett  to  be 
bounds  unto  Connecticut  River,  where  the  end  of  the  said  fence  is ;  this  to 
be  and  remain  forever  the  bounds  of  each  society  or  town,  for  the  main- 
taining of  the  rights  and  privileges  of  each;  viz.  all  the  land  on  the  lower 
or  southwest  side  of  the  highway  shall  be  unto  the  society  or  town  of 
Hadley  on  the  east  side  of  Connecticut,  and  all  every  parcel  thereof  to  pay 
all  common  charges  to  the  said  town  of  Hadley  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river.  Except  those  lands  within  the  said  highway  and  fence  which  are 
already  either  given  or  sold  to  inhabitants  on  the  west  side;  which  land  or 
parcels  of  land  are  the  whole  accommodations  of  Mr.  Terry  ou  tVv^  >Nt^\. 


56  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

side  of  the  river;  and  the  whole  accommodations  of  Nathaniel  Dickin- 
son, sen.  and  half  of  Mr.  Webster's  accommodations  there,  and  John  Hawks 
his  whole  accommodations,  and  all  Joseph  Kellogg's,  and  all  Adam  NichoUs 
his,  and  that  which  was  Samuel  Gardner's  in  Little  Ponset,  and  Goodman 
Crow's  in  Little  Ponsett,  and  Nathaniel  Stanley's  in  Little  Ponsett,  and 
Richard  Montague's  in  Great  Ponsett ;  and  Jos.  Baldwin's  whole  accommoda- 
tions, and  John  White's  in  Great  Ponsett,  and  John  Dickinson's  in  Little 
Ponsett;  and  except  12  acres  and  a  half  above  and  besides  all  this  when  it 
shall  be  given  or  sold  to  ah  inhabitant  or  inhabitants  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river;  all  the  other  land  within  the  lower  part  or  S.  West  side  of  the  high- 
way and  the  forenamed  fence  to  be  to  the  town  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  forever. 

"And  the  Society  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  are  to  have  for  their 
bounds  all  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  of  Connecticut,  except 
what  lies  within  the  highway  from  the  river  to  the  widow  Fellows  her 
house,  and  within  the  fence  abovenamed.  All  the  rest  of  the  land  not 
within  the  said  highway  and  fence  to  be  to  the  town  and  society  on  the  west 
side  of  the  river  and  at  their  free  and  full  dispose  forever,  for  the  main- 
taining of  all  common  charges  respecting  things  civil  and  ecclesiastical.  And 
they  also  are  to  have  all  the  land  within  the  highway  and  fence  on  the 
south  west  or  lower  side  of  the  river,  that  is  already  given  or  sold  to  any 
inhabitant  on  the  west  side,  which  land  in  all  the  particulars  and  parcels  of 
it  is  above  specified,  with  125^^  acres  more,  which  shall  be  next  given  or  sold 
to  any  inhabitants  etc.;  to  be  to  the  society  and  town  on  the  west  side  for 
the  maintaining  of  all  common  charges  forever.  Only  provided  they  shall 
not  dispose  of  any  land  without  the  consent  of  the  town,  to  any  that  arc  not 
approved  and  settled  inhabitants  of  the  town,  until  the  General  Court  have 
granted  them  to  be  a  town  of  themselves,  and  then  forthwith  and  forever 
to  have  the  full  dispose  of  all  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  except 
that  above  excepted,  for  the  maintenance  of  all  common  charges. 

"3.  It  is  mutually  agreed  and  covenanted  that  the  society  or  town  of 
Hadley  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  have  liberty  to  get  fencing  stuff  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river,  for  their  land  lying  on  that  side  of  the  river,  both 
now  and  from  time  to  time  always,  as  also  to  get  timber  if  any  see  cause  to 
build  a  barn  or  shelter  for  securing  his  fruits  raised  there.  The  present 
fence  in  being,  and  the  rest  of  the  common  fence  [an  omission  here]. 

"4.  The  inhabitants  of  the  west  side  shall  allow  to  those  on  the  east  side 
the  sum  of  £6  as  the  remainder  of  what  is  due  for  purchase  money  to  the 
said  inhabitants  on  the  cast  side. 

**5.  In  case  there  shall  hereafter  be  a  ferry  between  these  two  places, 
this  agreement  shall  be  no  detriment  with  respect  thereto  to  those  on  either 
side  more  than  if  they  continued  one  town, 

"Hereunto  as  a  full  and  final  issue  of  all  controversy  respecting  our 
bounds  of  each  society,  and  the  manner  or  way  of  maintaining  their  public 
charges,  (notwithstanding  all  manner  of  sales  or  gifts  that  shall  or  may  be,) 
we  who  were  chosen  by  each  Company,  viz.  those  on  the  east  and  those  on 
the  west  side  the  river  respectively,  and  impowered  to  issue  the  said  differ- 
ence, have  set  to  our  hands,  this  present  22d  of  December,  1669. 

"Henry  Clarke,  Tho.  Meekins,  Sen., 

John  Russel,  Jr.,  William  Allice, 

Samuel  Smith,  John  Coule,  Sen., 

Nathan'l  Dickinson,  sr.,  Isaac  Graves, 

Peter  Tillton,  Samuel  Belden." 


CHAPTER  V. 

A  CHAPTER  OF  ESTABLISHMENT.    THE  INCORPORATION   OF 
THE  TOWN   AND   THE   FOUNDATION   OF  THE   CHURCH. 

"And  plant  amid  the  wilderness 
The  hamlet  and  the  town  ** 

The  act  of  incorporation. — Name. — First  town  meeting. — The  freeman's 
oath. — Application  of  colonial  laws  regarding  citizenship. — Establishment  of 
the  church  society. — Building  of  the  meetinghouse. — Rev.  Hope  Atherton 
accepts  call. — Specifications  for  his  house. — The  burying  ground. — Organiza- 
tion of  the  church. 

The  town  of  Hatfield  was  incorporated  May  31,  1670, 
authorized  by  the  following  act  of  the  General  Court: — 

"In  answer  to  the  petition  of  the  inhabitants  of  Hadley  on  the  west  side 
of  the  riuer,  that  they  may  be  allowed  to  be  a  toune  of  themselves,  distinct 
from  Hadley  on  the  east  side,  the  deputy  of  Hadley  certifying  that  that  toune 
haue  consented  to  release  them  if  this  Court  doe  approove  thereof,  etc.  this 
Court  doe  therefore  allow  them  on  the  west  side  of  the  riuer,  to  be  a 
touneship  distinct  from  them  on  the  east  side  of  the  riuer,  and  doe  grant 
them  a  tract  of  land  westward,  sixe  miles  back  into  the  woods  from  the 
great  riuer ;  their  southerly  bounds  to  be  Northampton  northerly  bounds,  and 
the  land  which  Hadley  reserves  to  themselves,  and  from  their  sajd  southerly 
Ijne  to  ninne  vp  the  riuer  northerly  upon  the  square  sixe  miles;  their  north- 
erly bounds  likewise  to  runne  backe  from  the  great  riuer  sixe  miles  westward, 
as  before,  reserving  proprieties  formerly  granted  to  any  person;  and  that 
this  toune  be  called  Hattfeilds." 

The  land  reserved  by  Hadley  was  the  part  on  the  South 
Meadow  owned  by  east  side  proprietors  as  stated  in  the 
articles  of  agreement. 

The  name  was  taken  from  that  of  a  town  on  the  river 
Lea,  Hertfordshire  County,  in  England.  Whether  any  of 
the  settlers  came  from  there  is  not  known,  but  it  is  highly 
probable  that  some  at  least  were  from  that  vicinity.  The 
names  of  Allis  and  Morton  were  borne  by  former  residents 
of  the  English  town.  Hadleigh  and  Northampton  in  the 
old  country  are  situated  not  far  distant,  though  not  as 
close  as  in  New  England.     (See  Appendix,  Note  4.) 

The  first  town,  as  distinguished  from  "side,"  meeting  was 
held  Aug.  8,  1670,  and  the  following  votes  are  recorded: — 

"At  a  Town  meeting  in  the  Town  of  Hatfield  the  eighth  of  August.  1670 
the    Town  hath  manifest   that   they   were   willing   to   grant  to   Mr   C^\tVi 


58  HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 

Wattson  a  hundred  pound  allotment  with  an  eight  acre  houselot  provided 
they  and  he  do  agree  upon  terms  when  they  shall  speak  together. 

"The  8th  of  August  1670  the  Town  of  Hatfield  hath  granted  to  allow 
Mr  Hope  Atherton  sixty  pounds  per  year  during  his  work  in  the  ministry 
amongst  us,  provided  they  are  free  from  providing  him  wood  for  his  firing. 

'The  8th  of  August  1670  the  Town  of  Hatfield  hath  granted  Richard 
Billings  liberty  to  mow  the  grass  yearly  that  is  in  the  Highway  which  goetii 
through  the  hollow  in  Little  meadow  to  the  great  Bridge." 

It  was  apparently  a  great  source  of  pleasure  to  the  clerk 
to  be  able  to  write  in  full  "the  town  of  Hatfield."  After  a 
few  meetings  this  longer  form  was  dropped  and  the  record 
says  merely,  "The  town  hath  voted,"  or  "at  a  meeting 
in  Hatfield." 

The  first  selectmen  were  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr., 
William  Allis,  John  Cowles,  Sr.,  Isaac  Graves,  John  Cole- 
man. 

To  become  a  legal  citizen  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay 
Colony  every  man  over  twenty  years  of  age  and  six  months 
a  householder  was  required  to  take  the  freeman's  oath, 
the  original  draft  of  which,  made  by  John  Winthrop, 
is  in  the  Boston  Public  Library.  It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  the  first  work  of  the  first  printing  press  set  up  in  the 
English  speaking  colonies  of  America  was  to  print  this 
oath,  in   1638.     It  read  as  follows: — 

"I, ,  being  by  God's  providence,  an  Inhabitant  and  Freeman,  within 

the  Jurisdiction  of  this  Commonwealth ;  do  freely  acknowledge  my  self  to 
be  subject  to  the  Government  thereof;  And  therefore  do  here  swear  by  die 
great  and  dreadful  Name  of  the  Everlasting  God  that  I  will  be  true  and 
faithful  to  the  same,  and  will  accordingly  yield  assistance  and  support  there- 
unto, with  my  person  and  estate,  as  in  equity  I  am  bound;  and  will  also 
truly  endeavor  to  maintain  and  preserve  all  the  liberties  and  priviledges 
thereof,  submitting  my  self  to  the  wholesome  Lawes  &  Orders  made  and 
established  by  the  same.  And  further,  that  I  will  not  plot  or  practice  any 
evil  against  it,  or  consent  to  any  that  shall  do  so;  but  will  timely  discover 
and  reveal  the  same  to  lawful!  Authority  now  here  established,  for  die 
speedy  presenting  thereof. 

"Moreover.  I  doe  solemnly  bind  my  self  in  the  sight  of  God,  when  I 
shall  be  called  to  give  my  voyce  touching  any  such  matter  of  this  State,  in 
which  Free-men  are  to  deal,  I  will  give  my  vote  and  suffrage  as  I  shall 
judge  in  mine  own  conscience  may  but  conduce  and  tend  to  the  publike  w^ 
of  the  body,  without  respect  of  persons,  or  favour  of  any  man.  So  help  me 
God  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ." 

According  to  the  early  laws  of  the  colony  none  but 
clutrch  iiienihers  could  be  freemen  and  none  but  freemen 
could  hold  office  or  vote,  but  before  Hadley  and  Hatfield 
were  settled  the  laws  had  been  modified  so  that  non-free- 
men could  vote  in  town  affairs  and  hold  town  offices.  Judd 
savs:  "In   Hadlev  the  distinction  of  freemen  and  non-free- 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  59 

men  is  seldom  alluded  to  in  the  records.  It  is  evident 
that  the  town  meetings  were  open  to  all  and  that  all  came 
together  and  debated  and  voted  freely  respecting  town 
affairs.  Only  freemen  voted  for  Magistrates  or  Assistants, 
County  Commissioners,  and  Treasurer,  and  they  chose  dep- 
uties to  the  General  Court."  The  Magistrates  were  a 
legislative  body  similar  to  the  Senate. 

The  holding  of  town  office  was  thought  by  some  to  be 
burdensome  and  for  that  reason  some  men  neglected 
to  qualify  as  freemen  to  escape  holding  office.  Later  it 
became  a  law  that  all  who  were  chosen  to  office  should 
serve  or  pay  a  fine.  Even  then  some  chose  the  fine  rather 
than  the  work. 

The  early  records  of  Hatfield  contain  nothing  to  indicate 
that  the  niceties  of  the  law  in  regard  to  who  should  par- 
ticipate in  town  affairs  were  considered  of  great  importance. 
The  severities  of  the  struggle  for  existence, — the  physical 
battle  against  natural  obstacles — and  the  greater  struggle 
for  independence,  begun  in  the  towns  on  the  Bay,  continued 
in  Hartford  and  Wethersfield,  and  culminating  in  the  long- 
drawn-out  and  bitter  contest  with  their  brethren  on  the 
east  of  the  river  had  so  united  the  settlers  in  spirit  as  well 
as  in  action  that  finespun  distinctions  were  disregarded. 
All  who  were  freemen  in  spirit  were  probably  regarded  as 
freemen  within  the  meaning  of  the  law  when  it  came  to 
action  in  town  affairs. 

Great  care  was  exercised,  however,  regarding  those  who 
were  allowed  to  become  residents  and  none  who  were  con- 
sidered undesirable  were  permitted  to  take  up  land.  At 
the  early  date  of  1672  a  vote  of  the  town  prohibited  even 
the  entertainment  of  strangers,  except  relatives  or  friends 
for  short  visits,  without  permission  from  the  selectmen. 

Equal  in  importance  with  the  establishment  of  civil  gov- 
ernment was  the  establishment  of  a  church  society,  or,  in 
the  language  of  the  early  settlers,  "the  setting  up  of 
ordinances,"  for  in  those  days  there  was  no  distinction 
between  town  and  parish.  No  plantation  was  considered 
a  town  till  it  had  made  or  was  able  to  make  provision  for 
a  minister  and  a  meetinghouse.  The  action  of  the  Hatfield 
men  in  opening  negotiation  for  securing  a  minister  and 
in  building  or  preparing  to  build  a  house  of  worsh\\i  beloT^ 


60  HISTORY    OF   HATFIELD. 

the  dispute  with  the  mother  town  was  settled  by  the  tri- 
bunal to  which  it  was  referred  undoubtedly  had  great  weight 
with  the  members  of  the  General  Court,  so  that  in  spite  of 
the  arguments  of  the  Hadley  men  their  cause  fell  to  the 
ground  and  the  separation  was  authorized.  The  delay  in 
building  the  Hadley  meetinghouse  must  have  been  known 
at  Boston. 

The  meetinghouse  in  Hatfield  was  built  in  1668,  though 
evidently  not  wholly  completed.  The  records  of  that  year 
relate  chiefly  to  the  work  upon  the  structure,  which  was 
pushed  as  rapidly  as  possible,  each  man  doing  his  part. 
It  stood  in  the  middle  of  the  street  facing  east  and  west, 
probably  not  far  from  the  site  of  all  the  subsequent  meet- 
inghouses till  the  present  Congregational  church  was  built 
in  1849,  a  few  rods  south  of  the  present  edifice.  A  pulpit 
was  built  at  the  west  and  about  two  years  later  another 
one,  the  boards  of  the  old  pulpit  being  given  to  Isaac 
Graves  "to  recompense  him  for  maintaining  the  committee 
that  came  up  to  decide  the  difference  between  Hadley  and 
us."  The  seats  were  rude  benches  at  first,  making  a  divi- 
sion of  the  house,  which  was  thirty  feet  square,  into  four 
sections,  though  perhaps  the  benches  in  front  ran  without 
break  the  whole  width  of  the  interior  except  for  side 
aisles,  for  at  the  time  of  the  renovations  it  was  voted  that 
an  "alley''  should  be  left  from  the  east  door  to  the  pulpit. 
Probably  square  pews  and  galleries  were  then  built.  Per- 
haps there  were  doors  at  the  north  and  south  sides  also 
and  several  windows  closed  with  shutters.  It  had  a  four 
sided  roof  flat  on  top.  There  were  no  means  of  heating. 
In  1669  a  rate  was  ordered  to  purchase  glass  for  the 
windows,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  the  windows  were  glazed 
at  that  time.  The  selectmen  were  appointed  to  arrange 
for  the  seating  of  the  people. 

Rev.  Hope  Atherton  of  Dorchester,  a  graduate  of  Har- 
vard College  in  the  class  of  1665,  accepted  the  call  extended 
to  him  in  May,  1669.  It  was  voted  to  give  him  in 
addition  to  his  house  lot  a  ministerial  allotment  in  the 
meadows,  to  build  him  a  house  and  to  allow  him  £60  a  year, 
two  thirds  in  good  merchantable  wheat  and  one  third  in 
pork,  with  the  stipulation  that  "if  our  crops  fall  short  so 
that  we  cannot  pay  him  in  kind,  then  we  are  to  pay  hrm 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  61 

in  the  next  best  we  have."  It  was  also  provided  that  if 
he  left  the  church  before  his  death  he  was  to  refund  certain 
sums.  If  he  remained  in  his  pastorate  till  his  death  the 
allotments  of  land  and  the  house  were  to  become  the  pos- 
session of  his  heirs.  His  meadow  allotment  was  in  East 
Division,  the  six  acres  now  owned  by  D.  W.  Wells  just 
below  the  houses  on  South  Street.  His  house  lot  was  the 
Goodwin  place  now  owned  and  occupied  by  G.  A.  Billings. 
The  specifications  for  his  house  given  in  the  records  show 
that  he  was  to  have  a  dwelling  much  superior  to  any  others 
in  the  settlement:  the  side  agreed  to  build  a  house  "forty 
foot  long  and  twenty  foot  wide,  double  story  and  a  porch 
seven  foot  square  below  to  be  fitted  proportionately  above 
the  first  story  and  to  lay  two  floors  of  joists  throughout 
the  house  and  in  the  porch  and  to  close  the  house  with 
clapboards  and  to  board  the  roof  of  both  and  to  cover  them 
with  good  shingles  and  to  build  fire  chimneys  and  to  under- 
pin the  house  well  with  stone  and  also  lath  and  fix  up  the 
walls  of  the  house  and  to  set  up  at  each  gable  end  priamidy 
and  flueboards."  The  meaning  of  "priamidy"  is  rather 
obscure.  Probably  it  refers  to  ornamentation  on  the  out- 
side of  the  house.  The  "old  Indian  house"  at  Deerfield 
had  pinnacles  projecting  as  ornaments  and  George  Sheldon, 
who  was  consulted  for  an  explanation  of  the  term,  sug- 
gested that  ornamental  pyramids  were  probably  to  be  a 
feature  of  the  gable  ends.  The  flueboards,  more  commonly 
called  flashboards,  were  probably  projected  as  an  ornamental 
cornice. 

Another  act  accomplished  before  separation  was  author- 
ized was  to  provide  for  a  burying  ground  on  the  west  of 
the  river.  These  votes  are  taken  from  the  town  records, 
the  dates  being  old  style   (really  in   1670) : — 

"Feb.  14, 1669.  The  side  hath  chose  a  committee  being  John  Cowles,  Senr., 
Richard  Billings,  Isaac  Graves,  Samuel  Belden  and  Daniel  White  for  to  view 
a  piece  of  land  for  a  burying  place  upon  the  Plain  near  Thomas  Meekins 
his  piece  of  land  that  lyeth  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  mill  river  beyond 
the  bridge  that  is  in  the  highway  that  goeth  over  toward  Northampton." 

"Feb.  16,  1669.  The  side  at  a  meeting  did  agree  that  it  should  be  twenty 
rod  long  easterly  and  westerly  and  eight  rod  wide  southerly  and  northerly, 
and  that  it  should  be  in  the  place  where  they  have  determined  it  should  be, 
which  is  by  the  side  of  the  aforesaid  land  of  Thomas  Meekins." 

It  may  be  taken  for  granted  that  it  was  located  forth- 
with   where   they   "determined''    and    has    been    from   lVv^.\. 


g2  HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 

time  onward.  No  permanent  markers  tor  the  graves  were 
used  at  first.  The  earliest  date  on  a  stone  in  the  old 
burying  ground  on  "the  Hill"  is  on  the  grave  of  Capt, 
John  Allis,  1691,  There  is  a  tradition  that  at  first  a  portion 
of  the  South  Meadow  near  the  street  was  used  as  a  ceme- 
tery  and    another    that    some    land    near    the    Connecticut 


at  the  end  of  the  house  lot  of  John  White.  Jr.,  was  the  site 
of  the  first  graves,  but  no  discoveries  have  ever  been  made 
tending  to  confirm  these  traditions.  The  probability  is 
that  the  settlers  who  died  before  1670  were  buried  on  the 
other  side  of  the  river  in  "the   Hadley  burying  ground. 

The  exact  date  of  the  organization  of  the  church  in 
Hatfield  is  problematical.  Holland  in  his  "History  of 
Western  ilassachusetts"  places  it  at  the  beginning  of  the 
year  1671.  Hubbard  in  the  sketch  in  the  "History  of  the 
Connecticut  Valley"  gives  the  date  as  Feb.  1,  1671,  and 
Temple  in  his  "History  of  Whately,"  April  1,  of  the  same 
year.  The  reason  for  these  dates  being  taken  is  the  refer- 
ences in  the  town  records  to  a  fast  held  in  the  last  part  of 
January  of  that  year  "in  view  of  the  great  work  of  setting 
up  the  ordinance.'i"  and  to  the  "gathering  in  of  the  church," 
In  1670,  Kev.  Hope  Atherton  requested  of  the  County 
Court  libcrtv  to  "enter  into  church  estate."     A  letter  from 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  63 

Rev.  Stephen  Williams,  pastor  in  Longmeadow  and  author 
of  the  Appendix  to  "The  Redeemed  Captive,"  to  President 
Ezra  Stiles  of  Yale  College,  dated  June  8,  1781,  mentioned 
by  Sheldon  in  his  "History  of  Deerfield,"  states  that  Mr. 
Atherton  was  ordained  May  10,  1670.  Where  was  he 
ordained  except  in  Hatfield? 

The  Hatfield  church  is  the  fourth  in  point  of  age  in  the 
Connecticut  valley  in  Massachusetts,  the  others  being 
Springfield,  1637;  Hadley,  1659;  Northampton,   1661. 

Mr.  Atherton  had  been  with  the  people  some  of  the  time 
at  least  for  two  or  three  years  previous  to  1671.  The 
haste  to  finish  the  meetinghouse  would  seem  to  indicate 
that  preaching  services  were  held  in  it  by  the  fail  or  winter 
of  1668.  The  difficult  question  to  determine  is  whether 
the  first  inhabitants  considered  the  establishment  of  the 
church  made  when  the  minister  was  installed  or  whether  a 
further  formal  organization  was  necessary,  probably  the 
latter.  The  votes  alluded  to  in  a  previous  paragraph  are 
here    given   in   full,    the   dates   being   old    style : — 

*^ail.  13,  1670.  The  town  considering  of  the  great  and  weightiness  of  the 
work  they  have  hitherto  by  the  help  of  God  been  endeavoring  after,  viz ;  the 
settinir  up  of  God's  ordinances  amongst  us,  and  having  by  the  goodness  of 
God  been  carried  in  our  desires  that  way  so  far  as  we  are,  do  think  it  our 
duty  to  undertake  the  gathering  of  a  church  in  this  place  and  in  preparation 
to  that  work  have  appointed  the  twenty-first  day  of  this  instant  February  to 
be  kept  a  day  of  humiliation  to  ask  the  Lord  for  his  help  and  guidance  in  a 
work  of  so  great  concernment  and  do  give  liberty  to  as  many  of  the  town 
as  do  desire  to  be  present  upon  that  day. 

"Jan.  26,  1670.  The  inhabitants  of  Hatfield  now  present  at  a  meeting  do 
unanimously  consent  that  the  choice  of  such  as  shall  begin  a  church  in  this 
place  shall  be  attempted  amongst  ourselves  we  have  also  manifested  that 
they  were  willing  that  Mr.  Atherton  and  all  the  members  of  other  churches 
that  are  inhabiting  this  place  shall  be  the  persons  that  shall  first  begin  the 
gathering  of  a  church  in  this  place  and  have  also  farther  manifested  that  they 
were  willing  to  have  full  power  of  chosing  three  persons  to  make  up  nine 
to  join  in  the  aforesaid  work  into  the  hands  of  the  persons  aforesaid,  viz: 
Mr.  Atherton  and  the  members  aforesaid." 

These  eight  men,  who  with  the  pastor  were  the  nucleus 
of  the  church,  are  supposed  to  have  been  Thomas  Meekins, 
Sr.,  William  Allis,  John  Coleman,  John  Cowles,  Sr.,  Isaac 
Graves,  Samuel  Belden,  Richard  Billings,  and  William 
Gull. 

Himself  well  versed  in  church  and  local  history,  Temple 
in  his  "History  of  Whately"  makes  this  comment  on  the 
puzzling  records:  "The  exact  import  of  this  last  clause 
is  not  apparent.      As  seven  is  the  least  number  by  which 


54  HISIORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  rule  of  church  discipline  in  the  eighteenth  chapter  of 
Matthew  can  be  reduced  to  practice,  that  number  has  been 
held  necessary  to  form  a  church.  Also  at  Westfield,  in 
1679,  seven  men  called  .'foundation  men,'  were  selected 
to  be  formed  into  church  state." 

The  number  of  church  members  secured  is  also  unknown, 
but  the  little  band,  firm  in  faith  if  few  in  numbers,  deter- 
mined and  resolute,  had  secured  for  themselves  and  their 
children  the  liberty  to  worship  as  they  pleased,  a  liberty 
dearer  to  them  than  freedom  from  civil  restrictions,  and 
they  were  not  daunted  by  the  prospect  of  supporting  the 
pastor  of  their  choice. 


CHAPTER  VI. 

A    PERIOD    OF    GROWTH    AND    OF    PREPARATION    FOR    THE 

INDIAN   WARS,   1670-1675. 

'*  Let  not  Ambition  mock  their  useful  toil, 
Their  homely  joy  and  destiny  obscure." 

Growth  of  the  town  in  population  and  territory. — Additional  home  lots 
granted  by  1675. — Increase  of  wealth. — Methods  of  payment. — Currency. — 
Public  works. — Division  of  the  swamps. — Relations  with  Jthe  Indians. — Re- 
straints on  the  sale  of  firearms  and  intoxicants. — The  River  Indians  and  their 
tribes. — Their  numbers. — The  United  Colonies  and  organization  of  militia. — 
Hampshire  County. — Contribution  for  Harvard  College. 

In  the  preceding  chapters  the  birth  of  the  town  has  been 
recorded  and  the  events  of  its  period  of  adolescence  dwelt 
upon  with  some  degree  of  fullness.  To  pursue  the  figure 
further,  May  31,  1670,  should  be  called  the  date  when  it 
attained  its  majority,  and  this  and  succeeding  chapters  will 
relate  its  progress  toward  maturity  and  age. 

The  rhythmic  or  periodic  development  of  the  life  of  indi- 
viduals is  a  phenomenon  which  has  been  observed  by 
investigators.  There  are  periods  of  rapid  physical  growth 
followed  by  periods  of  rest  and  of  preparation  for  other 
changes;  at  other  periods  the  mental  development  is  rapid, 
followed  by  a  period  of  inactivity  that  surprises  the  ob- 
server. There  is  a  recurrence  of  these  periods  all  through 
life  and  each  has  sharply  defined  characteristics,  though 
the  transitions  are  gradual  in  many  cases.  While  no  exact 
rule  can  be  laid  down  that  covers  all  individual  cases  they 
seem  to  follow  a  general  law  of  growth.  That  history 
repeats  itself  is .  a  rather  trite  saying.  The  student  of 
history  can  but  mark*  the  periods  or  eras  into  which  his 
subject  naturally  divides  itself,  seen  no  less  in  the  history  of 
a  town  than  on  a  larger  scale.  This  rhythmic,  seemingly 
wavelike,  progress,  with  periods  of  growth,  of  storm  and 
stress,  of  rest,  perhaps  also  of  decline,  in  the  history  of 
Hatfield  follows  very  closely  the  rhythmic  movement  of  the 
great   national    development    of    which    it    is    a    part,    with 


56  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

some   variation    due    to   particular   circumstances    aflfecting 
the  town  or  region  alone. 

Hatfield's  growth  for  the  first  five  years  after  incorpora- 
tion was  not  rapid,  but  it  was  steady.  The  years  1670  to 
1675  were  a  period  of  peace  and  of  preparation  for  the 
struggle  against  the  Indians,  which  resulted  in  the  complete 
mastery  of  the  Connecticut  valley  by  the  whites  and  the 
settlement  of  other  frontier  towns. 

Additional  territory  was  secured  by  the  purchase  from 
the  Indians  of  the  meadows  and  uplands  comprising  the 
present  town  of  Whately  in  1672.  This  purchase  has  been 
spoken  of  in  Chapter  I.  There  is  a  note  in  the  town 
records  of  approval  of  the  terms  of  the  bargain.  At  about 
the  same  time  the  planting  field  of  the  Indians  in  the  South 
Meadow  was  secured  and  the  Indians  rented  land  for  use, 
the  settlers  often  doing  the  fitting  of  the  land  and  the 
cultivation  of  the  crops. 

An  attempt  to  extend  the  town  boundaries  southward 
failed.  In  1672  a  petition  was  sent  to  the  General  Court 
to  "preserve  the  bounds  within  Northampton. *'  There 
was  dispute  over  the  matter  till  1720. 

The  town  records  from  Apr.  7,  1673,  to  Aug.   17,   1677, 
\        are  missing  and  with  them  beyond  any  question  of  doubt 
a  valuable  treasury  of  first  hand  information. 

Many  grants  of  home  lots  to  prospective  inhabitants 
were  made  by  the  **side''  before  1670  and  by  the  town 
from  1670  to  1673.  The  chart  on  the  opposite  page  shows 
the  location  of  the  homesteads  on  the  street  above  Middle 
Lane,  now  School  Street,  in  the  year  1675,  those  printed  in 
italics  appearing  also  on  the  chart  showing  grants  made  in 
1661-70.  Not  all  the  lots  were  built  upon,  however,  till 
after  King  Philip's  war.  They  were  mostly  of  eight 
acres  each.  The  highway  north  from  Philip  Russell's  was 
to  be   seven  rods  wide. 

Some  changes  should  be  noted  in  the  locations  on 
the  earlier  chart,  as  some  of  the  lots  had  been  forfeited 
and  regranted.  No  one  occupied  the  Bull  lot  for  many 
years  and  it  was  granted  to  Mr.  Atherton,  though  not 
used  by  him  for  residence.  He  lived,  as  previously 
noted,  on  the  Goodwin  lot.  Nicholas  Worthington  married 
the    widow   of   John    A\'hite,    Jr.,    and    took    his   allotment. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


67 


Barnabas  Hinsdale  married  the  widow  of  Stephen  Taylor 
in  1666  and  lived  in  her  house.  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr., 
had  moved  from  Hadley  and  lived  for  a  few  years  on  the 
Benton  lot.  He  returned  to  the  other  side  of  the  river, 
where  he  died  June  16,  1676.  Thomas  Meekins,  Jr.,  lived 
on  his  father's  lot  when  the  latter  moved  his  residence  to 
the  mill.  Richard  Fellows,  2d,  and  John  Field  owned  the 
lots  originally  granted  their  fathers,  who  had  both  died. 


Rods  wide.    Rods  wide. 


WiUiam  King 
Samuel  Field 
Benjamin  Waite 
John  Graves,  Jr. 
Samuel  Ball 
Robert  Danks 

16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 

Deerfield  Lane 

8 

Isaac  Graves,  Jr. 
Samuel  Northam 
Richard  Morton 

Town  lot 
John  Hawkes 

16 
16 

20D 
Blacksn 
16 
16 

Thomas  Bracy 


Highway  to  the  river 


20  Hezekiah  Dickinson 

20  William  Scott 

16  Daniel  Belden 

16  Samuel  Allis 

16  Samuel  Marsh 

16  Nathaniel  Foote 

16  Philip  Russell 

16  Samuel  Gillett 

18  John  Wells 
shop. 

16  John  Coleman 

16  Samuel  Belden 


Middle  Lane 


Chart  op  the  House  Lots  at  the  Upper  End  of  the  Street, 
Granted  by  1675,  those  in  italics  also  appearing  on  previous  chart. 


The  wealth  of  the  settlers  increased  at  a  moderate  rate. 
There  was  not  a  great  deal  of  trade.  Supplies  which  could 
not  be  produced  at  home  were  bought  of  the  Pynchons  in 
Springfield  in  exchange  for  farm  products.  Grain,  wool, 
yarn  of  woolen  or  flax,  cloth,  pork,  and  probably  some  beef 
were  sent  down  the  river  to  find  a  market  in  Boston  or  the 
Connecticut  towns.  In  the  almost  patriarchal  state  of 
society  that  then  existed  the  increase  of  the  flocks  and 
herds  was  the  chief  source  of  addition  to  property.  As 
the  animals  became  more  numerous  more  land  was  brought 
under  cultivation. 

There  was  little  currency  in  circulation  and  little  need 
of  it.  "Provision  pay"  was  legal  tender  for  public  and 
private  debts.  What  money  there  was  in  circulation  con- 
sisted mostly  of  Spanish  reals  and  pieces-of-eight,  the 
former  being  silver  coins  worth  ninepence,  or  twelve  and 


58  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

one  half  cents.  The  pieces-of-eight  derived  their  name 
from  the  fact  that  they  contained  eight  reals,  or  rials. 
They  were  not  called  dollars  till  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  Double  and  half  reals  were  also  in  circulation. 
The  English  pound  of  that  time  was  worth  about  three 
dollars.  The  currency  was  in  denominations  of  crowns 
(five  shillings  or  one  fourth  of  a  pound),  half  crowns,  shil- 
lings, pence,  and  farthings.  Most  of  the  coins  were  of 
silver,  even  the  smaller  pieces,  as  the  English  did  not  like 
a  copper  currency.  Massachusetts  began  in  1652  to  coin 
money,  which  passed  readily  in  some  of  the  other  colonies 
also.  It  was  22j^  per  cent,  lighter  than  the  English  money, 
for  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  money  at  home,  and  of  the 
same  purity.  Pieces  of  a  shilling,  six,  three,  and  two  pence 
were  coined  by  the  mint,  which  was  in  operation  for  about 
thirty  years.  The  shillings,  called  pine  tree  shillings  from 
the  fact  that  one  side  contained  the  likeness  of  a  pine  tree, 
weighed  72  grains.  The  new  currency  was  put  on  a  firm 
basis  in  1672,  when  the  value  of  pieces-of-eight  of  full  weight 
was  fixed  at  six  shillings.  In  1642  their  value  had  been 
fixed  at  4s.  6d.  in  England. 

Wheat  was  the  most  used  medium  of  exchange  in  the 
valley  towns,  though  corn  and  pork  were  also  standard 
and  peas  and  oats  were  sometimes  used.  One  duty  of  the 
constables  was  to  collect  the  rates,  or  taxes,  of  grain,  which 
were  made  at  very  frequent  intervals.  A  vote  of  Jan.  14. 
1672-3,  fixed  the  price  of  winter  wheat  in  Hatfield  at  3s.  6d. 
per  bushel.  At  the  same  time  a  town  rate  of  £10,  10s.  was 
ordered.  Besides  the  town  rates  there  were  county  and 
colony  rates  payable  in  grain  at  fixed  prices.  While  not 
adapted  to  twentieth  century  methods  of  business  and 
probably  used  by  the  early  settlers  more  from  necessity 
than  for  any  other  reason,  wheat  and  other  provisions 
furnished  a  sufficiently  good  circulating  medium  and  served 
the  purpose  well,  just  as  the  iron  currency  of  the  Spartans 
did  for  them  when  Sparta  was  young.  Business  relations 
with  the  Athens  of  America  had  hardly  begun  in   1672. 

Public  improvements  in  the  town  went  on  rapidly.  Some 
work  in  clearing  the  highways  of  brush  was  done  each  year, 
for  neglect  of  which  the  inhabitants  were  fined.  Fencing  of 
higlnvavs  and  meadows  received  considerable  attention  and 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  59 

additional  highways  were  made  through  the  North  Meadows. 
Making  a  highway  often  meant  only  surveying  and  staking 
out  its  course,  the  traveled  way  being  made  by  use.  Some 
of  the  swamps  were  drained  at  the  expense  of  the  town 
and  additional  land  for  mowing  thereby  gained.  A  general 
division  of  the  Mill  Swamp  was  begun  in  1672,  a  few  lots 
having  been  granted  in  it  previously,  and  two  or  three 
roads  were  ordered  to  be  made  to  render  the  lots  easy  of 
access.  According  to  agreement,  before  the  drawings  for 
lots  were  made,  those  who  could  not  easily  get  to  their 
land  were  allowed  to  cross  the  lots  of  others.  Drawings 
were  made  in  order  of  the  house  lots  beginning  with 
Tho^mas  Meekins  and  then  up  the  west  side  of  the  street 
from  south  to  north  and  down  the  other  side.  House 
lots  not  yet  occupied  were  also  granted  swamp  land.  The 
lots  in  the  swamps  were  numbered  and  Z7  were  drawn. 
At  about  the  same  time  part  of  the  swamp  land  north  of 
the  Great  or  North  Meadow  was  taken  up,  each  proprietor 
receiving  ten  acres,  if  in  the  Mill  Swamp,  and  a  little  more 
if  in  the  other. 

Much  labor  was  performed  by  united  effort.  All  the 
buildings  were  raised  in  that  way,  as  is  the  case  to-day  with 
barns.  The  fences  were  made  by  individuals,  but  if  any 
man  did  not  complete  within  a  specified  time  the  fencing 
required  for  mutual  protection  and  decreed  by  common 
consent  in  town  meeting,  he  was  fined  and  in  addition 
had  to  pay  any  damages  arising  from  neglect. 

The  practice  of  pasturing  the  flocks  and  herds  together 
on  the  undivided  common  land  was  begun  at  an  early  date, 
each  man  taking  his  turn  at  herding  at  first,  and  each 
owner  had  an  ear  mark  to  distinguish  his  stock.  August  12, 
1672,  the  town  voted  that  each  man  having  three  or  more 
cattle  must  take  his  turn  or  be  fined  2s.  3d.  and  pay 
damages  arising  from  neglect.  When  at  a  later  date,  1680, 
a  cattle  keeper  was  appointed  at  a  fixed  rate  of  pay,  the 
owners  had  to  take  turns  on  the  Sabbath  to  allow  the 
herdsman  to  attend  public  worship.  The  cows  and  other 
good  neat  stock  were  taken  out  by  an  hour  after 
sunrise  to  good  pasturage  and  returned  before  sundown. 
The  inhabitants  took  turns  in  keeping  a  bull.  After  the 
crops  were  gathered  the   cattle   were  turned   loose   in   the 


50  HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 

the  dispute  with  the  mother  town  was  settled  by  the  tri- 
bunal to  which  it  was  referred  undoubtedly  had  great  weight 
with  the  members  of  the  General  Court,  so  that  in  spite  of 
the  arguments  of  the  Hadley  men  their  cause  fell  to  the 
ground  and  the  separation  was  authorized.  The  delay  in 
building  the  Hadley  meetinghouse  must  have  been  known 
at  Boston. 

The  meetinghouse  in  Hatfield  was  built  in  1668,  though 
evidently  not  wholly  completed.  The  records  of  that  year 
relate  chiefly  to  the  work  upon  the  structure,  which  was 
pushed  as  rapidly  as  possible,  each  man  doing  his  part. 
It  stood  in  the  middle  of  the  street  facing  east  and  west, 
probably  not  far  from  the  site  of  all  the  subsequent  meet- 
inghouses till  the  present  Congregational  church  was  built 
in  1849,  a  few  rods  south  of  the  present  edifice.  A  pulpit 
was  built  at  the  west  and  about  two  years  later  another 
one,  the  boards  of  the  old  pulpit  being  given  to  Isaac 
Graves  "to  recompense  him  for  maintaining  the  committee 
that  came  up  to  decide  the  difference  between  Hadley  and 
us."  The  seats  were  rude  benches  at  first,  making  a  divi- 
sion of  the  house,  which  was  thirty  feet  square,  into  four 
sections,  though  perhaps  the  benches  in  front  ran  without 
break  the  whole  width  of  the  interior  except  for  side 
aisles,  for  at  the  time  of  the  renovations  it  was  voted  that 
an  "alley''  should  be  left  from  the  east  door  to  the  pulpit. 
Probably  square  pews  and  galleries  were  then  built.  Per- 
haps there  were  doors  at  the  north  and  south  sides  also 
and  several  windows  closed  with  shutters.  It  had  a  four 
sided  roof  flat  on  top.  There  were  no  means  of  heating. 
In  1669  a  rate  was  ordered  to  purchase  glass  for  the 
windows,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  the  windows  were  glazed 
at  that  time.  The  selectmen  were  appointed  to  arrange 
for  the  seating  of  the  people. 

Rev.  Hope  Atherton  of  Dorchester,  a  graduate  of  Har- 
vard College  in  the  class  of  1665,  accepted  the  call  extended 
to  him  in  May,  1669.  It  was  voted  to  give  him  in 
addition  to  his  house  lot  a  ministerial  allotment  in  the 
meadows,  to  build  him  a  house  and  to  allow  him  £60  a  year, 
two  thirds  in  good  merchantable  wheat  and  one  third  in 
pork,  with  the  stipulation  that  "if  our  crops  fall  short  so 
that  we  cannot  pay  him  in  kind,  then  we  are  to  pay  him 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  61 

in  the  next  best  we  have."  It  was  also  provided  that  if 
he  left  the  church  before  his  death  he  was  to  refund  certain 
sums.  If  he  remained  in  his  pastorate  till  his  death  the 
allotments  of  land  and  the  house  were  to  become  the  pos- 
session of  his  heirs.  His  meadow  allotment  was  in  East 
Division,  the  six  acres  now  owned  by  D.  W.  Wells  just 
below  the  houses  on  South  Street.  His  house  lot  was  the 
Goodwin  place  now  owned  and  occupied  by  G.  A.  Billings. 
The  specifications  for  his  house  given  in  the  records  show 
that  he  was  to  have  a  dwelling  much  superior  to  any  others 
in  the  settlement:  the  side  agreed  to  build  a  house  "forty 
foot  long  and  twenty  foot  wide,  double  story  and  a  porch 
seven  foot  square  below  to  be  fitted  proportionately  above 
the  first  story  and  to  lay  two  floors  of  joists  throughout 
the  house  and  in  the  porch  and  to  close  the  house  with 
clapboards  and  to  board  the  roof  of  both  and  to  cover  them 
with  good  shingles  and  to  build  fire  chimneys  and  to  under- 
pin the  house  well  with  stone  and  also  lath  and  fix  up  the 
walls  of  the  house  and  to  set  up  at  each  gable  end  priamidy 
and  flueboards."  The  meaning  of  "priamidy"  is  rather 
obscure.  Probably  it  refers  to  ornamentation  on  the  out- 
side of  the  house.  The  "old  Indian  house"  at  Deerfield 
had  pinnacles  projecting  as  ornaments  and  George  Sheldon, 
who  was  consulted  for  an  explanation  of  the  term,  sug- 
gested that  ornamental  pyramids  were  probably  to  be  a 
feature  of  the  gable  ends.  The  flueboards,  more  commonly 
called  flashboards,  were  probably  projected  as  an  ornamental 
cornice. 

Another  act  accomplished  before  separation  was  author- 
ized was  to  provide  for  a  burying  ground  on  the  west  of 
the  river.  These  votes  are  taken  from  the  town  records, 
the  dates  being  old  style   (really  in   1670)  : — 

"Feb.  14, 1669.  The  side  hath  chose  a  committee  being  John  Cowles,  Senr., 
Richard  Billings,  Isaac  Graves,  Samuel  Belden  and  Daniel  White  for  to  view 
a  piece  of  land  for  a  burying  place  upon  the  Plain  near  Thomas  Meekins 
his  piece  of  land  that  lyeth  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  mill  river  beyond 
the  bridge  that  is  in  the  highway  that  goeth  over  toward  Northampton." 

"Feb.  16,  1669.  The  side  at  a  meeting  did  agree  that  it  should  be  twenty 
rod  long  easterly  and  westerly  and  eight  rod  wide  southerly  and  northerly, 
and  that  it  should  be  in  the  place  where  they  have  determined  it  should  be, 
which  is  by  the  side  of  the  aforesaid  land  of  Thomas  Meekins." 

It  may  be  taken  for  granted  that  it  was  located  forth- 
with   where    they   "determined''    and    has    been    from    that 


62 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 


time  onward.  No  permanent  markers  for  the  graves  were 
used  at  first.  The  earliest  date  on  a  stone  in  the  old 
burying  ground  on  "the  Hill"  is  on  the  grave  of  Capt. 
John  Allis,  1691.  There  is  a  tradition  that  at  first  a  portion 
of  the  South  Meadow  near  the  street  was  used  as  a  ceme- 
tery   and    another    that    some    land    near    the    Connecticut 


at  the  end  of  the  house  lot  of  John  White,  Jr.,  was  the  site 
of  the  first  graves,  but  no  discoveries  have  ever  been  made 
tending  to  confirm  these  traditions.  The  probability  is 
that  the  settlers  who  died  before  1670  were  buried  on  the 
other   side   of  the   river   in   the   Hadley  burying   ground. 

The  exact  date  of  the  organization  of  the  church  in 
Hatfield  is  prnblematical.  Holland  in  his  "History  of 
Western  Massachusetts"  places  it  at  the  beginning  of  the 
year  1671.  Hubbard  in  the  sketch  in  the  "History  of  the 
Connecticut  Valley"  gives  the  date  as  Feb.  1,  1671,  and 
Temple  in  his  "History  of  Whately,"  April  1,  of  the  same 
year.  The  reason  for  these  dates  being  taken  is  the  refer- 
ences in  the  town  records  to  a  fast  held  in  the  last  part  of 
January  of  that  year  "in  view  of  the  great  work  of  setting 
up  the  ordinances"  and  to  the  "gathering  in  of  the  church." 
In  1670.  Kev.  Hope  .\therton  requested  of  the  County 
Court  liberty  to  "enter  into  church  estate,"     A  letter  from 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  63 

Rev.  Stephen  Williams,  pastor  in  Longmeadow  and  author 
3f  the  Appendix  to  "The  Redeemed  Captive/'  to  President 
Ezra  Stiles  of  Yale  College,  dated  June  8,  1781,  mentioned 
Dy  Sheldon  in  his  "History  of  Deerfield,"  states  that  Mr. 
\therton  was  ordained  May  10,  1670.  Where  was  he 
Drdained  except  in  Hatfield? 

The  Hatfield  church  is  the  fourth  in  point  of  age  in  the 
Connecticut  valley  in  Massachusetts,  the  others  being 
Springfield,  1637;  Hadley,  1659;  Northampton,  1661. 

Mr.  Atherton  had  been  with  the  people  some  of  the  time 
It  least  for  two  or  three  years  previous  to  1671.  The 
baste  to  finish  the  meetinghouse  would  seem  to  indicate 
that  preaching  services  were  held  in  it  by  the  fall  or  winter 
oi  1668.  The  difficult  question  to  determine  is  whether 
the  first  inhabitants  considered  the  establishment  of  the 
chujrch  made  when  the  minister  was  installed  or  whether  a 
farther  formal  organization  was  necessary,  probably  the 
letter.  The  votes  alluded  to  in  a  previous  paragraph  are 
bere    pven   in   full,    the    dates   being   old    style : — 

•yan.  13,  1670.  The  town  considering  of  the  great  and  weightiness  of  the 
wonc  they  have  hitherto  by  the  help  of  God  been  endeavoring  after,  viz ;  the 
setting  up  of  God's  ordinances  amongst  us,  and  having  by  the  goodness  of 
(iod  been  carried  in  our  desires  that  way  so  far  as  we  are,  do  think  it  our 
duty  to  undertake  the  gathering  of  a  church  in  this  place  and  in  preparation 
to  that  work  have  appointed  the  twenty-first  day  of  this  instant  February  to 
be  kept  a  day  of  humiliation  to  ask  the  Lord  for  his  help  and  guidance  in  a 
work  of  so  great  concernment  and  do  give  liberty  to  as  many  of  the  town 
as  do  desire  to  be  present  upon  that  day. 

**Jan.  26,  1670.  The  inhabitants  of  Hatfield  now  present  at  a  meeting  do 
unanimously  consent  that  the  choice  of  such  as  shall  begin  a  church  in  this 
place  shall  be  attempted  amongst  ourselves  we  have  also  manifested  that 
they  were  willing  that  Mr.  Atherton  and  all  the  members  of  other  churches 
that  are  inhabiting  this  place  shall  be  the  persons  that  shall  first  begin  the 
gathering  of  a  church  in  this  place  and  have  also  farther  manifested  that  they 
were  willing  to  have  full  power  of  chosing  three  persons  to  make  up  nine 
to  join  in  the  aforesaid  work  into  the  hands  of  the  persons  aforesaid,  viz: 
Mr.  Atherton  and  the  members  aforesaid." 

These  eight  men,  who  with  the  pastor  were  the  nucleus 
of  the  church,  are  supposed  to  have  been  Thomas  Meekins, 
Sr.,  William  Allis,  John  Coleman,  John  Cowles,  Sr.,  Isaac 
Graves,  Samuel  Belden,  Richard  Billings,  and  William 
Gull. 

Himself  well  versed  in  church  and  local  history,  Temple 
in  his  "History  of  Whately''  makes  this  comment  on  the 
puzzling  records:  "The  exact  import  of  this  last  clause 
is   not  apparent.      As  seven  is  the  least  number  by  which 


54  HISIORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  rule  of  church  discipline  in  the  eighteenth  chapter  of 
Matthew  can  be  reduced  to  practice,  that  number  has  been 
held  necessary  to  form  a  church.  Also  at  Westfield,  in 
1679,  seven  men  called  /foundation  men,'  were  selected 
to  be  formed  into  church  state." 

The  number  of  church  members  secured  is  also  unknown, 
but  the  little  band,  firm  in  faith  if  few  in  numbers,  deter- 
mined and  resolute,  had  secured  for  themselves  and  their 
children  the  liberty  to  worship  as  they  pleased,  a  liberty 
dearer  to  them  than  freedom  from  civil  restrictions,  and 
they  were  not  daunted  by  the  prospect  of  supporting  the 
pastor  of  their  choice. 


CHAPTER  VI. 

A    PERIOD    OF    GROWTH    AND    OF    PREPARATION    FOR    THE 

INDIAN   WARS,   1670-1675. 

'*  Let  not  Ambition  mock  their  useful  toil, 
Their  homely  joy  and  destiny  obscure.*' 

Growth  of  the  town  in  population  and  territory. — Additional  home  lots 
granted  by  1675. — Increase  of  wealth. — Methods  of  payment. — Currency. — 
Public  works. — Division  of  the  swamps. — Relations  with  Jthe  Indians. — Re- 
straints on  the  sale  of  firearms  and  intoxicants. — The  River  Indians  and  their 
tribes. — Their  numbers. — The  United  Colonies  and  organization  of  militia. — 
Hampshire  County. — Contribution  for  Harvard  College. 

In  the  preceding  chapters  the  birth  of  the  town  has  been 
recorded  and  the  events  of  its  period  of  adolescence  dwelt 
upon  with  some  degree  of  fullness.  To  pursue  the  figure 
further,  May  31,  1670,  should  be  called  the  date  when  it 
attained  its  majority,  and  this  and  succeeding  chapters  will 
relate  its  progress  toward  maturity  and  age. 

The  rhythmic  or  periodic  development  of  the  life  of  indi- 
viduals is  a  phenomenon  which  has  been  observed  by 
investigators.  There  are  periods  of  rapid  physical  growth 
followed  by  periods  of  rest  and  of  preparation  for  other 
changes;  at  other  periods  the  mental  development  is  rapid, 
followed  by  a  period  of  inactivity  that  surprises  the  ob- 
server. There  is  a  recurrence  of  these  periods  all  through 
life  and  each  has  sharply  defined  characteristics,  though 
the  transitions  are  gradual  in  many  cases.  While  no  exact 
rule  can  be  laid  down  that  covers  all  individual  cases  they 
seem  to  follow  a  general  law  of  growth.  That  history 
repeats  itself  is .  a  rather  trite  saying.  The  student  of 
history  can  but  mark*  the  periods  or  eras  into  which  his 
subject  naturally  divides  itself,  seen  no  less  in  the  history  of 
a  town  than  on  a  larger  scale.  This  rhythmic,  seemingly 
wavelike,  progress,  with  periods  of  growth,  of  storm  and 
stress,  of  rest,  perhaps  also  of  decline,  in  the  history  of 
Hatfield  follows  very  closely  the  rhythmic  movement  of  the 
great    national    development    of    which    it    is    a    part,   \v\U\ 


65  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

some  variation  due  to  particular  circumstances  affecting 
the  town  or  region  alone. 

Hatfield's  growth  for  the  first  five  years  after  incorpora- 
tion -was  not  rapid,  but  it  was  steady.  The  years  1670  to 
1675  were  a  period  of  peace  and  of  preparation  for  the 
struggle  against  the  Indians,  which  resulted  in  the  complete 
mastery  of  the  Connecticut  valley  by  the  whites  and  the 
settlement  of  other  frontier  towns. 

Additional  territory  was  secured  by  the  purchase  from 
the  Indians  of  the  meadows  and  uplands  comprising  the 
present  town  of  Whately  in  1672.  This  purchase  has  been 
spoken  of  in  Chapter  I.  There  is  a  note  in  the  town 
records  of  approval  of  the  terms  of  the  bargain.  At  about 
the  same  time  the  planting  field  of  the  Indians  in  the  South 
Meadow  was  secured  and  the  Indians  rented  land  for  use, 
the  settlers  often  doing  the  fitting  of  the  land  and  the 
cultivation  of  the  crops. 

An  attempt  to  extend  the  town  boundaries  southward 
failed.  In  1672  a  petition  was  sent  to  the  General  Court 
to  "preserve  the  bounds  within  Northampton.*'  There 
was  dispute  over  the  matter  till  1720. 

The  town  records  from  Apr.  7,  1673,  to  Aug.  17,  1677, 
\  are  missing  and  with  them  beyond  any  question  of  doubt 
a  valuable  treasury  of  first  hand  information. 

Many  grants  of  home  lots  to  prospective  inhabitants 
were  made  by  the  "side"  before  1670  and  by  the  town 
from  1670  to  1673.  The  chart  on  the  opposite  page  shows 
the  location  of  the  homesteads  on  the  street  above  Middle 
Lane,  now  School  Street,  in  the  year  1675,  those  printed  in 
italics  appearing  also  on  the  chart  showing  grants  made  in 
1661-70.  Not  all  the  lots  were  built  upon,  however,  till 
after  King  Philip's  war.  They  were  mostly  of  eight 
acres  each.  The  highway  north  from  Philip  Russell's  was 
to  be  seven  rods  wide. 

m 

Some  changes  should  be  noted  in  the  locations  on 
the  earlier  chart,  as  some  of  the  lots  had  been  forfeited 
and  regranted.  No  one  occupied  the  Bull  lot  for  many 
years  and  it  was  granted  to  Mr.  Atherton,  though  not 
used  by  him  for  residence.  He  lived,  as  previously 
noted,  on  the  Goodwin  lot.  Nicholas  Worthington  married 
the    widow    of   John    White,    Jr.,    and    took   his    allotment. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


67 


abas  Hinsdale  married  the  widow  of  Stephen  Taylor 
66  and  lived  in  her  house.  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr., 
noved  from  Hadley  and  lived  for  a  few  years  on  the 
3n  lot.  He  returned  to  the  other  side  of  the  river, 
e  he  died  June  16,  1676.  Thomas  Meekins,  Jr.,  lived 
s  father's  lot  when  the  latter  moved  his  residence  to 
nill.  Richard  Fellows,  2d,  and  John  Field  owned  the 
)riginally  granted  their  fathers,  who  had  both  died. 

Rods  wide.        Rods  wide. 

Thomas  Bracy 


a  King 

16 

:  Field 

16 

lin  Waite 

16 

raves,  Jr. 

16 

Ball 

16 

Danks 

16 

Id  Lane 

8 

iraves,  Jr. 

16 

Northam 

16 

I  Morton 

20D 

ot 

jDiacKsn 
16 

awkes 

16 

Highway  to  the  river 


20  Hezekiah  Dickinson 

20  William  Scott 

16  Daniel  Belden 

16  Samuel  Allis 

16  Samuel  Marsh 

16  Nathaniel  Foote 

16  Philip  Russell 

16  Samuel  Gillett 

18  John  Wells 
shop. 

16  John  Coleman 

16  Samuel  Belden 


Lane 


Chart  of  the  House  Lots  at  the  Upper  End  of  the  Street, 
rranted  by  1675,  those  in  italics  also  appearing  on  previous  chart. 


!  wealth  of  the  settlers  increased  at  a  moderate  rate. 

was  not  a  great  deal  of  trade.  Supplies  which  could 
s  produced  at  home  were  bought  of  the  Pynchons  in 
yfield  in  exchange  for  farm  products.  Grain,  wool, 
Df  woolen  or  flax,  cloth,  pork,  and  probably  some  beef 
sent  down  the  river  to  find  a  market  in  Boston  or  the 
!Cticut  towns.  In  the  almost  patriarchal  state  of 
y  that   then   existed   the   increase   of   the   flocks   and 

was   the   chief   source   of   addition   to   property.     As 
imals  became  more  numerous  more  land  was  brought 
cultivation, 
re  was  little   currency  in  circulation   and   little   need 

"Provision    pay''    was    legal    tender    for    public   and 
e  debts.     What  monev  there  was  in  circulation  con- 

mostly  of  Spanish  reals  and  pieces-of-eight,  the 
:  being  silver  coins  worth  ninepence,  or  tweWe  ?ltv^ 


58  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

one  half  cents.  The  pieces-of-eight  derived  their  name 
from  the  fact  that  they  contained  eight  reals,  or  rials. 
They  were  not  called  dollars  till  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  Double  and  half  reals  were  also  in  circulation. 
The  English  pound  of  that  time  was  worth  about  three 
dollars.  The  currency  was  in  denominations  of  crowns 
(five  shillings  or  one  fourth  of  a  pound),  half  crowns,  shil- 
lings, pence,  and  farthings.  Most  of  the  coins  were  of 
silver,  even  the  smaller  pieces,  as  the  English  did  not  like 
a  copper  currency.  Massachusetts  began  in  1652  to  coin 
money,  which  passed  readily  in  some  of  the  other  colonies 
also.  It  was  22^/2  per  cent,  lighter  than  the  English  money, 
for  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  money  at  home,  and  of  the 
sanie  purity.  Pieces  of  a  shilling,  six,  three,  and  two  pence 
were  coined  by  the  mint,  which  was  in  operation  for  about 
thirty  years.  The  shillings,  called  pine  tree  shillings  from 
the  fact  that  one  side  contained  the  likeness  of  a  pine  tree, 
weighed  72  grains.  The  new  currency  was  put  on  a  firm 
basis  in  1672,  when  the  value  of  pieces-of-eight  of  full  weight 
was  fixed  at  six  shillings.  In  1642  their  value  had  been 
fixed  at  4s.  6d.  in  England. 

Wheat  was  the  most  used  medium  of  exchange  in  the 
valley  towns,  though  corn  and  pork  were  also  standard 
and  peas  and  oats  were  sometimes  used.  One  duty  of  the 
constables  was  to  collect  the  rates,  or  taxes,  of  grain,  which 
were  made  at  very  frequent  intervals.  A  vote  of  Jan.  14, 
1672-3,  fixed  the  price  of  winter  wheat  in  Hatfield  at  3s.  6d. 
per  bushel.  At  the  same  time  a  town  rate  of  £10,  10s.  was 
ordered.  Besides  the  town  rates  there  were  county  and 
colony  rates  payable  in  grain  at  fixed  prices.  While  not 
adapted  to  twentieth  century  methods  of  business  and 
probably  used  by  the  early  settlers  more  from  necessity 
than  for  any  other  reason,  wheat  and  other  provisions 
furnished  a  sufficiently  good  circulating  medium  and  served 
the  purpose  well,  just  as  the  iron  currency  of  the  Spartans 
did  for  them  when  Sparta  was  young.  Business  relations 
with  the  Athens  of  America  had  hardly  begun  in   1672. 

Public  improvements  in  the  town  went  on  rapidly.  Some 
work  in  clearing  the  highways  of  brush  was  done  each  year, 
for  neglect  of  which  the  inhabitants  were  fined.  Fencing  of 
highways  and  meadows  received  considerable  attention  and 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  69 

additional  highways  were  made  through  the  North  Meadows. 
Making  a  highway  often  meant  only  surveying  and  staking 
out  its  course,  the  traveled  way  being  made  by  use.  Some 
of  the  swamps  were  drained  at  the  expense  of  the  town 
and  additional  land  for  mowing  thereby  gained.  A  general 
division  of  the  Mill  Swamp  was  begun  in  1672,  a  few  lots 
having  been  granted  in  it  previously,  and  two  or  three 
roads  were  ordered  to  be  made  to  render  the  lots  easy  of 
access.  According  to  agreement,  before  the  drawings  for 
lots  were  made,  those  who  could  not  easily  get  to  their 
land  were  allowed  to  cross  the  lots  of  others.  Drawings 
were  made  in  order  of  the  house  lots  beginning  with 
Tho^mas  Meekins  and  then  up  the  w^est  side  of  the  street 
from  south  to  north  and  down  the  other  side.  House 
lots  not  yet  occupied  were  also  granted  swamp  land.  The 
lots  in  the  swamps  were  numbered  and  Z7  were  drawn. 
At  about  the  same  time  part  of  the  swamp  land  north  of 
the  Great  or  North  Meadow  was  taken  up,  each  proprietor 
receiving  ten  acres,  if  in  the  Mill  Swamp,  and  a  little  more 
if   in  the  other. 

Much  labor  was  performed  by  united  effort.  All  the 
buildings  were  raised  in  that  way,  as  is  the  case  to-day  with 
barns.  The  fences  were  made  by  individuals,  but  if  any 
man  did  not  complete  within  a  specified  time  the  fencing 
required  for  mutual  protection  and  decreed  by  common 
consent  in  town  meeting,  he  was  fined  and  in  addition 
had  to  pay  any  damages  arising  from  neglect. 

The  practice  of  pasturing  the  flocks  and  herds  together 
on  the  undivided  common  land  was  begun  at  an  early  date, 
each  man  taking  his  turn  at  herding  at  first,  and  each 
owner  had  an  ear  mark  to  distinguish  his  stock.  August  12, 
1672,  the  town  voted  that  each  man  having  three  or  more 
cattle  must  take  his  turn  or  be  fined  2s.  3d.  and  pay 
damages  arising  from  neglect.  When  at  a  later  date,  1680, 
a  cattle  keeper  was  appointed  at  a  fixed  rate  of  pay,  the 
owners  had  to  take  turns  on  the  Sabbath  to  allow  the 
herdsman  to  attend  public  worship.  The  cows  and  other 
good  neat  stock  were  taken  out  by  an  hour  after 
sunrise  to  good  pasturage  and  returned  before  sundown. 
The  inhabitants  took  turns  in  keeping  a  bull.  After  the 
crops  were   gathered   the  cattle   were  turned   loose   in   the 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


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j£L ''"•-*'•-"'•--''■•"•■■■■' ^^   i 
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An    '>at,../,<l^i^/»..... 
-tlU_- ''.'1 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD.  71 

meadows,  usually  about  the  first  of  October.  There  is  a 
tradition  that  the  sheep  were  folded  for  several  years  after 
the  settlement  in  movable  hurdles  on  the  farm  now  owned 
by  James  Breor.  A  town  shepherd  was  not  appointed  till 
1682.  In  1684  the  land  lying  between  the  North  Meadow 
fence  and  the  home  lots  on  the  east  of  the  street,  with  the 
hills  northwest  of  William  King's  homestead  near  King's 
hill,  was  sequestered  by  vote  of  the  town  to  be  kept  "as 
a  pasture  and  a  walk  for  sheep  forever."  All  rams  not 
considered  fit  for  breeders  had  to  be  killed  by  order  of  the 
town. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  hogs  were  kept  in  sufficient 
numbers  to  require  a  special  attendant,  though  a  hogherd 
was  a  regularly  appointed  official  in  some  towns  in  the 
colony.  The  hogs  in  Hatfield  were  ringed,  to  prevent 
their  doing  damage  by  rooting,  and  allowed  to  run  at  large. 
Nathaniel  Dickinson  was  excused  from  holding  town  office 
for  keeping  a  boar. 

Cattle  were  used  to  perform  most  of  the  work  on  the 
farm.  A  single  horse  was  sometimes  hitched  ahead  of  a 
voke  of  oxen  and  horses  were  used  on  the  cultivators. 
There  was  little  use  for  horses  except  in  the  saddle,  for  the 
early  settlers  possessed  no  vehicles  except  oxcarts. 

When  the  foundations  of  Hadley  and  Hatfield  were  laid 
the  Indians  w^ere  friendly.  The  necessary  land  was  easily 
bought  from  them,  they  were  frequent  visitors  in  the  village 
and  seemed  to  welcome  the  coming  of  the  whites  as  a 
protection  against  foes  of  their  own  color.  The  greeting 
**netop/'  my  friend,  was  often  heard  in  the  streets  where 
they  ca^me  to  loaf  or  barter.  They  were  held  in  contempt 
by  the  English,  for  they  were  lazy,  ignorant,  and  given 
to  petty  thieving.  No  attempt  to  convert  them  to  Chris- 
tianity seems  to  have  been  made.  It  was  soon  found  best 
to  prohibit  the  sale  of  intoxicants  to  them,  but  the  prac- 
tice was  hard  to  stop.  The  county  records  contain  many 
instances  of  fines  imposed  for  the  illegal  sale  of  liquor  to 
the  Indians,  the  noted  scout,  Benjamin  Waite,  being  among 
those  detected.  The  savages  also  found  it  quite  easy  to 
obtain  firearms,  ammunition,  and  knives  in  spite  of  the 
watchfulness  of  the  authorities. 

The  Indians  of  the  vicinitv  were  of  various  small  It\V)^s 


72  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

or  clans,  known  by  the  general  name  of  River  Indians.  The 
Agawams  were  at  Springfield,  the  Warranokes  at  Westfield, 
the  Nonotucks  or  Norwottucks  just  above  Northampton, 
the  Pocumtucks  at  Deerfield,  and  the  Squakheags  at 
Northfield.  The  Pocumtucks  were  the  most  warlike  clan 
and  dominated  a  once  powerful  confederacy.  Farther  to 
the  east  were  the  warlike  Nipmucks,  or  Nipmets,  near 
Brookfield,  or,  as  it  was  then  known,  Quabaug. 

The  chieftains  of  whom  the  Norwottuck  plantation  was 
bought,  Umpanchala,  Chickwollop,  and  Quonquont,  claimed 
different  parts  of  the  territory  occupied  by  their  tribe  and 
seemed    to    be    under    no    binding   allegiance    to    a    higher 
authority.     In  1668  at  the  request  of  the  Hampshire  dep- 
uties   the    General    Court    appointed    three    men    to    treat 
with  the  Indians,  who  then  agreed  that  Chickwollop  should 
be    the    chief.     He    evidently    commanded    the    respect    of 
neither  the   Indians  nor  the  English.     He  died  before  the 
beginning    of    King    Philip's    war.      Chickwollop    and    his 
immediate  •  followers    had    a    camping    ground    and    a    fort 
close  to  the  Northampton-Hatfield  line  and  their  planting 
field  was  in  the  Hatfield  meadows.     The  fort  was  on  the 
bluff  near   the   bank   of  the   Connecticut  at  the   mouth   of 
Half   Way   brook,    which    enters    the   river   by   the    Laurel 
Park  railroad  bridge.    It  was  a  commanding  position,  where 
the  movements  of  the  inhabitants  of  three  towns  could  be 
easily  observed.     The  wigwams  were  pitched  either  ou  the 
gravelly  knolls  close  by  or  back  on  the  ridge  of  hills  at  Laurel 
Park.      The   band   was  a  roving  one,   however,   and   often 
took    long    hunting    and    fishing    trips.     Another    favorite 
camping  place  was  at  the  salmon  falls  at  Red  Rock  above 
the  Hatfield  ferry.     Many  Indian  relics  have  been  turned  up 
by   the   plow   in   the   meadows   in   this   vicinity.     This   spot 
is  still  one  of  the  best  fishing  places  in  the  river.     There 
was  a  fort  on  the  Hadley  side  near  Red  Rock  in  the  vicinity 
of  which  bones,   probably  of  the   red   man,   have  been   un- 
earthed. 

The  women  of  the  tribe  tilled  the  ground,  raising  corn, 
beans,  squashes,  and  pumpkins,  and  made  and  sold  baskets, 
mats,  and  other  articles  to  their  white  neighbors.  The 
colonists  were  too  busy  with  their  labors  to  spend  much 
time   in   hunting  or  fishing  and   readily  bought   game   and 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  73 

fish  of  the  Indians  as  well  as  furs.     Wampum,  bright  col- 
ored cloth,  and  trinkets  of  various  kinds  were  bartered  for  , 
goods  the  savages  had  to  oflfer. 

There  is  no  indication  that  the  settlement  of  the  three 
towns  in  the  vicinity  interfered  in  any  way  with  the  mode 
of  life  of  the  Indians  or  lessened  materially  their  supplies 
of  food  or  fuel.  Their  numbers  seem  to  have  been  much 
exaggerated  in  contemporary  accounts.  Judd  estimates 
that  the  number  of  the  savages  in  all  the  valley  towns  with 
Farmington  and  Simsbury  did  not  exceed  1200  at  the  time 
the  fighting  began.  Sickness  and  wars  among  themselves 
thinned  their  ranks  considerably.  Sheldon  in  his  "History 
of  Deerfield''  closes  a  remarkable  account  of  the  rise  and 
fall  of  the  powerful  Pocumtuck  confederacy  with  a  graphic 
description  of  the  almost  complete  annihilation  of  the 
Deerfield  tribe  by  the  Mohawks  from  New  York  in  1663 
and  says,  "a  feeble  remnant,  renouncing  their  independence, 
sought  the  protection  of  the  English  in  the  towns  on  the 
river  below."  Their  deserted  lands  were  sold  to  the 
settlers  from  Dedham,  who  located  at  Deerfield  in  1671. 
The  number  of  Norwottucks  left  at  the  outbreak  of  King 
Philip's  war  could  not  have  been  many,  perhaps  not  over 
200. 

While  the  Connecticut  valley  settlers  did  not  anticipate 
trouble  with  the  Indians,  whom  they  doubtless  equaled  in 
numbers,  they  knew  by  experience  in  other  places  the  ever 
threatening  danger  of  an  uprising  and  had  an  organized  mili- 
tia force  in  preparation  for  an  emergency.  Massachusetts 
required  each  town  in  the  colony  to  have  a  supply  of  ammu- 
nition on  hand  constantly.  In  1672  Hatfield  voted  to  make 
a  levy  on  each  inhabitant  in  proportion  to  secure  "powder 
and  lead  as  required  by  law  for  the  town  stock.''  A  league 
for  mutual  defense  had  been  formed  in  1643  by  the  scat- 
tered English  colonies  in  New  England,  comprising  the 
colonies  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  Plymouth,  Connecticut,  and 
New  Haven. 

The  towns  of  Springfield,  Northampton,  and  Hadley  were 
set  oflf  as  a  county  by  the  name  of  Hampshire  in  1662. 
It  included  all  the  western  part  of  Massachusetts  from  the 
then  undefined  western  boundary  to  the  region  that  after- 
ward became  Worcester  County,  including  later  the  town  of 


74  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Brookfield  also.  Courts  were  held  alternately  in  Spring- 
field and  Northampton.  Hampshire  County  was  really  an 
independent  colony  in  everything  but  name  and  the  leading 
spirits  were  the  Pynchons,  ably  assisted  by  the  ministers 
of  the  churches.  There  was  little  communication  with 
towns  on  the  Bay  because  transportation  facilities  were 
very  poor.  '  ^ 

The  first  work  of  the  county  commissioners  was  the 
building  of  roads.  In  1664  a  cart  path  was  opened  to 
Windsor  whence  produce  could  be  shipped  to  Boston. 
Freight  rates  were  very  high,  in  one  recorded  instance  one 
third  of  the  value  of  the  cargo.  The  overland  Bay  paths 
were  not  opened  for  travel  with  vehicles  till  many  years 
later.  In  1668  Hatfield,  then  the  west  **side''  of  Hadley, 
appointed  a  committee  to  act  with  a  committee  from  North- 
ampton to  build  a  bridge  across  the  Manhan.  The  high- 
way between  Hatfield  and  Northampton  was  probably  laid 

out  in  1665. 

Each  town  had  an  infantry  company  of  volunteers,  which 
drilled  regularly.*  There  was  a  cavalry  regiment  recruited 
from  all  the  valley  towns  in  the  colony,  called  the  Hamp- 
shire troop,  under  command  of  Maj.  John  Pynchon.  Hat- 
field had  six  troopers  in  1674  belonging  to  this  regiment. 
WilHam  Allis  was  cornet  in  1663  and  later  became  lieuten- 
ant. The  foot  soldiers  drilled  with  the  Hadley  company, 
which  was  commanded  by  Aaron  Cooke. 

A  contribution  for  a  new  building  at  Harvard  College 
was  taken  in  the  year  1672,  for  which  £14  2s.  6d.  were 
subscribed  in  Hatfield.  The  following  references  to  this 
appear  on  the  town  records : — 

"Jan.  16,  1671/2,  the  town  hath  generally  voted  and  agreed  that  the  money 
given  in  by  the  Town  with  an  intent  to  the  promotion  of  the  college  should 
be  distributed  to  these  ends,  first  the  promotion  of  the  college  aforesaid, 
secondly  for  the  relief  of  some  christian  friends  in  necessity,  and  thirdly  for 
the  furthance  of  the  gathering  of  a  church  amongst  us,  and  to  have  the 
power  of  distributing  the  same  into  the  hands  of  those  appointed  by  the 
counsel  to  receive  the  distribution  for  the  college. 

"Feb.  7,  71/2,  the  Town  hath  manifest  that  they  were  willing  that  the 
money  engaged  to  be  given  toward  the  promotion  of  a  college  notwithstanding 
any  former  order  shall  be  still  put  to  the  said  work  of  promoting  the  college." 


CHAPTER  VII. 

KING  PHILIP'S  WAR,  167S-6,  AND  THE  MASSACRE  OF  1677. 

"And  how  can  man  die  better 
Than  facing  fearful  odds  ?  " 

King  Philip. — Beginning  of  the  war. — Attack  on  Brookfield. — Preparations 
for  defense  of  the  Connecticut  valley. — The  River  Indians  join  the  hostile 
band. — The  swamp  fight  above  Hatfield. — Attacks  on  Deerfield  and  North- 
field. — Northfield  abandoned. — The  Bloody  Brook  massacre. — Attack  on 
Springfield. — Hatfield  attacked. — Close  of  the  campaign  of  1675. — Activity  of 
Philip  during  the  winter. — Opening  of  hostilities  in  the  spring. — Repulse  of 
the  Indians  at  Northampton  and  Hatfield. — The  stockade. — Disasters  near  the 
coast. — The  fight  at  Turners  Falls. — Experiences  of  Rev.  Hope  Atherton. — 
Hatfield  again  attacked. — Attack  on  Hadlcy. — The  Mohawks  attack  the  River 
Indians. — Death  of  Philip  and  close  of  the  war  in  1676. — The  massacre  at 
Hatfield,  Sept.  19,  1677. — Capture  of  Deerfield  settlers. — The  expedition  of 
Waite  and  Jennings. — The  return  of  the  captives. 

The  early  settlers  of  the  valley  towns  were  not  wholly 
unaccustomed  to  Indian  w^arfare,  as  some  had  taken  part  in 
the  short  and  bloody  Pequot  war  in  1637  in  which  the 
Indians  had  learned  to  their  sorrow^  that  it  was  best  to  be 
at  peace  with  their  white  neighbors.  But  nearly  forty 
years  had  passed  and  another  generation  of  warriors  had 
grown  up  and  were  eager  for  the  test  of  battle.  Massasoit, 
chief  of  the  Wampanoags,  who  throughout  his  life  kept 
true  to  his  pledge  of  peace  with  the  settlers  of  Plymouth 
Colony,  died  in  1662.  His  son,  Alexander,  who  then  became 
the  sachem  of  the  tribe,  died  the  same  year  and  the  second 
son,  Philip,  assumed  the  leadership.  Philip  was  cunning, 
treacherous,  and  cruel.  He  was  greatly  feared  by  the  white 
settlers  and  considered  the  chief  instigator  of  the  Indian 
uprising  known  as  King  Philip's  war  and  the  personal  head 
of  all  the  attacking  parties.  He  was  credited  by  early  his- 
torians with  being  the  commander-in-chief  of  all  the  forces. 
Later  discoveries,  however,  have  shown  that  he  had  no 
genius  for  leadership  in  battle  or  in  the  planning  of  cam- 
paigns, directing  his  energies  to  crafty  scheming.  He  did 
not  have  a  loyal  personal  following  among  the  IndV^tv  tt'^^^ 


76  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

or  much  to  do  with  the  conduct  of  operations  in  the  war 
that  bears  his  name  after  the  fighting  had  begun,  and  he 
was  betrayed  at  last  by  a  member  of  his  own  household  and 
shot  by  a  man  of  his  own  tribe  whose  brother  he  had 
treacherously  murdered. 

It  is  true  that  it  was  Philip's  influence  more  than  that  of 
any  one  else  which  moved  the  savages  to  open  hostilities. 
His  ambition  and  jealousy  led  him  to  plan  the  destruction  of 
all  the  settlements  in  New  England  and  he  spent  many 
years  in  plotting  against  his  foes,  uniting  the  various  tribes 
against  the  common  enemy  and  fanning  the  flames  of  hatred 
and  revenge.  His  stronghold  was  at  Mt.  Hope  in  Rhode 
Island. 

The  story  of  the  war  has  been  told  so  many  times  that 
only  the  incidents  in  which  Hatfield  men  took  part,  with  a 
brief  summary  of  the  more  important  engagements  in  other 
places,  will  be  narrated  here.  Hostilities  broke  out  a  year 
before  the  preparations  were  completed  because  of  Philips 
anger  at  the  hanging  of  some  of  his  followers  by  the  Plym- 
outh officials  for  the  murder  of  a  "praying  Indian,"  who 
had  revealed  to  the  whites  some  of  the  plots  against  them. 
On  the  24th  of  June,  1675,  several  murders  were  committed 
at  Swansea  by  the  Indians  of  Philips  tribe;  forces  from 
Boston  and  Plymouth  were  dispatched  against  Philip  at  Mt. 
Hope  and  he  was  driven  to  the  Nipmucks  in  the  central 
part  of  the  state. 

In  spite  of  attempts  to  make  treaties  with  the  various 
tribes  the  whole  region  became  involved  in  war  and  the 
savages,  as  soon  as  they  could  make  preparations,  took  the 
oflfensive.  Beginning  with  outrages  in  the  towns  near 
the  coast,  the  war  spirit  rapidly  spread.  Capt.  Edward  Hutch- 
inson, sent  as  a  commissioner  on  an  errand  of  peace,  was 
attacked  with  his  party  from  ambush  near  Brookfield,  Aug. 
2,  by  the  Nipmucks,  who  were  responsible  for  most  of  the 
outrages  in  1675.  Brookfield  was  attacked,  many  of  the 
houses  were  burned  and  the  inhabitants  were  besieged  in 
the  tavern  until  rescued,  Aug.  4,  by  a  troop  of  forty  horse- 
men from  Lancaster  under  the  command  of  Maj.  Simon 
Willard. 

Maj.  John  Pynchon  at  Springfield  received  the  news  the 
same  day  and  immediately  secured  the  aid  of  the  Connect!- 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  TJ 

cut  towns.  Troops  were  dispatched  to  Brookfield  from  both 
directions  and  the  forces  of  the  valley  towns  were  called 
out.  A  messenger  was  sent  to  Albany  to  Governor  Andros 
to  secure  his  aid  in  keeping  the  Mohawks  friendly.  Troops 
from  the  Bay  under  Captains  Thomas  Lathrop  of  Beverly 
and  Richard  Beers  of  Watertown,  which  had  been  sent  to 
the  relief  of  Brookfield,  passed  on  to  the  valley  settlements. 
They  numbered  about  180.  Headquarters  were  established 
at  Hadley  on  Aug.  16,  and  scouting  parties  were  sent  out 
to  discover  if  possible  the  number  of  the  hostile  Indians. 
The  River  Indians  were  supposed  to  be  neutral,  but  they 
were  closely  watched.  Captain  Watts  and  a  company  of 
Hartford  men  went  up  the  west  side  of  the  Connecticut 
river,  while  Lathrop  and  Beers  took  the  east  side.  No  hos- 
tile Indians  were  found,  but  garrisons  were  left  at  North- 
field,  Deerfield,  Hatfield,  and  Northampton  and  the  main 
body  returned  to  Hadley. 

Some  suspicious  signs  had  been  noted  among  the  Nor- 
wottucks.  It  had  been  their  custom  early  in  the  spring  to 
make  arrangements  with  the  settlers  for  cultivating  parts 
of  the  meadows,  but  no  such  arrangements  were  made  in 
1675  with  the  Hatfield  settlers.  They  had  concentrated 
at  their  fort  at  Half  Way  brook  their  goods  that  were  scat- 
tered at  various  camping  places  and  in  the  towns  and  early 
in  the  summer  a  squaw  had  advised  Goodwife  Wright  of 
Northampton  to  "get  into  town  with  her  children."  The 
inhabitants  of  Hatfield,  Hadley,  and  Northampton  seemed 
to  feel  no  special  alarm  at  these  unusual  proceedings,  for 
no  preparations  for  defense  had  been  made.  The  same 
suspicious  signs  were  noted  among  the  neighboring  clans. 

At  the  fort  between  Hatfield  and  Northampton  a  band 
of  Pocumtucks,  Norwottucks,  and  roving  members  of  other 
tribes  gathered  during  the  summer,  who  had  given  up  their 
arms  at  the  outbreak  of  hostilities,  but  received  them  back 
again  after  promises  of  friendship  and  of  help  against  the 
tribes  that  were  on  the  warpath.  They  grew  insolent 
soon  after  the  arrival  of  the  troopers  and  Captain  Lathrop 
decided  to  take  their  arms  again.  Detachments  from  Had- 
ley and  Northampton  met  at  the  fort  at  daylight  on  the 
25th  of  August  only  to  find  that  the  Indians  had  fled,  leav- 
ing one  dead  sachem,  who  had  perhaps  refvised  to  s?ixvc\\o\\ 


78  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  war.  They  never  returned  to  their  fields  and  planting 
grounds  again  in  large  numbers  to  live. 

Pursuit  was  immediately  made  by  about  one  hundred 
men.  The  party  was  ambushed  in  a  swamp  a  short  distance 
below  Sugar  Loaf  mountain.  Ten  of  the  English  were 
killed  or  wounded  and  twenty-six  of  the  Indians.  Reports 
of  the  Indian  losses  are  untrustworthy  as  they  almost 
always  carried  off  their  fallen  comrades  and  stated  as  their 
casualties  whatever  they  thought  would  produce  on  their 
opponents  the  effect  they  most  desired.  Richard  Fellows  of 
Hatfield,  son  of  the  first  settler  of  that  name,  was  among 
the  slain.  The  Indians  escaped  to  the  northward.  The 
exact  spot  of  encounter  was  in  doubt  till  located  by  Temple, 
the  Whately  historian,  as  a  ravine  about  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  south  of  the  mountain. 

Sheldon,  in  his  introduction  to  the  "History  of  Hadley," 
reprinted  in  1905,  gives  a  full  discussion  of  the  alleged 
attack  on  Hadley,  Sept.  1,  at  which,  according  to  tradition, 
the  aged  regicide.  General  Goffe,  appeared  and  took  com- 
mand. The  circumstances  may  have  been  as  the  tradition  re- 
lates, but  it  seems  improbable  that  two  assaults  were  made  by 
the  savages  at  the  same  time,  for  it  is  well  established  that 
on  the  morning  of  Sept.  1  an  attack  was  made  on  Deerfield, 
which  was  repulsed  from  the  fortified  houses.  Several  of 
the  houses  not  fortified  were  burned.  The  next  day  North- 
field  was  attacked  and  partly  burned  and  eight  of  the  settlers 
were  killed.  The  following  day  Captain  Beers  set  out  from 
Hadley  with  36  mounted  men  for  the  relief  of  Northfield. 
They  were  suddenly  and  unexpectedly  attacked  when  two 
miles  from  the  village  and  routed.  Captain  Beers  was 
killed — the  plain  where  he  fell  receiving  the  name  of  Beers's 
Plain — and  only  sixteen  escaped  to  tell  of  the  disaster. 
The  savages  mutilated  the  bodies  of  the  slain. 

A  larger  expedition  was  sent  out  under  command  of 
Maj.  Robert  Treat  of  Hartford  and  the  settlers  of  North- 
field  were  brought  in  safety  to  the  towns  below.  The 
retreat  was  made  the  night  of  Sept.  6,  the  inhabitants  tak- 
ing only  the  horses.  Their  buildings  and  all  their  crops 
and  other  property  with  the  exception  of  what  few  personal 
effects  they  could  carry  were  destroyed  soon  after  by  the 
ejieniv. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  79 

A  second  attack  on  Deerfield  was  repulsed  Sept.  12  and 
on  the  18th  occurred  the  famous  Bloody  Brook  massacre 
when  Captain  Lathrop  and  his  force,  "the  flower  of  Essex/' 
were  destroyed  and  the  wheat  for  which  the  trip  was  made 
was  lost.  Seventeen  men  of  Deerfield  were  killed,  that 
settlement  was  also  abandoned,  and  Hatfield,  Hadley,  and 
Northampton  became  the  frontier  towns. 

Encouraged  by  their  successes  the  Indians  became  bolder. 
On  the  26th  they  burned  the  buildings  and  crops  of  Major 
Pynchon  at  West  Springfield.  Details  of  a  plot  to  destroy 
Springfield  were  discovered  Oct.  4  and  the  next  day  the 
enemy  were  repulsed  in  a  fierce  attack.  Much  property 
was  destroyed  by  fire,  including  the  corn  mill  and  the  saw- 
mill. 

Major  Pynchon  resigned  from  the  command  of  the  forces 
and    Capt.    Samuel    Appleton    of    Ipswich    was    appointed 
commander-in-chief.     The   success   of   the   savages   had   so 
demoralized  the  whites  that  they  were  afraid  to  meet  them 
in   open  fight,  resorting  to  defensive  tactics.     Major  Pyn- 
chon wrote  from   Hadley  Sept.   30,   "We  are   endeavoring 
to    discover   the    enemy,    and    daily    send    out    scouts,    but 
little  is  effected.     Our  English  are  somewhat  awk  and  fear- 
ful in  scouting  and  spying,  though  we  do  the  best  we  can. 
We  have  no  Indian  friends  here  to  help  us.     We  find  the 
Indians  have  their  scouts  out.     Two  days  ago,  two  English- 
men at  Northampton,  being  gone  out  in  the  morning  to 
cut  wood,  and  but  a  little  from  the  house,  were  both  shot 
down   dead,   having  two  bullets   apiece   shot   into   each   of 
their  breasts.     The  Indians  cut  off  their  scalps,  took  their 
arms,  and  were  off  in  a  trice.'*     And  a  few  days  later  he 
says,  "To  speak  my  thoughts,  all  these  towns  ought  to  be 
garrisoned  as  I  have  formerly  hinted.     To  go  out  after  the 
Indians,  in  the  swamps  and  thickets,  is  to  hazard  all  our 
men,  unless  we  know  where  they  keep;  which  is  altogether 
unknown   to   us."     This   will    explain   the   defensive   policy 
adopted  by  the  English. 

An  attack  was  made  on  Hatfield  Oct.  19.  The  town  was 
garrisoned  by  two  companies  under  command  of  Capt.  Sam- 
uel Mosely  and  Capt.  Jonathan  Poole.  Fires  had  been 
noticed  in  the  morning  to  the  northward  and  a  party  of  ten 
dragoons  sent  out  to  investigate  fell  into  an  ambusVv  \.Vv^ 


80  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Indians  had  prepared.  Six  were  killed  and  three  captured, 
one  of  whom  was  afterward  tortured  to  death.  Prepara- 
tions were  made  to  repel  the  expected  attack  on  the  village 
and  when  the  Indians,  numbering  seven  or  eight  hundred 
according  to  contemporary  accounts,  appeared  about  four 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  they  met  a  spirited  resistance. 
Major  Appleton  crossed  from  Hadley  with  his  men  and 
defended  the  south  part  of  the  town,  Mosely  being  stationed 
at  the  center  and  Poole  at  the  north.  Major  Treat  with  his 
company  appeared  from  Northampton  before  the  engage- 
ment was  over.  The  fighting  lasted  about  two  hours  and 
the  Indians  were  repulsed  with  great  loss.  Their  numbers 
were  probably  overstated.  The  English  lost  nine  men,  two 
of  them,  Thomas  Meekins  and  Nathaniel  Collins,  from 
Hatfield.  A  few  barns  and  other  buildings  were  burned, 
but  the  failure  of  the  attack  greatly  discouraged  the  Indians. 
After  a  repulse  at  Northampton  they  changed  their  tactics 
and  made  no  more  open  assaults,  confining  their  attention 
to  murdering  defenseless  men  at  work  or  ambushing  small 
scouting  parties. 

By  November  the  Indians  had  disappeared  from  the  valley 
and  the  Connecticut  troops  withdrew,  leaving  in  the  towns 
garrisons  of  the  settlers  and  a  few  soldiers.  The  Hatfield 
company  of  36  men  was  under  command  of  Lieut.  Wil- 
liam Allis,  an  officer  of  the  Hampshire  troop.  Appleton  and 
Mosely  set  out  for  the  Nipmuck  country  to  the  east  and 
destroyed  a  large  quantity  of  corn  so  that  the  savages  were 
destitute  of  supplies  before  spring.  Captain  Appleton 
marched  to  Boston  and  joined  the  expedition  against  the  Nar- 
ragansetts  in  December.  The  Narragansetts  were  dispersed, 
their  fort  was  taken,  and  they  joined  the  bands  in  the  center 
and  western  part  of  the  state.  A  Council  of  War  to  have 
charge  of  aflfairs  in  the  Connecticut  valley  during  the  winter 
was  appointed,  with  Capt.  Jonathan  Poole  as  president,  con- 
sisting of  the  commissioned  officers  of  the  garrisons  of  the 
three  northern  towns  still  held,  Lieut.  David  Wilton  of 
the  Northampton  militia.  Dea.  Peter  Tilton  of  Hadley.  and 
Sergt.  Isaac  Graves  of  Hatfield.  The  losses  in  the  county 
during  the  year  were  thus  stated  by  Rev.  John  Russell,  the 
Hadley  pastor,  who  kept  the  Councils  of  War  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts  and   Connecticut   colonies   informed  of  the   opera- 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  gl 

tions,  about  one  hundred  being  troopers  from  Connecticut 
towns  and  the  Bay: — 


*t 


At  Brookfield, 

August    2, 

13 

Above  Hatfield, 

August  25, 

9 

At  Deerfield, 

September    1  and  after. 

2 

At  Northfield,     . 

September    2, 

8 

Near  Northfield, 

September    4, 

16 

At  Muddy  Brook, 

September  18, 

71 

And  of  Captain  Mosely's  Co., 

September  18, 

3 

At  Northampton, 

September  28, 

2 

At  Springfield, 

October    5, 

4 

At  Hatfield, 

October  19, 

10 

At  Westfield, 

October  27. 

3 

At  Northampton, 

October  29, 

4 

145" 

It  will  be  noted  that  Mr.  RusselKs  account  differs  in  some 
respects  from  the  numbers  given  before.  His  letters  were 
written  before  accurate  accounts  of  the  losses  had  been 
secured. 

Philip  spent  the  winter  of  1675-76  making  further  plans 
for  the  destruction  of  the  English  settlements.  Arrange- 
ments were  made  for  help  from  the  Indians  in  Canada 
under  the  protection  of  the  French.  An  attempt  to  have 
the  Mohawks  join  the  war  failed  because  of  the  treachery 
of  Philip  and  they  attacked  the  eastern  Indians  in  revenge 
for  the  murder  of  some  of  the  Mohawk  warriors. 

The  active  campaign  was  begun  by  the  savages  before  the 
spring  came.  It  was  their  usual  custom  to  wait  until  the 
leaves  were  out  so  that  they  could  creep  through  the  woods 
without  detection.  Lancaster  was  surprised  Feb.  10  and 
minor  depredations  were  committed  at  many  places.  The 
forces  of  the  United  Colonies  were  again  set  in  motion. 
Major  Treat  with  the  Connecticut  companies  reached 
Northampton  March  13.  Captain  Mosely  was  stationed 
at  Hatfield  with  two  companies.  Capt.  William  Turner 
of  Boston  was  also  at  Northampton  with  his  command. 

The  Indians  of  the  tribes  involved  in  the  war  were  gath- 
ered in  force  above  Northfield  and  Philip  was  with  them. 
In  ignorance  of  the  arrival  of  the  troops  an  attack  was  made 
on  Northampton  early  in  the  morning  of  March  14.  with 
the  expectation  of  easily  overcoming  the  sleeping  inhabi- 
tants. The  line  of  palisades  was  broken  into  in  three  places, 
but  the  Indians  found  themselves  in  a  death  trap.     It  was 


32  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

not  SO  easy  to  get  out  as  to  get  in  and,  surprised  by  the 
appearance  of  the  troops  of  Treat  and  Turner,  they  were 
slain  in  great  numbers  and  never  again  during  the  war 
attempted  to  enter  within  a  stockade.  Angered  by  the 
failure  of  the  attack  on  Northampton,  they  turned  against 
Hatfield  and  were  driven  off  by  Captain  Mosely  and  his 
men.  They  remained  in  the  vicinity  for  two  days,  but 
failed  in  a  second  attempt  to  surprise  Northampton  on 
the  night  of  the  16th.  Warning  of  their  approach  was  given 
by  sentinels.  The  whole  body  then  returned  to  Northfield 
with  some  plunder  that  they  had  obtained. 

The  fall  and  winter  had  been  spent  by  the  inhabitants 
of  the  valley  towns  in  building  and  strengthening  fortifi- 
cations. The  fortified  dwellings  had  proved  safe  against 
the  attacks  in  the  previous  summer  and  for  further  protec- 
tion a  line  of  palisades  about  the  dwellings  was  constructed, 
such  as  proved  so  valuable  at  the  attack  on  Northampton. 

The  stockade  at  Hatfield  surrounded  probably  more  than 
half  of  the  houses  built  at  the  time  of  King  Philip's  war 
and  the  settlers  living  outside  brought  their  families,  val- 
uables, and  live  stock  inside  every  night  in  troublesome 
times.  It  ran  parallel  with  the  street  about  200  feet  distant 
from  it.  The  houses  of  Fellows,  Cole,  and  Field  at  the 
south,  and  several  at  the  north,  were  outside.  The  south 
line  of  the  palisades  was  below  the  Goodwin  lot,  occupied 
by  Rev.  Hope  Atherton,  and  the  Daniel  Warner  allotment 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street.  The  north  line  was 
between  the  houses  of  Daniel  White,  Jr.,  and  John  Allis, 
crossing  the  street  to  include  the  homestead  of  Samuel 
Dickinson.  (See  chart  of  house  lots.)  Logs  set  in  the 
ground  close  together  and  projecting  perhaps  ten  or  twelve 
feet  high  formed  the  fortifications.  Possibly  there  were 
at  intervals  platforms  where  sentinels  could  stand.  There 
was  a  gate  at  each  end. 

A  letter  written  in  1889  by  Samuel  D.  Partridge  tells 
of  an  attempt  to  locate  the  line  of  the  stockade,  a  part  of 
which  is  as  follows : — 

"About  fifty  years  ago  Mr.  Sylvester  Judd  of  Northampton  called  upon 
me  at  my  house  in  Hatfield  with  a  request  to  join  him  in  an  effort  to 
ascertain  the  precise  location  of  this  stockade;  with  which  request  I  gladly 
complied,  and  we  proceeded  forthwith  to  give  our  attention  to  the  business. 
We  commenced  in  the  home  lot  of  Col.  Erastus  Billings,  and  soon   found 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  83 

the  object  of  our  search.  We  traced  it  through  Col.  Erastus  Billings's  lot, 
through  that  of  his  brother,  Mr.  Roswell  Billings,  into  the  lot  of  my 
father — and  I  recollect  that  there  it  passed  through  the  site  of  an  old  tan 
yard ;  we  then  followed  it  into  the  Dea.  Partridge  lot,  at  that  time  owned  by 
Miss  Lois  Dickinson,  thence  through  the  lot  of  Chas.  M.  Billings,  thence 
through  that  of  Capt.  Elijah  Smith,  and  through  Dr.  Lyman's  home  lot.  We 
knew  that  we  had  not  reached  its  northern  limit,  but  for  some  cause,  now 
forgotten,  we  followed  it  no  further,  being  satisfied  that  we  had  found  the 
right  location." 

The  tan  yard  spoken  of  was  in  the  rear  of  the  place 
now  occupied  by  Samuel  F.  Billings.  It  was  operated  by 
the  Partridges  in  the  eighteenth  century.  Mr.  Partridge 
thought  that  the  stockade  was  about  100  rods  in  length 
from  north  to  south.  Memorial  Hall  stands  on  the  Lyman 
lot. 

The  campaign  of  1676  was  opening  disastrously  for  the 
Knglish.  The  first  Sunday  of  the  year,  March  26,  old  style, 
Windsor,  Conn.,  was  raided,  Simsbury  burned,  a  party  of 
60  under  Captain  Prince  was  cut  to  pieces  on  the  Pawtucket 
river,  Marlboro  was  devastated,  and  Longmeadow  attacked. 
The  Connecticut  troops  were  called  home  to  defend  their 
own  towns ;  the  Bay  Colony  was  greatly  alarmed  by  attacks 
on  towns  near  the  coast  and  wished  to  withdraw  the  sol- 
diers from  the  interior.  The  sudden  and  often  successful 
attacks  at  widely  scattered  points  threw  the  colonists  into 
a  panic.  Communication  was  slow  and  uncertain  and  the 
Indians  seemed  to  be  united  and  determined  and  present 
in  overwhelming  numbers. 

The  strength  and  unity  of  the  Indians  were  misjudged, 
for  if  they  had  been  as  strong  and  as  well  led  as  was  sup- 
posed their  cause  undoubtedly  would  have  triumphed.  The 
crafty  Philip  was  not  enough  of  a  military  genius  to  take 
advantage  of  the  fear  his  success  had  caused.  The  Indians 
were  short  of  supplies  of  food  and  ammunition.  The 
leaders,  most  of  whom  held  Philip  in  contempt,  were  not 
united  in  plans  and  some  were  ready  to  make  terms  of 
peace.  April  2  one  of  the  most  courageous  and  able  chiefs, 
Canochet,  was  captured  and  killed  and  the  savages  were 
greatly  disheartened.  The  main  bodies  of  warriors  were 
in  camp  above  Deerfield.  April  7  most  of  the  troops  in  the 
valley  were  marched  to  the  Bay  for  the  protection  of  the 
settlements  there,  Captain  Turner  being  left  in  command 
with  a  garrison  of  51  at  Hadley.     There  were  45  so\d\^x?> 


84  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

at  Hatfield  under  Sergt.  Robert  Bardwell,  recently  arrived 
from  London,  and  46  at  Northampton  under  Serg^.  Ezra 
Fogg.     Springfield  and   Westfield   were  well  garrisoned. 

The  Indians  in  the  camps  farther  up  the  river  began  the 
planting  of  crops  as  spring  advanced.  The  game  became 
more  plentiful  and  with  the  removal  of  the  fear  of  starv^a- 
tion,  which  had  threatened  them  during  the  winter,  their 
spirits  revived.  Seventy  or  eighty  head  of  stock  were 
secured  in  a  raid  on  the  North  Meadow  of  Hatfield,  May  12. 

This  raid  roused  the  settlers  and  the  garrisons  of  the 
towns  to  take  the  offensive  and  while  the  Indians  were 
feasting  and  dancing  in  their  camp  at  Peskeompskut,  the 
falls  between  Gill  and  Montague,  in  fancied  security,  prepa- 
rations for  a  raid  upon  them  were  made.  May  15  a  captive, 
Thomas  Reed,  escaped  with  the  news  of  the  unprepared 
state  of  the  savages.  On  the  18th  a  force  of  141  men  was 
gathered  at  Hatfield  for  a  march  northward  under  command 
of  Captain  Turner.  Capt.  Samuel  Holyoke  of  the  Spring- 
field militia  was  second  in  command.  Experience  Hinsdale 
of  Hadley  and  Benjamin  Waite  of  Hatfield  were  the  guides 
and  Rev.  Hope  Atherton  accompanied  the  expedition  as 
chaplain.  There  were  34  troopers  from  the  garrisons  of  the 
three  frontier  towns  and  22  from  Westfield  and  Springfield 
under  command  of  Lieut.  Joseph  Fay  of  Boston.  The 
rest  were  volunteers,  25  from  Hadlev,  12  from  Hatfield. 
22  from  Northampton,  23  from  Springfield,  and  3  from 
Westfield.  They  set  out  after  sunset  on  Thursday,  May 
18,  with  provisions  for  a  day's  expedition,  and  pushed  on  by 
the  scenes  of  the  Swamp  fight,  the  Bloody  Brook  massacre, 
and  the  abandoned  settlement  of  Deerfield.  Crossing  the 
Pocumtuck  river  they  had  a  narrow  escape  from  discovery 
by  an  Indian  sentinel,  but  they  reached  the  camp  undis- 
covered before  daybreak.  It  was  unguarded  and  the  revel- 
ers were  buried  in  dead  sleep.  The  attacking  force,  leaving 
their  horses  in  the  rear,  stole  softly  up  and  with  the  dawn 
the  signal  for  attack  was  given.  The  crash  of  the  guns 
was  the  first  intimation  to  the  Indians  of  the  presence  of 
the  whites.  Many  were  killed  at  the  first  fire.  A  wild  panic 
ensue<l  in  which  few  escaped.  They  supposed  the  Mohawks 
were  upi>n  tlic^i  again.  No  (|uarter  was  given  and  numbers 
of  the  savai^es  ju  rped  into  the  water  (^r  fell  from  the  canoes 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  85 

in  which  they  attempted  to  escape  and  were  carried  to  death 
over  the  falls,  the  noise  of  whose  waters  had  drowned  the 
approach  of  the  attacking  party,  known  from  this  time  as 
Turners  Falls,  after  the  leader  of  the  expedition.  The 
only  loss  to  the  English  was  one  killed  by  his  companions 
by  mistake  as  he  came  out  of  a  wigwam,  and  one  wounded. 
The  camp  was  wholly  destroyed. 

Disaster  quickly  overtook  the  victors,  who  delayed  upon 
the  spot  too  long.  Other  Indians  were  close  by  and  an 
alarm  was  given  in  the  other  camps  in  the  vicinity.  The  re- 
port that  Philip  was  at  hand  with  a  thousand  warriors  caused 
a  panic  among  the  white  troops.  The  men,  exhausted 
by  their  long  night  march,  were  not  in  condition  to  make 
an  orderly  retreat  and  Captain  Turner  was  suffering  from 
illness.  One  party,  guided  by  Hinsdale,  became  entangled 
in  a  swamp  and  all  were  lost.  Benjamin  Waite  led  his 
party  safely  away.  Captain  Turner  received  a  mortal 
wound  as  he  was  crossing  Green  river.  The  command 
then  fell  to  Captain  Holyoke  of  Springfield,  who  did  his 
best  to  preserve  a  semblance  of  order.  The  infuriated 
savages  with  whoops  and  yells  surrounded  the  fleeing  band 
on  all  sides  in  the  thick  woods,  picking  off  many  men, 
following  as  far  as  "The  Bars''  at  Deerfield.  When  the 
expedition  reached  Hatfield  again  45  men  were  missing, 
nearly  one  third  of  the  number  that  set  out,  and  two  were 
mortally  wounded.  Two  others  reached  the  settlement 
that  night,  two  on  Sunday,  and  two  on  Monday.  The  total 
loss  was  42,  including  the  captain  and  one  guide.  The 
accounts  of  the  loss  of  the  Indians  vary  from  60  warriors 
to  400,  including  women  and  children.  The  following 
Hatfield  men  took  part  in  the  expedition:  William  Allis, 
son  of  the  lieutenant,  William  Arms,  Rev.  Hope  Atherton, 
Sergt.  Robert  Bardwell.  Samuel  Belden,  Stephen  Belden, 
John.Colefax,  Samuel  Field,  Nathaniel  Foote,  Samuel  Gil- 
lett,  William  Scott,  and  Sergt.  Benjamin  Waite.  William 
Allis,  John  Colefax,  and  Samuel  Gillett  were  killed.  Among 
those  who  found  their  way  back  to  the  settlements  later 
than  the  main  body  was  Rev.  Hope  Atherton.  He  never 
recovered  from  the  exposure  and  died  June  4,  1677.  The 
story  of  his  remarkable  escape  was  read  by  him  to  his  con- 
gregation after  his  sermon  on  Sunday,  May  28*. — 


85  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"Hope  Atherton  desires  this  Congregation  and  all  people  that  shall  hear 
of  the  Lord's  dealings  with  him,  to  praise  and  give  thanks  to  God  for  a 
series  of  remarkable  deliverances  wrought  for  him.  The  passages  of  divine 
providence  (being  considered  together)  make  up  a  complete  temporal  sah^a- 
tion.  I  have  passed  through  the  Valley  of  the  Shadow  of  Death,  and  both 
the  rod  and  staff  of  God  delivered  me.  A  particular  relation  of  extreme 
sufferings  that  I  have  undergone,  &  signal  escapes  that  the  Lord  hath  made 
way  for,  I  make  openly,  that  glory  may  be  given  to  him,  for  his  works  that 
have  been  wonderful  in  themselves,  and  marvellous  in  mine  eyes ;  and  will  be 
so  in  the  hearts  of  all  whose  hearts  are  prepared  to  believe  what  I  shall 
relate.  On  the  morning  (May  19,  1676)  that  followed  the  night  in  which  I 
went  out  against  the  enemy  with  others,  I  was  in  eminent  danger  through  an 
instrument  of  death;  a  gun  was  discharged  against  me  at  a  small  distance; 
the  Lord  diverted  the  bullet  so  that  no  harm  was  done  me.  When  I  was 
separated  from  the  army,  none  pursued  after  me,  as  if  God  had  given  the 
heathen  a  charge,  saying,  let  him  alone,  he  shall  have  his  life  for  a  prey. 
The  night  following  I  wandered  up  and  down  among  the  dwelling  places  of 
our  enemies;  but  none  of  them  espied  me.  Sleep  fell  upon  their  eyes  and 
slumbering  upon  their  eyelids.  Their  dogs  moved  not  their  tongues.  The 
next  day  I  was  encompassed  with  enemies,  unto  whom  I  tendered  myself  a 
captive.  The  Providence  of  God  seemed  to  require  me  so  to  do.  No  way 
appeared  to  escape,  and  I  had  been  a  long  time  without  food.  They  accepted 
not  the  tender  which  I  made;  when  I  spake  they  answered  not.  When  I 
moved  toward  them,  they  moved  away  from  me.  I  expected  they  would  have 
laid  hands  upon  me,  but  they  did  not.  Understanding  that  this  seems  strange 
and  incredible  to  some,  I  have  considered  whether  I  was  not  deceived;  and 
after  consideration  of  all  things.  I  cannot  find  sufficient  grounds  to  alter  my 
thoughts.  If  any  have  reason  to  judge  otherwise  than  myself,  who  am  less 
than  the  least  in  the  Kingdom  of  God,  I  desire  them  to  intimate  what  their 
reason  is.  When  I  have  mused,  that  which  hath  cast  my  thoughts  according 
to  the  report  I  first  made  is,  that  it  tends  to  the  glory  of  God  in  no  small 
measure ;  if  it  were  so  as  I  believe  it  was,  that  I  was  encompassed  with  cruel 
and  unmerciful  enemies,  and  they  were  restrained  by  the  hand  of  God  from 
doing  the  least  injury  to  me.  This  evidenceth  that  the  Most  High  nilcth  in 
the  kingdom  of  men,  &  doeth  whatsoever  pleaseth  him  among  them.  Ene- 
mies cannot  do  what  they  will,  but  are  subservient  to  overruling  providence 
of  God.  God  always  can  and  sometimes  doth  set  bounds  unto  the  wrath  of 
man.  On  the  same  day,  which  was  the  last  day  of  the  week,  not  long  before 
the  sun  did  set,  I  declared  with  submission  that  I  would  go  to  the  Indian 
habitations.  I  spake  such  language  as  I  thought  they  understood.  Accord- 
ingly I  endeavored ;  but  God.  whose  thoughts  were  higher  than  my  thoughts, 
prevented  me  by  his  good  providence.  I  was  carried  beside  the  path  I 
intended  to  walk  in  &  brought  to  the  sides  of  the  great  river,  which  was  a 
good  guide  unto  me.  The  most  observable  passage  of  providence  was  on  the 
Sabbath  day  morning.  Having  entered  upon  a  plain,  I  saw  two  or  three 
spies,  who  I  (at  first)  thought  had  a  glance  upon  me.  Wherefore  I  turned 
aside  and  lay  down.  They  climbed  up  into  a  tree  to  spy.  Then  my  soul 
begged  of  God  that  he  would  put  it  into  their  hearts  to  go  away.  I  waited 
patiently  and  it  was  not  long  ere  they  went  away.  Then  I  took  that  course 
which  I  thought  best  according  to  the  wisdom  that  God  had  given  me. 

"Two  things  I  must  not  pass  over  that  are  matters  of  thanksgiving  unto 
God ;  the  first  is  that  when  my  strength  w^as  far  spent,  I  passed  through  deep 
waters  and  they  overflowed  me  not  according  to  those  gracious  words  of 
Isa.  43 :  2 ;  the  second  is,  that  I  subsisted  the  space  of  three  days  &  part  of  a 
fourth  without  ordinary  food.  I  thought  upon  those  words  *Man  liveth  not 
by  bread  alone  but  by  every  word  that  proceedeth  out  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Lord.'  I  think  not  too  much  to  say  that  should  you  &  T  be  silent  &  not  set 
forth  the  praises  of  God  through  Jesus  Christ  that  the  stones  and  beams  of 
our  houses  would  sing  hallelujah.  I  am  not  conscious  to  myself  that  I  have 
exceeded  in  speech.  If  I  have  spoken  beyond  what  is  convenient  I  know  it 
not.  I  leave  these  lines  as  an  orphan,  and  shall  rejoice  to  hear  that  it  finds 
foster   Fathers  &  Mothers.     However  it   fare  amongst  men,  yet  if   it  find 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  87 

acceptance  with  God,  thro'  Christ  Jesus  I  shall  have  cause  to  be  abundantly 
satislied.  God's  providence  hath  been  so  wonderful  toward  me,  not  because  I 
have  more  wisdom  than  others  (Danl.  2:  30)  nor  because  I  am  more  righteous 
than  others ;  but  because  it  so  pleased  God.  H.  A. 

"Hatfield,  May  24th,  1676." 

It  has  often  been  supposed  that  Mr.  Atherton  crossed 
the  Connecticut.  Judd  in  his  "History  of  Hadley"  states 
that  he  came  into  Hadley  on  Monday,  but  points  out  that 
he  did  not  tell  how  he  crossed  the  river.  The  "deep  waters*' 
in  the  narrative  were  the  Deerfield  and  not  the  Connecticut, 
as  indicated  by  Sheldon  in  his  "History  of  Deerfield."  Many 
people  were  not  willing  to  credit  the  story  of  the  escape, 
suggesting  that  he  was  beside  himself  and  for  this  reason 
he  gave  the  written  record  for  the  benefit  of  his  congrega- 
tion and  posterity.  The  truth  of  his  account  is  confirmed 
by  the  statement  of  Jonathan  Wells  that  the  Indians  told 
him  that  after  the  Falls  fight  a  little  man  with  a  black  coat 
and  without  a  hat  came  toward  them,  but  they  were  afraid 
and  ran  away,  thinking  it  was  the  Englishman's  God.  A 
copy  of  Mr.  Atherton's  letter  is  among  the  Judd  manuscripts 
at  the  Forbes  Library  in  Northampton.  For  an  account 
of  the  wonderful  account  of  the  escape  of  Jonathan  Wells, 
see  Appendix,  Note  5. 

On  the  30th  of  May  the  Indians  again  attacked  Hatfield 
with  a  force  estimated  at  700.  The  inhabitants  withdrew  » 
inside  their  stockade  for  defense,  not  daring  to  attack  such 
a  large  force,  and  the  savages  were  left  free  to  burn  the 
houses  and  barns  outside  the  palisades  and  to  collect  plun- 
der. A  party  of  25  from  Hadley,  who  set  out  to  the  rescue 
when  they  saw  the  smoke  and  flames,  were  attacked  by  the 
Indians  while  crossing  the  river  and  one  was  wounded. 
They  fought  their  way  gallantly  towards  the  town  against  a 
party  of  150  Indians.  When  they  were  near  the  gate  the 
Hatfield  men  made  a  sally  to  aid  them.  The  Indians  fought 
desperately  and  25  were  killed.  Of  the  Hadley  men,  one, 
John  Smith,  was  killed  and  one,  John  Hawks,  wounded. 
Of  the  garrison  troops  stationed  at  Hadley  four  were  killed, 
only  two  of  whom  are  known:  Johanna  Smith  of  Farming- 
ton  and  Richard  Hall  of  Middletown;  and  two  were 
wounded,  John  Stow  and  Richard  Orris  of  Connecticut. 
Volunteers  from  Northampton  under  command  of  Capt. 
Benjamin  Newberry  also  attempted  relief,  but  Ihe^  i^^T^^ 


88 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


an  ambush  on  the  road  from  Northampton  and  crossing 
to  Hadley  marched  through  the  streets  to  the  landing  at 
the  north.  Arriving  there  they  did  not  attempt  a  crossing 
on  account  of  the  number  of  Indians  on  the  Hatfield  side 
of  the  landing.  Many  of  the  cattle  of  the  town  were  killed 
and  all  the  sheep  driven  off.  Twelve  houses  and  bams 
were  burned. 

Hadley  was  attacked  June  12  by  250  warriors.  Rein- 
forcements from  Connecticut  had  arrived  on  the  8th  under 
Maj.  John  Talcott,  250  troopers  from  the  towns  on  Long 
Island  Sound  and  200  friendly  Indians:  Pequots,  Mohe- 
gans,  and  Niantics.  With  their  aid  the  attack  was  easily 
repulsed  and  it  proved  to  be  the  last  battle  of  the  war  in 
Hampshire  County.  Some  have  tried  to  connect  General 
Goffe  with  this  assault. 

The  Indians  disappeared  from  the  region,  some  taking 
refuge  in  New  York  state  near  Albany  and  some  in  Canada, 
leaving  the  English  mystified.  An  expedition  from  the  Bay 
under  Capt.  Daniel  Henchman  arrived  on  the  14th,  A 
scout  to  Northfield  disclosed  the  fact  that  the  Indians  had 
gone  and  the  troops,  that  then  mustered  about  900,  returned 
to  their  homes,  leaving  the  settlers  alarmed  lest  another 
attack  should  be  made. 

It  was  afterward  learned  that  on  June  12,  while  the 
fighting  was  in  progress  at  Hadley,  the  Mohawks  had 
attacked  the  camp  of  the  hostile  tribes  and  destroyed  it,  kill- 
ing fifty  women  and  children.  Aid  rendered  the  English 
by  other  savages  brought  about  the  speedy  termination  of 
the  \var  carried  on  by  the  tribes  instigated  by  Philip,  who 
was  himself  killed  Aug.  12.  No  treaty  of  peace  was  made 
because  the  hostile  chiefs  had  all  been  killed  or  had  aban- 
doned  their  old  haunts. 

When  peace  reigned  once  more  in  the  valley  the  inhab- 
itants set  about  building  the  destroyed  dwellings  and  again 
cultivating  their  fields.  A  year  passed  without  attack  and 
bountiful  crops  had  been  harvested.  A  feeling  of  security 
had  taken  the  place  of  the  former  terror. 

On  the  morning  of  Sept.  19,  1677,  the  town  of  Hatfield 
was  visited  by  a  sudden  and  awful  calamity, — another  attack 
from  the  savages,  like  a  bolt  from  a  clear  sky,  that  left 
a  trail  of  ruin  and  devastation.     On  that  bright  fall  morning 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  89 

most  of  the  men  were  at  work  in  the  meadows  cutting  the 
golden  corn.  The  women  were  busy  with  their  household 
duties  and  the  children  were  playing  about  their  houses  and 
in  the  streets  unconscious  of  impending  danger.  At  eleven 
o'clock,  when  the  savory  odors  of  the  noonday  meal  were 
rising  into  the  tranquil  air,  a  blood-curdling  yell  suddenly 
pierced  their  ears — the  dread  war-whoop  of  the  Indians. 
In  a  moment  the  savages  were  upon  the  defenseless  village 
and   the  work  of  destruction  was  begun. 

Through  Middle  Lane  poured  a  band  of  armed  and 
painted  warriors  who  fell  upon  houses  lying  outside  the 
stockade.  The  torch  was  applied  to  the  buildings  of  Samuel 
Kellogg  at  the  corner  of  the  lane  and  his  wife,  Sarah,  and 
her  infant  son  were  killed  and  another  child,  Samuel,  a  boy 
of  three  years,  was  seized  and  bound.  Surprised  by  the 
suddenness  of  the  assault,  Obadiah  Dickinson  and  one  child 
were  captured  unresisting  at  the  house  below.  His  wife 
w^as  wounded  and  left  for  dead  and  the  house  was  set  on 
fire.  John  Allis's  barn  was  burned  and  his  six-year-old 
daughter,  Abigail,  captured.  With  no  attempt  to  enter  the 
open  gate  of  the  stockade  the  invaders  rushed  across 
the  street  to  the  houses  on  the  east  side,  whose  inmates 
in  alarm  were  seeking  places  of  safety.  As  the  savages 
sped  northward  they  stopped  to  kill  the  wife  of  Selectman 
Samuel  Belden,  who  lived  on  the  Silas  Porter  place.  John 
Coleman's  house  was  burned  and  his  wife,  Hannah,  and 
infant  child,  Bethiah,  were  slain,  one  child  was  wounded 
and  two  were  captured,  of  whom  little  Sarah  was  only  four 
years  old.  John  Wells's  daughter,  Elizabeth,  aged  two,  was 
killed,  his  wife,  Sarah,  and  one  child  wounded.  Hannah 
Jennings,  wife  of  Stephen  Jennings,  was  made  a  prisoner  with 
her  two  children  by  her  former  husband,  Samuel  Gillett,  who 
was  killed  at  the  Falls  fight.  Philip  Russell's  wife,  Elizabeth, 
and  their  three-year-old  son,  Stephen,  met  death.  Across  the 
street,  on  the  J.  D.  Brown  place,  stood  the  home  of  Samuel 
Foote,  who  had  moved  from  his  first  allotment.  His  wife, 
Mary,  with  a  young  son,  Nathaniel,  and  a  three-year-old 
daughter,  Mary,  was  seized  and  dragged  along.  On  the 
next  lot  above  men  were  at  work  building  a  house  for  John 
Graves,  Jr.,  who  was  soon  to  marry  Sarah  White,  daughter 
of   John   White,  Jr.     Hastening  northward  to   fvTv\s\v  \\v^\t 


90  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

work  of  destruction,  with  an  attack  on  the  family  of  their 
hated  foe,  Benjamin  Waite,  they  shot  from  the  frame  of 
the  structure  being  erected  the  brothers,  John  and  Isaac 
Graves,  and  two  young  carpenters  from  Springfield,  John 
Atchisson  and  John  Cooper.  Waite's  house  was  at  the  very 
end  of  the  village  street,  the  site  now  occupied  by  M.  J. 
Ryan.  The  revengeful  savages  vented  their  hatred  by 
burning  his  house  and  barn  and  taking  away  with  them  his 
whole  family, — his  wife,  Martha,  and  three  children,  Mary, 
Martha,  and  Sarah,  aged  six,  four,  and  two.  Abigail,  the 
eight-year-old  daughter  of  William  Bartholomew,  a  former 
resident  of  Deerfield,  was  also  captured. 

Exulting  in  savage  glee  at  the  success  of  their  raid,  the 
Indians  forced  their  captives  across  the  fields  to  the  Pocum- 
tuck  path  at  the  foot  of  Clay  hill,  taking  with  them  w^hat 
plunder  they  had  stopped  to  collect,  and  hastened  north- 
ward up  the  valley.  The  captives  numbered  seventeen. 
Twelve  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  ill-fated  town  were  left 
dead  near  their  ruined  homes  and  four  were  wounded. 
Thirteen  homes  had  been  invaded.  It  was  the  most  de- 
structive attack  that  had  so  far  visited  the  colony. 

The    shouts    and    screams    and    the    noise    of    the    firing 
reached  the  ears  of  the  men  in  the  meadows  to  the  south 
and  the  mounting  flames  and  smoke  warned  them  of  what 
to  expect.     They  flew  to  the  relief  of  the  unguarded  settle- 
ment, but  before  they  arrived  the  foe  had  departed  and  all 
that  could  be  done  was  to  care  for  the  wounded,  remove  the 
bodies  of   the  victims   of  the   savage  tomahawk  and   gun, 
and    make    up   the   roll    of   the    missing.     Stunned    by   the 
suddenness   and   completeness   of   the   blow  and   fearful  of 
an  ambuscade  in  the  swamps  above  no  pursuit  of  the  Indians 
was  attempted,  but  messengers  were  dispatched  to  the  other" 
towns  with   the  news  and   to  ask   for  assistance. 

It  was  thought  at  first  that  the  attack  was  made  by 
Mohawks,  six  of  whom  had  been  seized  and  thrown  into 
prison  when  hunting  near  the  Charles  river.  A  party  of 
Mohawks  with  a  scalp,  and  two  Natick  squaws  on  theif 
return  to  New  York,  passed  the  night  of  Sept.  18  in  Hatfield* 
The  Naticks  had  been  allies  of  the  English  during  the  war 
just  closed.     Major  Pynchon  was  notified  and  he,  alarmed 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


92  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

lest  the  attack  foreshadowed  another  period  of  Indian  war- 
fare, sent  to  Connecticut  for  aid. 

The  Indians  with  their  captives  and  booty  marched  to 
Deerfield,  which  they  attacked  the  evening  of  the  19th, 
killing  John  Root  and  taking  prisoners  Sergt.  John  Plymp- 
ton,  Benoni.  Stebbins,  Quintin  Stockwell,  and  Samuel  Rus- 
sell, a  boy  of  eight  or  nine,  a  son  of  Philip  Russell  of  Hatfield. 
Sheldon  thinks  that  these  were  all  that  were  at  that  time  in 
the  settlement,  which  was  being  rebuilt. 

After  a  halt  for  the  night  in  the  woods  near-by  the  long 
journey  to  Canada  was  begun.     The  captives  were  fastened 
securely  each  night  by  "staking  down"  the  limbs   and  by 
the  use  of  cords.     After  traveling  far  enough  north  to  be 
out  of  danger  of  pursuit  by  the   English  troops,  probably 
near   Putney,  Vt.,  a  long  wigwam  was  built  and   a   great 
dance  was  held.     But  for  the  efforts  of  Ashpelon,  the  leader, 
some    of    the    captives    w^ould    have    been    burned.     Word 
was  sent  to  a  party  of  Nipmucks,  w^ho  had  left  Canada  with 
the  expedition,  but  w^ent  toward  Wachusett,  to  rejoin  the 
band.     Benoni  Stebbins  was  taken  along  by  the  messengers, 
but  he  escaped  on  the  way  back  and  reached  Hadley,  Oct. 
4,  with  the  news  that  the  Indians  who  attacked  Hatfield  and 
Deerfield  numbered' 26,  all  Pocumtucks  but  one,  a   Narra- 
gansett,  only  18  of  whom  were  warriors,  the  rest  being  old 
men,   women,   and   boys.     The    Nipmucks,   after    Stebbins'^ 
escape,  wished  to  torture  all  the  captives  and  were  opposed 
to  any  idea  of  a  ransom,  w-hich  Ashpelon  desired  to  arrange 
for  with  the  settlers  before  proceeding  further.     When  his 
views   did   not   prevail    he   advised   the    captives,    who   had 
strongly  urged  opening  negotiations  for  a  ransom,  "not  to 
speak    a    word    more    to    further    the    matter,    for    mischief 
would  come  of  it."  Ashpelon  seems  to  have  been  far  above 
most  of  his  fellows  in  his  ideas  of  justice  and  fair  treatment. 

Consternation  reigned  in  Hatfield.  A  troop  from  Hart- 
ford under  Captain  Watts  with  volunteers  from  the  Massa- 
chusetts towns  went  40  miles  above  the  town  without  dis- 
covering signs  of  the  enemy,  though  the  Indian  scouts  knew 
of  their  presence.  Major  Pynchon  was  at  a  loss  what 
to  do. 

One  man,  however,  determined  upon  a  plan  of  action. 
The  guide  but  for  whose  clear  head  and  instinctive  knowl- 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  93 

edge  of  woodcraft  and  Indian  fighting  the  whole  of  Turner's 
expedition  would  have  been  lost  the  year  before,  Benjamin 
Waite,  surmised  the  quarter  from  which  the  blow  fell.  Has- 
tening to  Albany  alone  to  make  sure  that  the  Mohawks  were 
not  the  guilty  ones,  he  returned  to  Springfield,  Oct.  4,  with 
letters  to  Major  Pynchon  from  Capt.  Sylvester  Salisbury, 
the  commander  at  Albany,  removing  suspicion  from  the 
New  York  tribe.  Stopping  only  long  enough  to  get  from 
his  townsmen  a  petition  for  authority  and  aid  for  an  expe- 
dition to  Canada  he  pushed  on  the  same  day  to  Boston, 
before  hearing  of  Stebbins's  escape. 

Major  Pynchon  immediately  sent  a  post  to  Albany  with 
a  letter  thanking  Captain  Salisbury  for  his  information, 
giving  the  report  of  Stebbins  and  urging  that  the  Mohawks 
be  incited  to  pursue  Ashpelon  and  his  men.  The  postscript 
show^s  how  well  the  leader  of  the  Hampshire  troop  knew 
the  daring  Indian  scout :  "Ben  Waite  is  gone  home  before 
this  Intelligence  (Stebbins's)  came  to  me.  He  talkt  of  going 
to  Canada  before  and  I  suppose  will  be  rather  forward  to 
it  now  than  backward."  For  this  letter  and  other  official 
papers,  see  Appendix,  Note  6. 

Efforts  to  ransom  the  captives  failed  owing  to  the  break- 
ing of  an  engagement  by  the  Indians.  In  the  latter  part 
of  September  a  few  of  the  savages  surrendered  to  the  garrison 
of  the  mill  at  North  Hadley  when  they  were  caught  prowling 
about.  A  parley  concerning  the  release  of  the  prisoners  was 
held,  thought  by  Hubbard  to  be  only  a  ruse  of  the  Indians 
to  escape  detection  after  failing  in  an  attempt  to  burn  the 
mill.  It  was  burned  in  October,  1677,  the  dav  not  stated 
in  the  records,  and  perhaps  by  members  of  the  same  band. 
Released  shortly  after  by  the  settlers,  who  evidently  thought 
them  sincere,  the  Indians  agreed  to  return  Oct.  14  to  hold  a 
conference  in  Hadley.  It  seems  probable  that  they  had  been 
sent  by  Ashpelon  on  a  secret  mission  with  the  intention  of 
being  captured.  The  General  Court  of  Connecticut  sent 
on  request  Major  Treat  and  40  men  to  aid  in  the  negotia- 
tions or  defend  the  towns  if  necessarv.  The  Indians  did  nor 
keep  the  agreement  to  meet  on  the  14th,  the  opposition  of 
the  Nipmucks  being  too  strong.  Sheldon  says,  "They  were 
willing  to  meet  the  English,  indeed,  but  only  to  fall  upon 
them  and  fight  them  and  take  them." 


94  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD, 

Waite  met  with  delay  in  Boston,  for  the  colony  was  short 
of  funds,  but  his  persistence  secured  him  the  appointment 
on  Oct.  22  as  agent  to  secure  the  release  of  the  captives  and 
financial  backing  was  guaranteed.  With  letters  to  the 
authorities  in  Albany  and  Canada,  he  reached  Hatfield 
Oct.  24,  setting  out  for  the  west  again  at  once  with  Stephen 
Jennings  for  a  companion,  a  man  thoughtful  and  silent,  ex- 
celling in  discretion  and  good  judgment,  no  less  persevering 
than  Waite  himself. 

They  arrived  at  Albany  the  30th,  where  they  were  coolly 
received  by  Captain  Salisbury  and  ordered  to  call  on  him 
again  later.  Having  already  been  delayed  too  much  and 
wishing  to  start  before  the  season  should  become  late  they 
hastened  to  Schenectady  to  secure  a  guide.  It  was  a  costly 
mistake  for  them,  for  the  ruffled  dignity  of  Captain  Salis- 
bury, who  had  not  been  consulted,  had  to  be  smoothed. 
They  were  arrested  and  sent  down  the  river  to  New  York 
to  be  examined  by  the  governor  of  that  colony.  Their 
story  was  sympathetically  received  by  Governor  Brock- 
holds  and  they  w^ere  sent  back  to  Albany  and  the  captain 
was  instructed  not  to  delay  them  again  but  rather  to  give 
aid.  The  delay  had  cost  them  precious  time  and  it  was  Dec. 
10  before  they  could  leave  Albany.  Winter  was  at  hand 
and  the  perils  of  a  dreary  march  through  an  unknown  coun- 
try buried  deep  in  snow  stared  the  intrepid  rescuers  in  the 
face. 

But  neither  was  a  man  to  be  checked  by  difficulty.  A 
Mohawk  guide  was  secured,  who  conducted  them  to  Lake 
George.  He  left  them  there  after  fitting  out  a  canoe  and 
drawing  on  a  piece  of  birch  bark  a  rude  sketch  of  Lake 
George  and  Lake  Champlain.  They  made  the  trip  to  the 
upper  end  of  Lake  George  in  three  days  and  carried  the 
canoe  across  the  three-mile  portage,  reaching  the  shores  of 
Lake  Champlain  on  Dec.  16,  the  first  English  colonists  to  ex- 
plore the  region.  They  were  detained  for  six  days  at  the  place 
where  later  Fort  Ticonderoga  was  built,  unable  to  make 
headway  against  the  w^ind  in  their  frail  canoe.  Ice  delayed 
their  progress  also,  but  was  not  strong  enough  to  bear  them 
on  foot.  Their  provisions  became  exhausted  and  they  had 
to  subsist  on  what  they  could  find.  Some  raccoons  were 
killed  in  a  hollow  tree  near  the  shore  and  a  bag  of  biscuits 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  95 

and   some   brandy   left   by   a   hunter  were   discovered   in  a 
deserted  wigwam. 

Meanwhile  the  captives  had  been  journeying  to  Canada 
by  another  route.  About  the  time  the  rescuers  left  Hat- 
field, Oct.  22,  the  long  wigwam  was  abandoned  and  the 
captives  resumed  the  weary  march  to  Canada,  the  first  of 
many  similar  parties  to  traverse  the  northern  wilderness 
under  savage  guard.  Some  provisions  and  ten  horses  had 
been  secured  at  the  raid  on  Deerfield.  Their  route  was  up 
the  Connecticut  valley  for  about  200  miles,  then  across  the 
mountains  to  Lake  Champlain.  The  French  settlements 
were  reached  about  the  1st  of  January  after  terrible  suffer- 
ing from  cold  and  lack  of  food.  Two  of  the  children,  Sam- 
uel Russell  and  Mary  Foote,  were  killed  on  the  way,  prob- 
ably because  they  fell  sick.  Little  Sally  Coleman  trudged 
beside  her  mother,  perhaps  sometimes  given  a  ride  on  the 
horses.  A  little  shoe  with  a  red  top,  worn  and  ragged, 
mutely  tells  to  visitors  in  Memorial  Hall  in  Deerfield  the 
hardships  of  the  march.  Soon  after  the  arrival  in  Canada 
Sergeant  Plympton  was  burned  at  the  stake,  Obadiah 
Dickinson  being  compelled  to  lead  him  out  to  meet  the 
fate  his  ferocious  captors  ordained. 

Waite  and  Jennings  arrived  at  Chamble,  a  frontier  town 
of  ten  houses,  about  the  6th  of  January.  On  their  way  to 
Sorel  they  found  Jennings's  wife  and  at  that  place  a  few 
other  captives,  who  had  been  pawned  to  the  French  for  liquor. 
The  others  were  among  the  Indians  not  far  distant. 

In  a  few  days  the  rescuers  set  out  for  Quebec,  where 
they  were  kindly  received  by  Governor  Frontenac.  With 
his  aid  a  ransom  was  effected  by  the  promise  of  the  payment 
of  £200.  Returning  to  their  kinsmen  they  found  that  on 
Jan.  22  Waite's  wife  had  borne  a  child.  She  was  named 
Canada.  Fifty  days  later  a  girl  was  born  to  Jennings,  who 
was  called  Captivity. 

When  the  long  Canadian  winter  was  over,  the  party  set 
out  for  their  homes  with  an  escort  of  French  soldiers. 
Starting  from  Sorel  on  May  2,  Albany  was  reached  the  22d. 
From  Albany  the  news  was  sent  to  the  anxious  ones  in 
Deerfield  and  Hatfield.     The  two  letters  tell  the  story: — 


96  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"Albanv,  May  22,  1678. 

"Loviftg  wife — Having  now  opportunity  to  remember  my  kind  love  to  thcc 
and  our  child,  and  the  rest  of  our  freinds,  though  wee  met  with  greate 
afflictions  and  trouble  since  I  see  thee  last,  yet  now  here  is  opportunity  of 
joy  and  thanksgiving  to  God,  that  wee  are  now  pretty  well,  and  in  a  hopeful 
way  to  see  the  faces  of  one  another,  before  we  take  our  finall  farewell  of  this 
present  world.  Likewise  God  hath  raised  us  freinds  amongst  our  enemies, 
and  there  is  but  3  of  us  dead  of  all  those  that  were  taken  away — Sergt 
Plympton,  Samuel  Russel,  Samuel  Foot's  daughter.  So  I  conclude  being  in 
hast,  and  rest  your  most  affectionate  husband,  till  death  makes  separation. 

"QUINTIN    StOCKWELL." 


"Albany,  May  23,  1678. 

'*To  my  loving  friends  and  kindred  at  Hatfield — These  few  lines  are  to  let 
you  understand  that  we  are  arrived  at  Albany  now  with  the  captives,  and  we 
now  stand  in  need  of  assistance,  for  my  charges  is  very  greate  and  heavy; 
and  therefore  any  that  have  any  love  to  our  condition,  let  it  moove  them  to 
come  and  help  us  in  this  straight.  There  is  3  of  ye  captives  that  are  mur- 
dered,— old  Goodman  Plympton,  Samuel  Foot's  daughter,  Samuel  Russell. 
All  the  rest  are  alive  and  well  and  now  at  Albany,  namely,  Obadiah  Dicken- 
son and  his  child,  Mary  Foot  and  her  child,  Hannah  Gennings  and  3  children, 
Abigail  Ellice,  Abigail  Bartholomew,  Goodman  Coleman's  children,  Samuel 
Kellogg,  my  wife  and  four  children,  and  Quintin  Stockwell.  I  pray  j'ou 
hasten  the  matter,  for  it  requireth  greate  hast.  Stay  not  for  ye  Sabbath,  nor 
shoeing  of  horses.  We  shall  endeavor  to  meete  you  at  Canterhook;  it  may 
be  at  riouseatonock.  We  must  come  very  softly  because  of  our  wives  and 
children.  1  pray  you,  hasten  then,  stay  not  night  nor  day,  for  ye  matter 
requireth  greate  hast.     Bring  provisions  with  you  for  us. 

"Your  loving  kinsman, 

^'Benjamin  Waite. 

"At  Albany,  written  from  niyne  own  hand.  As  I  have  bin  affected  to 
yours  all  that  were  fatherless,  be  affected  to  me  now,  and  hasten  ye  matter 
and  stay  not,  and  case  me  of  my  charges.  You  shall  not  need  to  be  afraid 
of  any  enemies." 

Remaining  at  Albany  five  days  to  refresh  themselves 
they  arrived  Monday,  May  27,  at  Kinderhook,  22  miles 
distant,  where  they  were  met  by  the  party  from  Hatfield 
with  horses  and  provisions.  At  Westfield  they  w^ere  greeted 
by  all  their  friends  and  neighbors  who  could  make  the  trip 
and  their  progress  homew^ard  was  a  triumphal  procession, 
greeted  at  every  village  by  the  rejoicing  settlers.  Some  of 
the  French  escort,  who  had  business  in  Boston,  accompanied 
them   as   far  as   Springfield. 

'Fhe  letters  from  Waite  and  Stockwell  were  not  the  first 
tidings  from  the  rescuers  of  the  success  of  their  mission, 
for  earlv  in  March  a  letter  was  received  from  Timothv 
Coo])er,  a  member  of  the  Council  at  Albany,  by  Major 
I\vnchon,  telling  of  the  safe  arrival  in  Canada  of  Waite  and 
Jennings  and  the  redemption  of  the  captives.  Major  Pyn- 
chon  probably  forwarded  the  news  at  once  to  Hatfield  and 
Deerfield,   but    he   could   not    tell    who   had  been   killed,   so 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  97 

that  there  was  constant  anxiety  till  the  welcome  information 
came  from  Waiters  own  hand. 

A  copy  of  his  letter  was  at  once  forwarded  to  Governor 
Leverett  at  Boston.  A  fast  had  been  appointed  for  June 
6  and  the  governor  on  May  30,  the  day  after  receiving  the 
letter,  issued  the  following  public  notice : — 

''Knowing  that  the  labor,  hazard  and  charge  of  said  Benjamin  Waite  and 
his  associate  have  been  great,  we  recommend  their  case  with  the  captives  for 
relief,  to  the  pious  charity  of  the  elders,  ministers  and  congregations  of  the 
several  towns;  that  on  the  fast  day,  they  manifest  their  charity  by  con- 
tributing to  the  relief  of  said  persons.  And  the  ministers  are  desired  to 
stir  up  the  people  thereunto.  For  quickening  this  work,  we  do  hereby  remit 
a  copy  of  Benjamin  Waite's  letter,  to  be  read  publickly  either  before  or 
upon  that  day;  and  what  is  freely  given,  is  to  be  remitted  to  Mr.  Anthony 
Stoddard,  Mr.  John  Joyliff  and  Mr.  John  Richards,  or  either  of  them,  who 
are  appointed  to  deliver  and  distribute  the  same  for  the  ends  aforesaid. 

"Signed  by  Edward  Rawson,  Secretary" 


The  suddenness  of  the  attack  on  Hatfield  had  stunned  the 
whole  colony  and  made  every  town  fear  another  Indian 
war.  The  news  of  the  rescue  of  the  captives  brought  joy 
to  every  English  settler  and  the  response  to  the  appeal  was 
prompt  and  generous.  The  ransom  money  was  quickly 
raised.  When  Waite  penned  his  letter  in  haste  to  his 
friends  in  Hatfield  it  is  unlikely  that  he  foresaw  that  it 
would  be  read  in  every  pulpit  in  the  colony  within  two 
weeks,  nor  could  he  suppose  that  after  200  years  it  would 
be  set  up  in  enduring  bronze,  where  to  all  who  enter  the 
Hatfield  Memorial  Hall  it  tells  with  pathetic  eloquence 
the  heroism  and  the  victory  of  the  man  of  simple  faith, 
resolute  will,  and  indomitable  courage,  who,  with  one  stead- 
fast companion,  overcame  the  fears  of  a  bewildered  com- 
munity, the  dilatory  methods  of  reluctant  officials,  and  with 
undaunted  heart  faced  the  perils  of  an  untrodden  wilderness 
on  a  trip  of  1500  miles,  escaping  "the  arrow  that  fiieth  by 
day  and  the  pestilence  that  walketh  in  darkness,"  enduring 
the  bitter  cold  of  winter,  suffering  the  cruel  pangs  of  hunger 
and  thirst.  It  was  no  small  triumph  to  prevail  upon  the 
proud  governor  of  the  lordly  city  of  Quebec  to  lend  assist- 
ance to  the  families  of  a  handful  of  poor  farmers,  who  spoke 
an    alien   tongue. 

The  gratitude  of  Waite  at  the  affection  of  those  who 
by  their  contributions  made  return  to  his  affection  "to  yours 
all   that  were  fatherless"  bore   fruit  in  a  monument  more 


98  HISTORY    OF   HATFIELD. 

enduring  than  bronze.  Let  it  not  be  thought  a  far-fetched 
conclusion  to  assume  that  the  memory  of  the  ready  response 
of  June  6,  cherished  by  the  descendants  of  the  babe  bom 
in  captivity,  was  the  inspiration  of  the  Smith  Charities  that, 
established  nearly  two  centuries  later,  are  a  help  to  the 
fatherless  and  widows,  to  young  and  old  "in  straights." 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

A  PERIOD  OF  PEACE,  1677-1688.    A  TIME  OF  IMPORTANT  BEGIN- 
NINGS.    THE  REVOLUTION   OF   1688. 

"  The  old  order  changeth,  yielding  place  to  new." 

Losses  during  the  war. — ^Taxes. — Additional  fortifications. — Military  train- 
ing.— Town  officials. — Dr.  Hastings. — Poverty  after  the  war. — First  valuation 
of  land. — Attorneys  chosen. — Samuel  Partridge. — The  oath  of  allegiance. — 
Settlement  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Chauncey. — Attempts  to  secure  Rev.  John 
Wise. — Building  up  of  "the  Hill." — Lots  assigned  on  Mill  Lane. — Division  of 
the  Commons. — First  schools. — Settlement  of  Rev.  William  Williams. — Care 
of  paupers. — Weights  and  measures. — ^The  revolt  against  Governor  Andres. — 
The  new  charter. 

The  losses  suffered  by  Hatfield  in  the  three  years  of 
warfare  were  greater  in  proportion  to  the  population  than 
those  of  any  other  town  in  the  valley  except  the  abandoned  , 
settlements  of  Deerfield  and  Northfield.  Twenty-seven  of  - 
the  people  were  killed,  at  least  a  third  of  the  houses  were 
burned,  most  of  the  stock  was  lost,  and  the  crops  had  been 
scanty  from  neglect  and  destruction  by  the  enemy.  A 
petition  to  the  General  Court  stated  that  "from  one  third 
to  one  half  the  houses  were  burnt,  and  the  greater  part 
of  their  kine,  sheep,  and  horses  killed  or  driven  off."  The 
inhabitants  were  also  impoverished  by  the  support  of  a 
large  number  of  troopers  quartered  in  the  town  during  the 
fighting  and  by  the  expenses  of  the  campaigns.  The  slen- 
der resources  of  the  colony  were  much  reduced  and  county 
and  colony  taxes  were  high.  The  county  rates  for  Hatfield 
for  the  years  1675-77  were  £117. 

The  taxes  to  the  colonial  government  during  the  war 
were  in  one  sense  not  burdensome,  for  the  inhabitants 
charged  for  the  board  of  the  troops  quartered  with  them 
at  fixed  rates  and  the  balance  was  in  favor  of  the  town. 
Five  shillings  per  week  was  the  usual  price  of  board.  The 
charges  allowed  in  Hatfield  up  to  May  1,  1676,  made  a  total 
of  £788.  In  October,  1680,  there  was  still  an  unpaid  balance 
of  £400,  which  was  not  fully  settled  by  the  government 
till   1684.     The  feeding  of  the  troops  and  horses  ^.xvd  \>cv'i 


100  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

fitting  out  of  the  various  expeditions,  however,  necessarily 
took  away  supplies  that  were  needed  at  home,  a  drain  that 
was  severely  felt.  The  settlers  received  pay  for  their 
services  when  under  arms,  but  it  did  not  make  up  for  the 
loss  of  time  spent  in  scouting  and  fighting. 

After  the  attack  of  1677  came  a  lull  in  the  conflict  and  the 
eleven  years  following,  till  the  beginning  of  King  William's 
war  in  1688,  brought  again  an  increase  in  population  and 
wealth.  It  was  a  period  in  which  many  important  begin- 
nings are  to  be  noted. 

The  first  thought  was  directed  toward  further  prepara- 
tions for  defense.  The  surprise  of  Sept.  19  taught  a  terrible 
lesson  and  the  settlers  were  thenceforward  on  their  guard. 
For  nearly  a  century  they  were  to  be  called  upon  to  fight 
the  red  men  and  their  allies,  in  five  wars  of  longer  or 
shorter  duration,  till  the  supremacy  of  the  English  on  the 
American  continent  was  established.  These  wars  were  part 
of  the  struggle  known  in  European  history  as  the  Hundred 
Years'  war. 

The  destruction  of  the  mills  in  Springfield  and  Hadley 
had  been  severe  blows  to  those  communities  and  Hatfield 
took  precautions  against  a  similar  loss.  Oct.  17,  1677,  it 
was  voted  to  garrison  the  mill,  each  man  taking  his  turn 
and  receiving  Is.  6d.  per  day  for  this  service.  During  the 
war  a  small  guard  of  soldiers  had  been  stationed  at 
Meekins's  mill  all  the  time  and  quartered  at  his  house. 

Early  in  1678  it  was  voted  "that  the  fortifications  at  the 
north  end  of  the  town  should  be  done  speedily  by  the  whole 
town,  dividing  the  work  in  proportion  and  when  the  town 
shall  see  cause  to  enlarge  the  south  end  that  shall  be  done 
likewise  by  the  whole  town,  each  man  his  proportion." 
About  a  month  later  it  was  "agreed  that  the  fortifications 
at  the  south  end  of  the  town  should  be  enlarged  to  take  in 
John  Field's  house  and  Mr.  Atherton's  lot"  across  the 
street. 

It  was  voted  also  that  each  householder  should  provide 
himself  with  a  ladder  long  enough  to  reach  to  his  roofs 
or  be  fined  an  amount  double  the  cost  of  a  ladder. 

Extension  of  the  palisades  was  continued  until  they 
reached  as  far  north  as  Richard  Morton's  house,  where  the 
residence   of  Thomas   Dea   is.     He   had  a  blacksmith   shop 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  JQ] 

Standing  in  the  highway,  which  was  within  the  stockade. 
Many  cinders  have  been  dug  up  at  this  spot  in  highway 
improvements. 

Military  training  was  kept  up  and  by  1687  Hatfield  had 
a  full  company  of  60  men  under  Capt.  John  Allis;  Daniel 
Warner  was  lieutenant;  Eleazer  Frary,  ensign;  Robert 
Bardwell,  Benjamin  Waite,  Isaac  Graves,  and  Samuel  Field, 
sergeants. 

"Watching  and  warding,"  the  former  by  night,  the  latter 
by  day,  were  kept  up  and  there  were  fines  for  leaving  the 
post  when  on  guard.  The  ward  was  required  to  be  at  the 
gate  by  the  time  the  sun  was  an  hour  high  in  the  morning. 
In  1684  the  soldiers  in  training  were  required  to  perform 
work  on  the  highways.  As  early  as  1680  the  firing  of  any 
gun  near  the  village  except  for  alarm  was  forbidden.  A 
turret  had  been  built  on  the  meetinghouse  for  a  watch 
tower  at  some  time  during  the  war — the  missing  records 
would  probably  show  when — and  in  1685  a  committee  was 
appointed  to  "close  the  turret,"  for  better  protection  against 
the  weather,  no  doubt,  and  to  hang  a  bell  there.  The  com- 
mittee was  also  instructed  to  make  and  glaze  "such  windows 
as  were  necessary  for  the  convenience  of  the  meetinghouse." 
It  would  seem  to  have  been  more  for  the  convenience  of 
the  congregation  than  of  the  house  to  have  more  light. 

In  spite  of  the  losses  of  the  war  there  had  been  an  in- 
crease in  population,  many  of  the  soldiers  from  the  Bay 
towns  taking  up  their  residence  in  Hatfield.  The  conduct 
of  town  affairs  had  grown  more  complex,  requiring  a 
division  of  the  work  among  more  officers  than  were  needed 
at  first,  when  almost  everything  was  acted  on  by  the  inhab- 
itants in  town  meeting  assembled  or  delegated  to  the 
selectmen  or  to  special  committees  appointed  for  special 
purposes.  At  the  beginning  of  the  year  1678  these  officers 
were  chosen:  Nicholas  Worthington,  constable;  Thomas 
Meekins,  Lieut.  William  Allis,  Edward  Church,  Samuel 
Belden,  and  Daniel  White,  selectmen;  Eleazer  Frary,  sur- 
veyor of  highways;  William  Gull  and  Samuel  Dickinson, 
fence  viewers;  Daniel  Belden,  to  warn  meetings;  Eleazer 
Frary,  Thomas  Hastings,  and  Philip  Russell,  rate  makers; 
John  Field  and  John  Wells,  to  gather  the  rates.  Robert 
Poick,  or  Poag,  was  "agreed  with  to  sweep  the  meeting- 


102  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

house  and  ring  the  bell  this  year  for  twenty  shillings.  Fur- 
ther it  was  agreed  that  the  constable  shall  request  the 
county  court  to  appoint  commissioners  in  the  town  for  next 
year." 

This  is  the  first  mention  of  the  choice  of  selectmen, 
though  they  are  referred  to  as  a  body  in  the  records  earlier 
and  were  probably  elected  yearly.  The  election  of  a  town 
clerk  was  not  entered  till  1692.  County  commissioners 
seemed  to  be  sent  or  not  as  each  town  saw  fit  and  Hatfield 
had  not  previously  had  them  regularly.  The  same  was 
true  of  representatives  to  the  General  Court  at  Boston. 

Sept.  6,  1681,  when  the  commissioners  met  to  examine 
the  estates  in  Hampshire  County,  Eleazer  Frary  was  ap- 
pointed to  consult  with  representatives  from  other  towns 
"as  to  what  is  a  proper  compensation  for  our  town  with  the 
rest  to  encourage  a  bonesetter  to  settle  in  some  of  the 
adjacent  towns."  It  was  agreed  to  give  £10.  At  that 
period  doctors  were  not  always  able  to  do  surgical  work. 
It  is  not  known  whether  Dr.  Thomas  Hastings  was  a  bone- 
setter  or  not.  He  had  been  a  settler  in  Deerfield  before 
King  Philip's  war  and  had  a  grant  of  a  house  lot  and  land 
there  in  1680,  but  did  not  return.  It  is  possible  that  he  had 
gone  to  Watertown,  where  he  was  born,  and  that  he  was 
the  one  the  county  commissioners  were  seeking.  At  any 
rate  he  settled  in  Hatfield  about  1684  and  practiced  medicine 
in  most  of  the  towns  of  the  county,  sometimes  being  called 
as   far  as   Brookfield. 

Jan.  30,  1677/8,  the  town  *'voted  and  agreed  that  those 
whose  estates  were  consumed  or  demolished  since  the  last 
list  was  taken  August  1677  (by  the  common  enemy)  shall 
be  freed  in  the  ministers  and  town  rates."  They  had  pre- 
viously been  assisted  by  the  General  Court,  which  ordered, 
Oct.  30,  1677,  '*In  ansr  to  them  of  Hatfield, — that  the  rates 
of  those  of  that  toune  who  have  bin  impoverished  by  the 
late  cruelty  of  the  enemy  burning  downe  their  habitations, 
shall  be  respitted  and  left  in  their  hands  untill  the  Court 
shall  give  further  order  therein." 

Rates  were  still  collected  very  frequently  and  for  many 
purposes.  References  in  the  town  records  to  a  minister's 
rate  arc  frequent,  as  Hatfield  was  without  a  settled  minister 
.from  the  death  of  Mr.  Atherton  in  1677  till  the  call  to  Rev. 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  103 

Nathaniel  Chauncey  was  accepted  in  1683.  Various  candi- 
dates were  preaching  till  that  year  and  had  to  be  paid  for 
their  services.  There  were  rates  for  town  debts,  herdsmen, 
shepherds,  bridges,  etc.  The  poverty  brought  by  the  war  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  a  settlement  in  full  was  not  given 
Rev.  Hope  Atherton's  widow  till  1680,  when  Sarah  Ather- 
ton,  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  £40,  declared  the  obli- 
gations discharged.  The  settlers  who  had  suffered  the  most 
were  given  assistance  by  the  town  in  rebuilding  their  places. 
Those  who  were  appointed  to  search  for  a  successor  to  Mr. 
Atherton  were  assisted  in  their  work  while  obliged  to  be 
away  from  home  and  the  amount  of  mowing  and  reaping 
volunteered  by  various  proprietors  was  made  a  matter  of 
record. 

In  1680,  appears  for  the  first  time  a  record  of  valuation 
of  land  as  a  basis  of  taxation,  £1  per  acre.  Each  "head" 
was  reckoned  at  £16,  hence  the  polls  paid  a  much  larger 
proportion  of  the  tax  than  at  the  present.  All  males  over  16 
were  polled  and  return  of  the  polls  and  estate  were  made 
to  county  and  colony  officials.  From  the  taxes  derived 
from  this  assessment  of  land  and  polls  were  paid  the  county 
and  colony  rates  and  the  town  debts.  The  rate  makers 
still  continued  to  divide  among  the  inhabitants  the  amounts 
required  for  the  minister's  and  other  rates  spoken  of.  The 
selectmen  acted  as  assessors  in  addition  to  other  duties. 
In  1687  John  Hubbard  was  chosen  to  act  with  them  "to 
take  a  list  of  the  estates  to  transmit  to  the  shire  town 
according  to  the  provisions  of  the  law.** 

An  inventory  of  the  property  of  Lieut.  William  Allis 
taken  Sept.  18,  1678,  is  of  interest  as  showing  the  amount 
and  kinds  of  possessions  among  the  householders  of  the 
period.     He  was  one  of  the  well-to-do  citizens. 

In  purse  and  apparell £9  13s.  Od. 

Arms  and  ammunition 6          1  0 

Beds  and  their  furniture 9         5  0 

Napkins  and  other  linen 2          1  0 

Brass  and  pewter  pieces 5  10  0 

Iron  utensils  2  11  6 

Cart  and  plow  irons,  chains,  stilliards 7          5  0 

Tables,  pitchforks,  cushions,  sythe 1  19  0 

Barrels,  tubs,  trays 3         9  6 

Woolen  and  linen  yarne 0  18  6 

Several  sorts  of  grain,  flax 11  12  0 

2  horses  7         0  0 

3  cows,  2  steers,  2  calves,  1  heifer 20         0  0 


2 04  HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 

Swine  and  Sheep 10  8  0 

Houses  and  home  lot 100  0  0 

Land  in  South  meadow 114  0  0 

Land  in  Great  and  Little  meadow 136  0  0 

Land  in  Plain  and  Swamp 20  0  0 

Land  in  Quinepaike 28  13  0 

i496         6s.         6d. 

In  April,  1680,  the  town  chose  attorneys  to  look  after 
its  interests.  They  were  not  lawyers  but  men  taken  from 
the  body  of  citizens  for  recognized  ability,  "our  truly  and 
well  beloved  friends  John  'Coleman  and  John  Allis."  A 
regular  power  of  attorney  was  recorded  and  they  were 
empowered  to  "ask,  require,  sue  for,  levy,  and  recover  and 
receive  of  all  and  every  person  whatsoever  moneys  is  due 
us  or  any  of  us  from  the  County  upon  the  account  of  the 
war  with   the   heathen." 

They  were  apparently  not  able  to  accomplish  all  that 
was  desired,  for  in  October,  1680,  Samuel  Partridge  (then 
spelled  Partrigg)  of  Hadley  was  appointed  agent.  He 
moved  his  residence  to  Hatfield  in  1687,  settling  on  "the 
Hill,'*  and  became  at  once  the  leading  man  in  the  com- 
munity. He  was  already  prominent  in  county  affairs,  hav- 
ing been  recorder  of  the  courts  in  Northampton  since  1676 
and  clerk  of  the  writs  since   1682. 

Samuel  Partridge  was  born  Oct.  15,  1645,  in  Hartford, 
the  son  of  William  Partridge,  a  cooper,  one  of  the  first 
settlers  of  Hadley,  who  had  held  various  town  offices  in 
Hartford  and  Hadley  and  was  engaged  in  trading  with  the 
Indians  till  his  death  in  1668.  Samuel  learned  his  father's 
trade  apparently,  as  there  is  a  record  of  the  sale  of  barrels 
by  him  to  Colonel  Pynchon.  The  regard  in  which  he  was 
held  by  his  townspeople  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  he  was 
licensed  to  sell  liquor  at  a  time  when  only  men  of  the  high- 
est standing  were  allowed  to  engage  in  that  business.  He 
had  a  license  to  sell  liquor  in  Hadley  in  1678  "to  the  neigh- 
bors" and  in  1681  "  for  the  helpfulness  of  the  neighbors," 
and  was  a  wHne  dealer.  He  also  dealt  in  ardent  spirits  and 
wine  in  Hatfield,  as  did  many  of  his  descendants. 

He  taught  in  the  Hopkins  Grammar  School  for  three 
months,  but  was  dismissed  in  1685  for  his  pronounced  views. 

His  military  experience  began  w^ith  King  Philip's  war,  in 
which  he  served,  but  did  not  hold  a  commission.     In  King 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  J 05 

William's  war,  1688-98,  he  became  captain  of  the  militia; 
later  was  commissioned  lieutenant  colonel  of  the  Hampshire 
regiment,  in  which  he  had  been  quartermaster  in  1683,  and 
served  as  colonel  of  the  regiment  in  Queen  Anne's  war, 
1703-13,  and  Father  Rasle's  war,  1722-26.  He  was  appointed 
commissary  general   in   1705. 

In  Hadley  he  had  been  a  packer  of  meat  and  fish,  inspector 
and  ganger  of  casks  in  1679,  the  first  on  record,  select- 
man in  1672,  1678,  1680,  1682,  1684,  1686,  and  representative 
to  the  General  Court  in  1685  and  1686. 

In  Hatfield  he  kept  the  town  records  from  1688  to  1701; 
was  selectman  in  1688,  from  1690  to  1703,  1716-24  (with  the 
exception  of  the  years  1718,  1720,  and  1723),  and  again  in 
1728;  and  served  as  representative  from  his  first  election  in 
1689  to  1700  with  the  exception  of  two  years.  While  he 
was  living  in  Hadley  he  was  commissioned  by  Hatfield  in 
1680  to  "attend  upon  the  General  Court.'* 

In  1689  he  was  appointed  a  justice  to  hear  the  witchcraft 
trials  and  to  his  sane  judgment  and  keen  sense  of  humor 
is  probably  due  the  fact  that  the  witchcraft  delusion  did  not 
spread  to  any  alarming  proportions  in  Hampshire  County. 
There  were  some  trials,  but  no  executions.  The  story  is 
told  by  Pres.  Timothy  Dwight  that  when  a  Northampton 
man  accused  another  of  bewitching  him.  Justice  Partridge 
quickly  ordered  him  given  ten  lashes  on  the  spot,  to  the 
discomfiture  of  the  complainant  and  the  amusement  of  the 
spectators. 

In  1709  he  became  a  judge  of  the  probate  court  and  in 
1715  was  appointed  a  justice  of  the  court  of  General  Ses- 
sions. He  was  a  member  of  His  Majesty's  Council  from 
1700  to  1723.  His  opinion  was  highly  valued  and  his  in- 
fluence was  great.  The  published  and  unpublished  archives 
of  the  state  of  Massachusetts  contain  the  mention  of  his 
name  and  acts  in  many  places.  One  of  the  important  com- 
missions to  which  he  was  appointed  was  that  of  surveyor 
of  the  Connecticut-Massachusetts  line  in  1714. 

With  all  the  duties  of  peace  and  war  that  fell  upon  his 
shoulders  he  found  time  to  attend  to  the  duties  of  citizen- 
ship in  the  town  that  became  his  final  residence.  He  died 
in  Hatfield,  Dec.  25,  1740,  at  the  age  of  ninety-five,  uni- 
versally respected  and  beloved. 


106 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 


Among  the  interesting  old  records  of  the  Hatfield  town 
clerk's  office  is  a  copy  in  the  handwriting  of  Samuel  Par- 
tridge of  those  who  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  in  1679  in 
the  towns  of  Northampton,  Hadley,  and  Hatfield.  There 
were  126  subscribers  from  Northampton,  where  all  had 
probably  to  appear  before  the  officer  and  be  sworn  and  their 
names  entered  by  the  clerk  of  the  court.  The  book  also 
contains  the  first  births,  deaths,  and  marriages  in  Northamp- 
ton and  Hadley  up  to  the  year  1687  and  was  used  to  record 
the  vital  statistics  of  Hatfield  to  the  year  1843.  The  signers 
of  the  oath  from  Springfield,  Westfield,  and  Suffield  arc 
entered  in  the  county  records  in  Northampton. 

"The  Oath  of  Alleagence  wch  by  Order  from  our  Honored  Genl  Court 
was  to  bee  taken  by  all  Persons  from  16  years  old  and  upward  within  this 
county  and  accordinglie  was  administered  Febr  8th,  1678  By  ye  Worshipful] 
Majr  Pynchon  &  by  them  was  taken  viz:  by  the  Inhabitants  &  others  as 
aforesaid  in  Hadley  whose  names  are  hereafter  Written." 

[List  of  92  names  from  Hadley.] 

"Here  followeth  likewise  the  names  of  ye  Persons  yt  took  ye  oath  of 
aleagencc  as  above  in  Hatfield  Febr  8th  78. 


Mr.  John  Wise 
Nathll  Dickinson 
Jno  Coleman 
Phillip  Russell 
Jno  Field 
Obadiah  Dickenson 
Nick  Worthington 
Moses  Crofts 
Samll  Marsh 
Samll  Kellogg 
Benj.  Waite 
James  Brown 
Samll  Graves  Sene 
Danll  Belding 
Peter  Plympton 
Benj  Barret 
Jno  Evans 
Stephen  Belding 
Simon  Williams 
Wm  Kinge 


Tho.  Meakins  Sene 
Samll  Belding  Sene 
Danll  White 
Elez  Frary 
Jno  Lomas 
Jno  Cowles 
Tho.  Hastings 
Wm  Bartholemew 
Samll  Belding  Jue 
Jno  Clary 
Jos  Thomas 
Samll  Field 
Wm  Scott 
Robt  Bardal 
Samuel  Foote 
Ephraim  Hinsdall 
Wm  Armes 
Samll  Graves  Jue 
Jno  Wells  June 
Jos.  Field 


Wm  Gull 
Edw  Church 
Danll  Werner 
Jno  Wells 
Jno  Allice 
Samll  Dickinson 
Samuel  Allice 
Quintan  Stock  well 
Walter  Hickson 
Jno  Downing 
Stephen  Gennings 
Jacob  Gardner 
Jno  Graves 
Tho  Bracye 
Sampson  Frary 
Samll  Harrington 
I  sack  Graves 
Benj.  Downenge 
Benj  Hastings 
Robt  Poick 


"The  abovcsd  Persons  yr  names  were  here  entered  this  Febr  23d  1678 
By  me  Samll  Partrigg  Recorder." 

There  were  fifty  houses  in  Hatfield  in  the  year  1675. 
The  population  in  1678  was  probably  between  300  and  350, 
judging  by  the  number  of  polls.  The  number  of  houses 
is  given  in  Trumbuirs  **History  of  Northampton"  from  a 
paper  discovered  in  the  British  Museum.  Hadley  and 
A'orthanipton  had  100  each  and  Deerfield  30. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  107 

In  1683  Rev.  Nathaniel  Chauncey  of  Scituate,  a  graduate 
of  Harvard  in  1661,  son  of  Rev.  Charles  Chauncey,  presi- 
dent of  Harvard  College,  became  the  pastor  of  the  church. 
He  had  preached  in  Hatfield  before,  apparently  from  Dec. 
12,  1679,  to  March  12,  1681.  Then  he  left  for  a  time  and 
returned   in    1682. 

Before  that  an  attempt  had  been  made  to  settle  Rev.  John 
Wise  of  Ipswich,  a  gifted  graduate  of  Harvard.     He  was  of 
humble  birth,  the  son  of  a  serving  man,  but  apparently  eagerly 
desired  on  account  of  his  commanding  presence  and  elo- 
quence, for  to  many  unreasonable  demands  in  the  way  of  giv- 
ing up  to  his  use  some  of  the  best  land  in  town  the  inhabitants 
readily  yielded.     He  was  in  Hatfield  for  a  season  as  shown 
by  the  fact  of  his  signing  the  oath  of  allegiance  in   1678 
and  by  the  collection  of  rates  for  his  salary,  but  not  con- 
tinuously.    The  pulpit  was  supplied  during  his  absence  by 
John  Younglove,  a  preacher,  but  not  an  ordained  minister, 
who  was  teaching  in  the  Hopkins  Grammar  School  in  Had- 
ley,  and  by  a  Mr.  Mather,  probably  Warham  Mather,  son  of 
Rev.  Eleazer  Mather  of  Northampton.     Mr.  Wise  did  not 
accept  the  call  extended  to  him  and  in  1680  he  became  the 
first    pastor   of   the    second    church    at    Jebacco,    afterward 
Essex,  serving  there  for  forty  years.     For  his  opposition  to 
Governor  Andros  in  1687  he  was  imprisoned  for  two  years 
and  on  release   obtained   damages   for  unlawful   detention. 
He  distinguished  himself  for  bravery  and  endurance  in  the 
expedition   against   Canada    in    1690.     Tyler's    "History   of 
American  Literature"  says  he  was  "the  one  American  who, 
upon  the  whole,  was  the  most  powerful  and  brilliant  prose 
writer  produced  in  the  county  during  the   colonial  time.*' 
The  following  vote  was  passed  Nov.  10,  1679: — 

"The  town  hath  manifest  that  they  are  desirous  Mr.  Chansy  shall  have 
a  call  to  come  and  preach  amongst  us  for  the  term  of  a  year  or  less  (as  he 
and  the  town  shall  agree)  in  order  to  settlement  if  it  shall  please  God  to 
incline  the  heart  of  Mr.  Chancy  and  the  hearts  of  the  inhabitants  to  close 
with  each  other;  and  farther  that  the  town  will  allow  him  as  his  temporal 
maintenance  sixty  pounds  per  year  and  the  use  of  the  town  house  and 
allotment;  and  they  have  chosen  and  improved  Thomas  Meekins,  Edward 
Church,  Samuel  Belden  Senr.  and  Daniel  White  to  acquaint  Mr.  Chancy  with 
the  town's  desire." 

On  Feb.  24,  1679/80,  a  unanimous  call  was  extended 
him,  he  was  allowed  £60  a  year  and  firewood,  and  given  the 
Goodwin  house  that  he  was  then  in.  wVi\c\\  \\^d  \>^^xv  oc.ca\- 


108 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


pied  by  Mr.  Atherton,  whose  surviving  relatives  had  moved 
to  Deerfield.  The  wood  was  reckoned  equal  to  £9  in  value, 
"fifty  cords  delivered  corded,  appraised  according  to  the 
law  at  3s.  6d.  per  cord." 

Each  householder  was  required  to  cut  and  deliver  his 
proportion  of  the  wood  or  suffer  a  fine  and  it  was  customary 
for  the  deacons  and  selectmen  to  appoint  a  day  at  some  con- 
venient season  when  all  could  go  to  the  woods  together  to 
perform  the  work,  usually  in  November. 


Samuel  Foote 

^98 

Nathaniel  Foote 

•98 

Samuel  Marsh 

^98 

i  Thomas  King 

^ 

(  Ichabod  Porter 

•99 

Martin  Kellogg 

•89 

John  Graves 

'83 

John  Amsden 

^89 

(  Nicholas  Worthington 

'83 

(  Samuel  Gailer 

'85 

Daniel  Warner 

'86 

(  Samuel  Foote 

'82 

( Good  wife  Belden 

•83 

(  Samuel  Partridge 

'87 

( Thomas  Hastings 

•84 

Edward  Church 

m 

John  Hubbard 

•83 

Burying  Ground 
Chart  Showing  Assignment  of  Lots  on  "The  Hill,"  or  Elm  Street,  up  to  1700. 


**The  Hill/'  the  present  Elm  Street,  was  built  upon  quite 
rapidly  after  1683.  On  April  3  of  that  year  it  was  ordered 
that  two  rows  of  house  lots  each  16  rods  wide  should  be 
laid  out  on  the  Northampton  road  on  or  near  the  cart  way 
and  lots  were  granted  to  be  built  upon  within  a  specified  time, 
or  the  lots  reverted  to  the  town.  In  the  case  of  sons  of 
residents  a  very  short  time  was  allowed  generally,  but  to 
some  from  other  places  who  were  contemplating  a  change 
of  residence  two  years  or  more  were  given.  Edward 
Church  of  Hadley  had  been  granted  a  lot  on  the  highway  to 
Northampton  in  August,   1677,  and  he  probably  built  soon 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  JQQ 

after.  This  lot  was  the  one  now  owned  by  Dea.  James 
Porter.  John  Hubbard  came  from  Hadley  in  1683  and  built 
across  the  street  from  Church,  next  to  the  burying  ground. 
The  place  has  remained  in  the  hands  of  descendants  to  the 
present,  but  all  the  other  lots  have  undergone  many  changes 
in  ownership.  Church  and  Hubbard  were  followed  by 
several  others.  The  chart  on  the  opposite  page  shows  how 
the  lots  were  assigned  up  to  1700,  the  dates  being  the  time 
when  the  grants  were  made.  Not  all  the  lots  were  occu- 
pied in  the  seventeenth  century.  When  two  names  are 
given  it  means  that  the  lots  were  regranted  because  the 
proprietors  did  not  comply  with  the  requirements  of  the 
vote  of  April  3,  1683.  The  highway  was  to  be  10  rods 
wide,  later  changed  to  8  rods. 

In  1684  an  attempt  was  made  to  build  up  the  lane  that  is 
now  called  School  Street,  but  probably  very  few  houses  were 
built  there  till  several  years  later.  A  house  lot  16  rods  wide 
and  80  rods  long  on  the  north  side  of  "the  highway  to 
the  Mill"  against  the  rear  of  the  house  lots  in  the  upper  end 
of  the  west  side  of  the  street  was  granted  to  Martin  Kel- 
logg, but  he  sold  the  property  to  Richard  Morton  in  1691. 
He  took  up  his  residence  on  "the  Hill"  about  1694.  Grants 
of  the  same  area  were  made  to  Hezekiah  Dickinson,  next 
to  Kellogg,  and  to  Stephen  Jennings.  On  the  south  side 
of  the  lane  grants  were  made  to  Robert  Bardwell  and  Sam- 
uel Gunn,  but  they  became  settlers  of  the  Denison  farm. 
Jennings  moved  to  Brookfield. 

Oct.  21,  1684,  the  town  voted  to  "divide  the  Commons  in 
the  town  except  what  is  reserved  for  home  lots,  sheep  pas- 
tures, etc.,  to  every  inhabitant,  according  to  his  present 
valuation  of  estate^;  and  the  said  Commons  shall  be  laid 
out  in  Four  Divisions, — the  first  to  begin  upon  the  plain 
behind  the  Mill,  and  end  at  the  northerly  line  of  the  upper- 
most lot  laid  out  in  Mill  river  Swamp:  The  second  to  begin 
at  the  north  side  of  the  uppermost  lot  in  the  Mill  river 
Swamp,  and  end  at  the  north  side  of  the  town  bounds: 
The  Third  Division  to  begin  at  the  northwest  side  of  the 
highway  that  goeth  towards  Northampton,  and  from  the 
hill  commonly  called  Sandy  Hill,  and  end  at  the  rising 
up  of  the  side  of  the  hill  called   the   Chestnut   Mountain: 


no  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The   Fourth   Division   to   begin   where   the   Third    division 
endeth,  and  to  end  at  the  outside  of  the  town  bounds." 

It  was  stipulated  that  lots  not  fenced  should  still  be  con- 
sidered common  and  it  is  probable  that  few  were  fenced  at 
that  time  or  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century.  The 
divisions  were  surveyed  again  in  1716,  some  changes  were 
made  because  of  dissatisfaction  over  the  first  allotment, 
and  the  lots  were  recorded  as  staked  out.  The  grants 
were  reconfirmed  in  1735.  The  second  and  fourth  divisions 
and  part  of  the  third  were  in  the  present  town  of  Whately. 
Division  was  made  to  69  proprietors  whose  names  and  the 
location  and  width  of  whose  lots  are  given  in  the  Appendix, 
Note   7. 

Much  of  the  power  of  the  men  and  women  of  New  Eng- 
land can  be  traced  to  the  education  received  in  the  public 
school  system  for  which  the  region  has  long  been  noted, 
but  the  public  school  system  has  been  a  gradual  develop- 
ment and  the  schoolhouse  does  not  date  from  the  beginning 
in  any  of  the  pioneer  towns.  The  idea  of  an  educated 
ministry  as  leaders  of  thought  was  always  of  importance 
and  colleges  were  established  at  a  very  early  date,  Har- 
vard in  1636  and  Yale  about  1700.  Next  came  the  grammar 
schools.  The  training  of  the  young  was  left  to  the 
home.  Nothing  beyond  a  very  rudimentary  education 
was  thought  necessary  for  the  majority  of  the  people.  It 
was  soon  feared,  however,  that  the  people  of  the  scattered 
hamlets  would  revert  to  barbarism,  so  the  General  Court 
of  Massachusetts  in  1642  passed  a  law  requiring  parents 
and  masters  to  teach  the  children  and  apprentices  to  read  un- 
der penalty  of  a  fine  of  20  shillings.  Selectmen  of  towns  were 
to  see  that  the  provisions  of  the  law  were  complied  with. 
The  books  in  use  were  the  Horn-book,  Primer,  Psalter, 
Testament,  and  Bible.  The  Catechism,  usually  printed  in 
the  primers,  formed  a  part  of  the  regular  course  of  instnic- 
tion.  The  Horn-books  contained  the  alphabet  and  a  few 
easy  sentences  printed  on  only  one  side  of  the  page  and 
covered  with  transparent  horn  to  keep  them  from  being 
soiled.  They  were  superseded  about  1700  by  the  introduc- 
tion of  Dillworth's  Spelling  Book.  Arithmetic  was  taught, 
but  not  by  the  use  of  books. 

Hatfield  as  a  town  made  its  first  provision  for  the  edu- 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD.  m 

cation  of  children  in  1679.  All  those  born  in  the  first  score 
of  years  had  been  taught  at  home,  for  there  is  no  mention 
of  any  public  or  private  school  previous  to  Jan.  13,  1678/79, 
when  it  is  recorded  that: — 


"The  town  hath  agreed  to  give  Thomas  Hastings  twenty  pound  per  year 
to  teach  all  such  children  in  the  town  that  should  be  sent  to  him  (to  school) 
to  read  and  write,  such  as  are  capable,  to  wit,  according  as  their  parents 
and  masters  shall  see  cause,  and  the  money  to  be  raised  upon  boys  that  are 
between  6  and  12  years  old  and  upon  such  girls  as  shall  be  sent  to  school,  and 
if  at  3d.  per  week  by  the  head  there  arise  not  sufficient  to  make  the  twenty 
pound  the  remainder  shall  be  raised  as  other  rates  in  the  town  are  raised." 

Dec.  19  he  was  "freed  from  this  time"  and  paid  for  the 
36  weeks  of  instruction  he  had  given. 

In  1681  £30  was  allowed  the  schoolmaster,  a  fourth  part 
in  wheat,  a  fourth  in  peas,  a  fourth  in  corn,  and  the  remain- 
der in  pork,  at  current  prices.  The  parents  of  boys  between 
the  ages  specified  were  assessed  12s.  per  year  for  readers 
and  16s.  for  those  who  were  to  be  "improved  in  writing" 
and  for  others  of  whatever  sex  a  sum  proportional  and 
depending  on  the  length  of  time  they  attended  school. 
Most  of  the  girls  were  taught  to  read,  but  writing  was  not 
thought  so  essential  for  them,  or  even  for  the  boys,  appar- 
ently, for  there  were  fewer  writers  than  readers.  There 
is  no  hint  that  the  other  branch  of  the  "three  R's"  that  later 
became  so  famous  received  any  attention  at  first  in  the 
school.  The  school  probably  was  conducted  at  Dr.  Hast- 
ings's house  till  a  schoolhouse  was  built  in  1681.  In  1688 
repairs  on  it  were  ordered.  It  stood  in  the  street  near  the 
meetinghouse. 

Dec.  7,  1685,  the  town  voted  that  Peter  Buckly  should  not 
teach  school  any  longer,  but  a  week  later  it  was  decided 
to  retain  him  for  another  quarter.  In  October  of  the 
next  year  the  town  decided  not  to  hire  a  schoolmaster  for 
the  winter,  but  in  August,  1687,  it  was  voted  to  "hire  a 
good  able  schoolmaster  on  the  same  terms  as  before." 

••May  31,  1688— Voted  that  the  Rev.  Pastor  of  the  church  be  desired  to  see 
out  for  a  schoolmaster  suitable  to  be  discharged  and  maintained;  one  third 
part  of  the  charge  by  the  town  in  general,  by  rate  or  otherwise,  and  two 
diirds  by  the  schools,  viz :  male  children  from  six  years  old  to  twelve  years 
of  age,  excepting  poor  men  that  may  have  sons  to  be  educated,  as  the 
selectmen  shall  judge  meet;  the  sum  in  all  to  be  30  pounds." 

A  Mr.  Stephens  was  secured  by  Rev.  William  Williams, 
the  pastor,  but  he  objected  to  one  part  of  the  provision  pay, 
as  Indian  corn  was  low  in  price  and  it  was  tveee^s^x^  vcv 


112  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

order  to  satisfy  him  to  exchange  part  of  his  pay  for  wheat, 
which  some  public  spirited  citizens  were  found  willing  to 
do. 

Those  who  were  to  be  educated  beyond  the  art  of  reading 
and  writing  could  attend  the  Hopkins  Grammar  School  in 
Hadley.  Preparation  for  college  was  made  with  the  assist- 
ance of  the  pastor,  the  only  one  in  town  who  was  able  to 
give   the  necessary   training. 

The  death  of  Rev.  Nathaniel  Chauncey,  Nov.  4,  1685, 
left  the  people  again  without  a  pastor.  The  town  voted 
to  defray  his  funeral  expenses.  This  time  only  a  year 
elapsed  before  another  minister  was  secured. 

The  coming  of  Rev.  William  Williams  in  1686  for  a 
pastorate  of  55  years,  with  the  arrival  of  Samuel  Partridge 
at  about  the  same  time,  marked  an  epoch  in  the  history  of 
the  town.  For  nearly  a  century  the  members  of  these 
two  families  were  to  exert  a  commanding  influence  and 
bring  Hatfield  to  a  high  rank  in  the  growing  common- 
wealth. The  age  of  powerful  leaders  was  beginning. 
Neither  Mr.  Atherton  nor  Mr.  Chauncey  had  been  men 
who  possessed  the  fighting  qualities  so  advantageous  to 
leaders  in  such  a  stormy  period  and  both  their  pastorates 
were  of  short  duration. 

Mr.  Williams  was  called  Dec.  6,  1686,  and  settled  at  once 
as  pastor.  He  had  preached  in  town  previously,  but  left 
for  some  reason.  Early  in  1686  a  committee  was  sent  to 
the  Bay  to  ask  him  to  return,  which  he  did,  and  he  contin- 
ued in  the  work  in  Hatfield  until  his  death,  Aug.  29,  1741. 
He  was  born  in  Newton  in  1665  or  1666,  the  son  of  Capt. 
Isaac  Williams,  of  a  wealthy  and  aristocratic  family.  He 
graduated  from  Harvard  in  1683  in  a  class  of  three,  one 
being  his  cousin,  John  Williams,  who  began  to  preach  in 
Deerfield  in  1686.  The  third  was  Samuel  Danforth,  who 
entered  the  ministry  the  same  year  in  Tauntcm.  Sheldon 
says  in  his  "History  of  Deerfield'' :  "Graduates  were  ranked 
in  the  catalogue  then,  not  by  merit,  but  according  to  station 
in  society,  and  Danforth,  son  and  grandson  of  a  minister, 
of  course  stood  first.  John  came  next,  we  may  suppose  by 
virtue  of  his  father  being  a  deacon,  while  the  father  of 
William  was  only  a  captain  and  representative  to  the  Gen- 
era/ Court.'* 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  II3 

Mr.  Williams  was  a  man  of  brilliant  intellectual  gifts,  of 
ripe  scholarship  and  intensely  interested  in  the  cause  of 
education.  His  son,  Elisha,  also  a  graduate  of  Harvard, 
became  the  president  of  Yale  College  in  1726  and  continued 
at  its  head  for  thirteen  years  during  which  time  it  grew  in 
a  remarkable  way.  Two  other  sons  followed  in  their 
father's  footsteps  and  became  preachers :  William,  born  in 
1688,  the  minister  at  Weston,  and  Solomon,  the  pastor  of 
the  church  at  Lebanon,  Conn.;  and  a  fourth.  Col.  Israel 
Williams,  became  the  leading  military  and  political  figure 
in  Hatfield  during  a  large  part  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
Solomon's  son,  William,  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence. 

Mr.  Williams  was  married,  July  8,  1686,  just  before  he 
was  settled  in  Hatfield,  to  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Rev.  Sea- 
born Cotton.  She  died  in  1698  at  the  age  of  32  and  he 
married  again.  The  children  by  the  first  wife  were  Wil- 
liam and  Elisha  and  a  daughter,  Martha,  who  became  the 
wife  of  Edward  Partridge,  besides  two  children  who  died  in 
infancy.  His  second  wife  was  Christian,  daughter  of  Rev. 
Solomon  Stoddard  of  X'orthampton.  Her  children  were 
Solomon  and  Israel  and  two  daughters,  Elizabeth  and  Dor- 
othy, the  latter  the  wife  of  Rev.  Jonathan  Ashley,  pastor  in 
Deerfield  from   1732  to   1780. 

Rev.  William  Williams  soon  won  the  implicit  confidence 
of  the  people  of  Hatfield.  He  possessed  a  power  of  per- 
suasive utterance  and  was  tactful  in  his  dealings  with  men. 
As  a  preacher  he  was  noteworthy,  even  among  the  many 
famous  divines  of  the  Connecticut  valley  in  the  early  days 
of  its  history.  He  was  considered  by  Pres.  Ezra  Stiles  a 
more  able  man  than  his  father-in-law.  Rev.  Solomon  Stod- 
dard. Many  of  his  sermons  were  printed,  among  others 
an  election  sermon  in  1719;  a  convention  sermon,  1726; 
sermons  at  the  installation  of  his  relatives.  Rev.  Stephen 
Williams  at  Springfield  in  1716  and  Rev.  Warham  Williams 
at  Waltham  in  1723,  both  sons  of  Rev.  John  Williams  of 
Deerfield,  the  "Redeemed  Captive";  sermons  at  the  instal- 
lations of  Rev.  Nehemiah  Bull  at  Wethersfield  in  1727  and 
.  Rev.  Jonathan  Ashley  at  Deerfield  in  1732;  a  sermon  at  the 
death  of  Rev.  Solomon  Stoddard;  and  an  address  at  the 
ordination  at   Deerfield  of  Rev.  John  Sargeant  as  mission- 


114  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

ary  to  the  Housatonic  Indians  in  1735.  Among  the  treas- 
ures in  Memorial  Hall  in  Deerfield  are  notes  taken  by  him 
on  sermons  he  had  heard  preached  in  his  youth  by  the 
leading  clergymen  of  the  colony,  Mather,  Cotton,  Eliot, 
Hubbard,  and  others. 

Mr.  Williams  built  a  house  on  the  William  Allis  allot- 
ment, about  the  spot  where  the  town  hall  now  stands. 

In  the  year  1688  the  following  votes  were  passed: — 

"May  21,  1688. — Voted  as  to  the  poor,  those  who  want  maintenance,  the 
Selectmen,  every  one  of  them  as  appcrtaineth  to  them  as  agents,  shall  have 
inspection  over  them,  their  occupation  and  their  children,  that  their  things 
and  their  labor  be  put  to  the  best  advantage. 

"Also  voted.  Whereas  Capt.  Allise  hath  procured  standard  weights  and 
delivered  them  to  the  Selectmen  for  keeping  to  order,  the  Selectmen  have 
committed  them  to  the  custody  of  Sanmel  Bclding,  Sen.,  to  be  put  into  a  bag 
and  secured  for  the  sealers  use  annually." 

What  was  done  about  the  support  of  paupers  does  not 
appear  from  the  records  of  the  next  few  years,  but  at  a 
little  later  date  some  families  required  support,  as  will  be 
noted  in  the  proper  order.  The  sealing  of  weights  was 
required  by  law.  In  that  same  year  occurs  the  first  refer- 
ence to  a  curfew  law.  It  was  ordered  that  the  church  bell 
should  be  rung  every  evening  at  nine  o'clock. 

During  that  year  and  the  next  few  regular  town  meetings 
wxre  held;  instead  the  selectmen  met  the  first  Monday  in 
each  month  at  Selectman  Belden's  house  to  transact  such 
business  as  came  before  them,  ordering  bills  paid  and  assum- 
ing charge  of  matters  that  had  previouly  come  up  for 
decision  before  all  the  inhabitants.  It  was  a  stormy  period 
in  the  history  of  the  colony  and  of  much  uncertainty  in  all 
the  towns. 

When  James  II.  became  king  of  England,  Joseph  Dudley 
was  appointed  governor  of  Massachusetts.  He  held  office 
from  May  25  to  Dec.  20,  1686.  Then  Sir  Edmond  Andros 
appeared  with  a  commission  from  the  king  as  royal  gov- 
ernor of  all  New  England  and  a  period  of  misrule  ensued. 
James  abdicated  in  1688  and  William  and  Mary  became  the 
sovereigns  the  next  year.  The  New  England  colonists 
were  ripe  for  a  revolt  against  the  hated  rule  of  Andros  and 
on  April  20,  1689,  he  was  seized  in  Boston  and  deposed 
with  his  supporters  and  a  Committee  of  Safety  took  charge 
of  affairs.     Until  the  success  of  the  revolution  was  assured 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  115 

it  was  exceedingly  dangerous  to  do  any  overt  acts  or  have 
any  records  appear  that  savored  of  treason.  This  accounts 
for  the  change  in  the  conduct  of  town  affairs,  w^hich  soon 
resumed  their  normal  routine.  The  level  head  of  the 
shrewd  and  diplomatic  Samuel  Partridge  guided  the  town 
safely  through  the  crisis.  The  handwriting  shows  that  he 
began  to  keep  the  records  in  June,  1688,  though  there  is 
no  entry  of  his  election  as  clerk.  Mav  9,  1689,  he  was 
chosen  "to  join  with  the  Committee  of  Safety  to  consider 
public   affairs    at    Boston." 

A  new  charter  from  William  and  Mary  uniting  the  Massa- 
chusetts Bay  and  Plymouth  colonies  as  the  Province  of 
Massachusetts,  including  also  the  settlements  in  Maine  and 
New  Hampshire,  was  granted  in  1692  and  under  it  Sir  Wil- 
liam Phipps  was  appointed  governor.  Simon  Bradstreet 
had  served  as  governor  by  appointment  of  the  crown  from 
May  24,  1689,  to  May  14,  1692,  and  Thomas  Danforth  as 
deputy  governor.  Bradstreet  had  been  elected  governor  by 
the  people  from   1679  to   1686. 

These  struggles  were  really  the  beginning  of  the  con- 
test with  England  that  resulted  in  the  independence  of  the 
American  colonies.  The  loss  of  the  choice  of  their  own 
chief  magistrate  rankled  in  the  hearts  of  the  colonists  till 
the  Revolutionary  war.  The  rights  remaining  were  jeal- 
ously guarded  by  the  other  magistrates — the  governor's 
Council — and  by  the  representatives  in  the  General  Court. 
Samuel  Partridge  was  one  of  the  signers  of  an  address  by 
the  Council  to  King  William  III.  protesting  against  a  bill  in 

the  House  of  Lords  in  1701  for  a  withdrawal  of  the  char- 
ters. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

KING    WILLIAM'S    WAR.    1688-98.     PROGRESS    IN    THE    TOWN. 
PURCHASE  OF  THE  DEXISON  FARM.     THE  HATFIELD 

ADDITION. 

'•And  War,  which  for  a  moment  was  no  more, 
Did  glut  himself  again." 

The  beginning  of  the  war. — Military  preparations. — Fortifications. — Settle- 
ment at  "the  Farms." — Supplies  of  ammunition. — Changes  in  the  militia 
officers. — Attacks  on  the  valley  towns. — The  murder  of  Richard  Church  of 
Hadley. — Capture  and  trial  of  the  murderers. — Attack  on  men  in  Hatfield 
meadows. — Expenses  of  the  war. — Progress  of  affairs  in  Hatfield  during  the 
war. — Repairs  on  the  meetinghouse. — Support  of  poor. — Sheep  and  cattle.— 
Tar  and  turpentine. — Malt  house. — Shoemakers. — Schools. — Boundary  trou- 
bles.— Assessors  chosen. — Negroes. — Town  officials. — Middle  Lane  built  up. 

The  accession  of  William  and  Mary  to  the  throne  of  Eng- 
land was  followed  by  war  between  England  and  France,  in 
which  part  of  the  fighting  took  place  on  the  American  con- 
tinent. The  struggle  was  known  as  King  William's  war  and 
lasted  from  1688  to  1698.  The  Peace  of  Ryswick,  signed 
Sept.  20,  1697,  w-as  proclaimed  in  Boston  in  December,  but 
not  in  Quebec  till  Sept.  22,  1698,  so  that  the  English  colonists 
were  in  fear  of  attack  for  a  year  after  the  close  of  the  war. 
The  French  in  Canada  incited  the  Indians  to  attack  the 
exposed  settlements,  but  the  Connecticut  valley  w^as  not  the 
scene  of  such  battles  as  took  place  in  King  Philip's  w^ar. 

*'Watching  and  w^arding"  was  again  resumed  in  Hatfield, 
half  of  the  town  to  report  to  Constable  Benjamin  Waite  and 
half  to  Constable  Thomas  Xash.  Adequate  preparations  for 
defense  were  not  neglected.  The  militia  company,  whose 
officers  were  Capt.  John  Allis,  Lieut.  Daniel  Warner,  and 
Ens.  Eleazer  Frary,  was  well  drilled  and  ready  for  emergen- 
cies. No  garrisons  of  regular  soldiers  were  stationed  in  the 
town  as  in  the  previous  conflict.  By  1690  Hatfield  had  80 
soldiers,  according  to  the  report  of  Major  Pynchon.  All 
males  from  sixteen  to  sixty,  except  negroes,  were  subject  to 
military  service.  There  were  four  training  days  every  year, 
gala  occasions,  when  all  the  inhabitants  turned  out  to  see  the 
soldiers  drill  on  the  common.     Regimental  musters  were  held 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  HJ 

occasionally.  The  guns  were  flintlocks  with  a  barrel  three 
and  one  half  feet  long,  the  old  matchlocks  with  a  rest  having 
been  found  ill  fitted  for  use  against  the  Indians,  who  used 
flintlocks  if  they  could  secure  them.  The  newer  arms  were 
called  also  firelocks  or  snaphances.  A  law  passed  in  1693 
required  each  Massachusetts  soldier  to  have  a  flintlock,  a 
knapsack,  cartridge  box,  one  pound  of  powder,  20  bullets,  12 
flints,  and  a  sword  or  cutlass. 

There  was  no  fighting  in  Hampshire  County  during  the 
first  years  of  the  war,  but  the  settlers  lived  in  constant  fear. 
In  1688  and  1689  strange  Indians  were  seen  in  the  vicinity 
and  some  murders  were  committed.  Northfield  was  again 
abandoned  in  1690.  The  disastrous  expedition  against  Que- 
bec, in  which  2,000  men  from  Massachusetts  took  part,  oc- 
curred in  that  year. 

February  25,  1689/90,  Hatfield  voted  that  three  or  four 
houses  should  be  "well  and  strongly  fortified  and  in  particu- 
lar  Mr.  Williams',  Jno   Field's  and  Richard   Morton's  and 
Benj.  Waite's"  and  liberty  was  granted  Capt.  John  Allis  to 
fortify  his  own  house  provided  he  did  it  at  his  own  expense. 
The  fortifying  of  Mr.  Williams's  house  was  left  to  the  militia, 
probably  that  of  the  other  houses  also.     A  fortification  of 
palisades  was  ordered  from  the  south  side  of  John  Field's  and 
Thomas  Hastings's  home  lots  (the  same  as  the  south  line 
of  fortification  in  King  Philip's  war)   to  the  north  side  of 
Noah  Wells's  and  Samuel  Marsh's  (opposite  the  Deerfield 
lane),  "these  fortifications  to  be  laid  out  to  every  proprietor 
that  hath  interest  within  it  according  to  his  estate  in  the 
town  list  and  that  the  militia  of  the  town  do  see  that  it  is 
done  and  finished  as  soon  as  is  capable  for  the  frost."     The 
fortifications  were  not  completed  by  December,  however.     In 
March,  liberty  was  given  to  John   Dickinson  to  move  his 
house  into  town  "and  retain  his  lot  as  if  his  house  was  con- 
tinued thereon,  provided  he  do  his  share  of  the  fortification 
now  agreed  upon  in  the  town  and  shall  also  build  again  on 
his  lot  when  God  shall  by  his  Providence  give  liberty  without 
danger  of  enemies."     His  lot  was  on  Mill  Lane,  and,  as  no 
others  requested  the  same  privilege,  perhaps  the  only  one 
there.     In  1693  the  selectmen  and  a  committee  of  the  militia 
were  appointed  to  "find  out  the  most  easy  and  equal  way  to 
repair  them  [the  fortifications]  and  the  gates  and  get  it  done 
forthwith."     They  were  repaired  again  the  next  ye^t  Xi^^'aLWs^ 


\ 


Jig  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  enemv  was  abroad.  Before  the  close  of  the  war  the 
fortifications  extended  229  rods  on  the  east  side  of  the  street 
and  245  on  the  west  side,  with  limits  as  indicated  above,  and 
there  were  three  fortified  houses  on  "the  Hill."  There  was 
also  at  "the  Farms**  one  fortified  house  and  a  stockade  38 
rods  long.  In  1697  it  was  voted  that  the  fort  at  "the  Farms" 
should  be  re-edified. 

Several  settlers  had  built  residences  north  of  Bashan. 
Some  of  the  old  cellar  holes  could  be  seen  till  the  nineteenth 
century  on  land  owned  by  the  Beldens  in  Bradstreet.  The 
settlement  was  known  as  "the  Farms**  because  it  was  on  the 
Denison  farm.  It  was  abandoned  during  Queen  Anne's  war 
and  when  rebuilt,  before  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, was  located  in  the  present  village  of  Bradstreet  and  was 
called  West  Farms.  The  exact  date  at  which  the  Denison 
farm  was  purchased  by  proprietors  is  not  known,  but  it  was 
probably  soon  after  the  death  of  General  Denison  in  1682. 
The  proprietors*  records  show  that  in  1689  eight  men  had 
house  lots  there  16  rods  wide  and  presumably  80  rods  in 
length  like  others  in  the  town. — John  Field,  Joseph  Field, 
Samuel  Field,  Robert  Bardwell,  Daniel  Warner,  William 
Arms,  Samuel  Gunn,  and  Andrew  Warner.  Perhaps  several 
other  settlers  joined  them.  John  Billings  and  Nathaniel 
Dickinson  are  known  to  have  been  there  by  1698. 

A  good  supply  of  ammunition  was  kept  on  hand.  March 
23,  1691/2,  it  was  "voted  by  the  Town  that  the  selectmen  of 
the  Town  send  to  the  County  Treasr  to  supply  us  with  two 
barrels  of  Powder  and  lead  answerable  for  a  Town  stock  to 
employ  Capt.  Belcher  to  apply  in  our  behalf  to  the  Treasr  to 
get  it  for  us  and  ship  it  to  Hartford/'  and  in  1697  forty 
shillings  were  appropriated  for  powder  and  lead  "to  add  to 
the  present  stock/* 

On  his  return  from  Boston  in  1689,  Samuel  Partridge  be- 
came the  captain  of  the  Hatfield  company.  Ensign  Eleazer 
Frary  was  succeeded  by  Daniel  White,  and  the  town  records 
show  that  there  was  a  Lieutenant  Belden  and  a  Lieutenant 
Hubbard,  but  what  their  first  names  were  is  not  indicated — 
probably  Stephen  Belden  and  John  Hubbard.  There  is  men- 
tion of  a  Sergeant  Frary,  probably  Eleazer,  son  of  the  ensign, 
and  other  sergeants  were  Robert  Bardwell,  Samuel  Dickin- 
son, Samuel  Field,  Isaac  Graves,  Philip  or  Daniel  Russell, 
and  John  White. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  119 

The  events  of  the  war  in  the  Connecticut  valley  may  be 
briefly  sketched.  After  the  massacre  at  Schenectady  by  the 
French  and  Indians,  Feb.  18,  1690,  Deerfield,  which  as  a  fron- 
tier town  was  exposed  to  a  like  attack,  was  garrisoned  by  60 
Connecticut  troopers.  In  1691  a  party  of  Indians  from  New 
York,  numbering  150,  encamped  in  Hopewell  Swamp  between 
Hatfield  and  Deerfield  and  caused  much  alarm  in  the  towns, 
though  they  professed  friendly  intentions.  Many  of  them 
had  formerly  been  inhabitants  of  the  region.  Captain  Par- 
tridge was  employed  by  Major  Pynchon  to  negotiate  with 
the  Indians  to  secure  their  aid  in  giving  warning  of  any 
attack  from  the  north.  The  savages  returned  to  New  York 
in  the  spring  of  1692. 

Several  families  in  Deerfield  were  murdered  June  6,  1693. 
Brookfield  was  attacked  July  22  and  a  relief  expedition  was 
sent  from  the  valley  towns,  in  which  Hatfield  men  took  part. 
The  Indians  were  surprised  in  a  swamp,  their  supplies  were 
captured,  and  some  of  the  prisoners  were  recovered.  The 
General  Court  granted  the  members  of  the  expedition  £40 
and  allowed  them  to  divide  the  spoils. 

The  presence  of  bands  of  marauding  savages  was  annoying 
to  the  settlers  and  many  of  the  towns  sought  relief  from  the 
government.  September  14,  1693,  Hatfield  sent  Eleazer 
Frary  to  the  General  Court  to  say  that  the  town  desired  no 
Indians  to  inhabit  or  to  have  trading  privileges.  In  1695 
an  act  was  passed  prohibiting  trading  with  the  Indians  in 
Hampshire  County. 

September  15,  1694,  an  attack  on  Deerfield  by  the  French 
and  Indians  was  repulsed. 

The  next  year  some  of  the  Albany  Indians  came  again  to 
the  Connecticut  river.  August  18,  1695,  a  party  of  Deerfield 
men  was  attacked  on  its  way  to  mill  and  one,  Joseph  Barn- 
ard, was  killed.  A  pursuit  of  the  Indians  failed  to  discover 
the  perpetrators  of  the  outrage.  The  savages  were  seen  fre- 
quently skulking  in  the  woods  and  a  strict  watch  was  main- 
tained and  scouting  parties  were  sent  out  at  intervals. 

On  the  sixteenth  of  September,  1696,  some  prisoners  were 
taken  at  Deerfield  by  an  unknown  foe,  and  on  October  5 
Richard  Church  of  Hadley  was  murdered  and  scalped  while 
hunting  in  the  woods  near  Mt.  Warner.  Two  of  his  fellow 
townsmen,  Samuel  Barnard  and  Ebenezer  Smith,  who  had 
been  with  him  during  the  afternoon,  returned  \tv  \\ve  ^v^mxv^ 


120  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

with  the  report  that  they  had  heard  two  shots  close  together. 
A  search  party  gathered  from  Hadley,  Northampton,  and 
Hatfield,  accompanied  by  some  friendly  Indians,  found  the 
body  towards  morning.  Following  the  tracks,  they  came 
upon  four  Indians  near  Mt.  Toby.  One  was  captured  and 
the  other  three  were  arrested  in  Hatfield  the  same  dav, 
October  6.  The  remaining  Indians  in  the  camp  in  Hope- 
well were  disarmed.  There  were  eight  other  men,  nine 
squaws,  and  23  children.  Part  of  the  band  was  at  Deerfield. 
The  affair  caused  the  greatest  excitement  in  all  the  towns. 

A  court  of  Oyer  and  Terminer  was  held  at  Northampton, 
October  21,  to  try  the  four  prisoners,  for  which  special  jus- 
tices were  appointed, — John  Pynchon  of  Springfield,  Samuel 
Partridge  of  Hatfield,  Aaron  Cooke  of  Hadley,  Joseph  Haw- 
ley  of  Northampton,  and  Joseph  Parsons  of  Northamp- 
ton. John  Pynchon,  3d,  was  clerk,  Ebenezer  Pomeroy  of 
Northampton  prosecuting  attorney,  and  Richard  Webb  and 
William  Holton  of  Northampton  interpreters.  Samuel  Por- 
ter of  Hadley  was  then  high  sheriff  of  the  county. 

Mowenas  and  Moquolas  were  indicted  as  principals  and 
Wenepuck  and  Pameconset  as  accessories.  The  jurors  were 
as  follows : — 

Grand  jury — Preserved  Clapp,  foreman,  John  Taylor,  Isaac  Sheldon,  Enos 
Kingslcy,  John  Parsons,  Thomas  Lyman,  William  Holton,  and  Samuel  Wright 
of  Northampton ;  Nehemiah  Dickinson,  Jonathan  Marsh,  George  Stillman,  and 
Samuel  Barnard  of  Hadley;  Joseph  Belknap,  Samuel  Belden,  Samuel  Dickin- 
son, and  John  White  of  Hattield. 

Petit  jury — John  Holyoke,  Esq.,  foreman,  and  Thomas  Colton  of  Spring- 
field ;  John  King,  Medad  Pomeroy,  Judah  Wright,  and  John  Clark  of  North- 
ampton;  Timothy  Nash,  Daniel  Marsh,  and  Thomas  Hovey  of  Hadley;  John 
Coleman,  Daniel  White,  and  Eleazer  Frary  of  Hatfield. 

The  Indians  were  tried  separately  and  all  declared  guilty. 
The  principals  were  sentenced  to  be  shot  and  the  execution, 
the  first  in  Hampshire  County,  took  place  October  23.  The 
two  accessories  were  held  till  February  and  then  released. 
They  were  put  in  the  custody  of  Samuel  Partridge,  who  ad- 
vised the  colonial  authorities  not  to  deal  too  severely  with 
them  on  account  of  the  slight  evidence  against  them  and 
"not  to  agrevate  their  evil  spirits  against  us." 

The  trial  and  execution  were  the  cause  of  a  lengthy  cor- 
respondence between  Acting  Governor  William  Stoughton 
and  Governor  Fletcher  of  New  York,  because  the  Albany 
Indians  affirmed  that  the  men  were  innocent  and  threatened 
retaliation.     The  minutes  of  the  trial,  signed  by  the  justices, 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  121 

were  sent  to  the  governor,  who  forwarded  a  copy  to  the  New 
York  authorities.  Samuel  Partridge  was  allowed  £31,  16s., 
for  the  expenses  of  the  trial  to  be  paid  to  the  justices,  jurors, 
and  witnesses  and  for  the  board  and  guarding  of  the  pris- 
oners. 

The  rest  of  the  Indians  remained  in  the  vicinity  till  April, 
1697,  when  they  went  back  to  the  Hudson  and  did  not  return 
to  the  Connecticut  valley  again.  The  General  Court,  im- 
pressed by  the  danger  to  the  valley  towns,  passed  an  order 
that  any  Indians  found  within  twenty  miles  of  the  west  side 
of  the  Connecticut  river  should  be  considered  enemies  and 
treated  as  such. 

Marauding  savages  continued  to  operate  at  various  times, 
however.  July  13,  1697,  Sergt.  Samuel  Field  of  Hatfield  was 
killed,  in  what  manner  is  not  known.  July  15,  1698,  four 
Indians  made  a  raid  on  the  North  Meadow,  where  some  men 
and  boys  were  at  work  hilling  corn  in  the  evening-presidents 
of  "the  Farms."  The  following  account  of  the  attack  is 
taken  from  a  letter  sent  to  the  General  Court  by  Major 
Pynchon,  dated  July  18: — 

"ye  come  being  high  ye  Indians  came  upon  ym  on  a  sudden  they  not 
seeing  ym  till  they  were  upon  ym  &  being  unarmed  &  nothing  to  resist  ym, 
The  enemy  killed  Three  presently  Two  lads  and  a  man.  The  man  John 
Billing  one  of  our  troopers  was  a  year  man  ready  for  service  upon  all 
occasions,  &  hearing  ye  Bussel  w^ent  to  his  horse  to  be  ready  But  just  as  he 
mounted  his  horse  was  shot  downe  dead,  The  two  lads  killed  in  ye  place 
where  they  were  at  worke  about  their  corne  &  another  lad  yt  was  with  ym 
at  work  is  wanting  yt  it  is  supposed  he  is  also  killed,  or  caryed  away,  though 
it  is  evident  they  rather  desired  killing  than  taking  People  because  they  had 
opportunity  to  have  taken  away  more  lads  yt  were  there  who  got  away  one 
man  by  name  Nathanel  Dickenson,  whose  son  was  one  of  ye  lads  yt  was 
killed  was  killed  also  &  also  yc  lad  wanting  is  another  of  his  sons,  sd 
Dickenson  at  some  distance  from  them  being  alike  concerned  for  his  children 
Hearing  ye  Noise  &  disturbance  whereabouts  his  children  were  at  worke  gat 
his  horse  and  Rid  to  ye  Place  where  seeing  persons  killed,  &  ye  Indians 
drawing  off  Rid  up  to  ym,  when  an  Indian  made  shot  at  him  and  killed 
downe  his  horse,  so  yt  he  drew  off  &  escaped  wth  several  others  yt  were  at 
worke  They  say  it  was  only  4  Indians  who  came  between  ye  rows  of  corne 
(ye  corne  being  high)  &  were  not  descernable  til  killing  of  ym" 

Pynchon's  account  was  not  quite  accurate,  for  John  Bill- 
ings and  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  aged  thirteen,  were  killed 
and  Samuel  Dickinson,  eleven,  and  a  boy  named  Charley 
were  captured.  They  were  rescued  by  a  scouting  party 
under  Benjamin  Wright  of  Northampton,  composed  of 
settlers  from  Northampton  and  Deerfield  and  some  of  the 
garrison  soldiers  from  Deerfield. 

The  Indians  were  known   to  the  boys  as  lotrcvet  '^v^w 


\ 


J 22  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Indians  of  the  band  near  Albany.  A  report  of  Samuel  Par- 
tridge to  the  governor  and  council  about  the  savages  en- 
camped in  Hopewell  Swamp  in  1697  stated  that  two  of  the 
men  were  then  fighting  for  the  English  under  Peter  Aspin- 
wall,  a  friendly  Indian.  He  reported  six  other  men,  nine 
squaws,  and  twenty-three  children  as  the  number,  forty  in 
all,  and  urged  that  they  should  all  be  ordered  to  remove  from 
the  vicinity,  pleading  with  the  authorities  that  the  affair 
should  be  "so  managed  as  may  be  to  His  glory  and  ye  Good 
&  Welfare  of  his  poor  Wilderness  people.*'  This  roving  band 
was  probably  responsible  for  all  the  outrages  in  Hampshire 
County  during  the  war.  They  were  the  remnants  of  the 
aboriginal  tribes  of  the  Connecticut  valley,  Pocumtucks  and 
Norwottucks  and  a  few  Nipmucks.  These  Albany  Indians 
were  called  Scatacooks  after  their  removal  to  New  York 
state. 

The  expenses  of  King  William's  war  to  Massachusetts 
were  £150,000.  It  had  a  long  frontier  to  defend  from  the 
Connecticut  to  the  Kennebec  in  Maine,  including  part  of 
the  present  state  of  New  Hampshire.  Not  a  great  many 
lives  were  lost,  but  much  property  was  destroyed  and  many 
captives  were  carried  to  Canada.  Though  bounties  were 
offered  for  Indian  scalps  or  heads  of  £10  to  £12,  and  in  some 
cases  higher,  few  were  killed.  The  following  note«s  on  the 
pay  of  soldiers,  etc.,  are  taken  from  Judd's  ''History  of  Had- 
ley" :— 

"Wages  of  officers  and  soldiers. — In  1696  and  in  other  years,  a  private  had 
6  shillings  per  week;  drummer  and  corporal,  7s,;  clerk  and  sergeants,  95.; 
ensign,  12s. ;  lieutenant,  15s. ;  captain,  30s. ;  major,  50s. ;  chaplain,  20s. ;  sur- 
geon, 20s.  Regular  troopers  or  cavalry,  each  furnishing  his  own  horse- 
Common  trooper,  10s. ;  trumpeter,  clerk,  and  corporal,  12s. ;  quartermaster, 
15s.;  cornet,  20s.;  lieutenant,  25s,;  captain,  40s.  Dragoons  or  common  sol- 
diers with  horses,  8s.  These  wages  seem  not  to  differ  much  from  those  in 
Philip's  war.  A  post  had  4  pence  a  mile  one  way,  and  bore  the  charges  of 
himself  and  horse. 

"Subsistence  for  soldiers. — In  1696,  the  price  of  food  for  soldiers  not 
stationary  was  8  pence  per  day ;  for  those  in  garrison,  3s.  6d.  per  week.  The 
soldiers  were  well  supplied  with  food.  Many  were  billeted  m  families  and 
lived  as  they  did.  Others  had  pork  or  beef,  bread  or  dry  biscuit,  and  peas. 
In  some  expeditions  they  carried  the  Indian  food  called  "nocake,"  which  was 
Indian  corn  parched  and  beaten  into  meal.  Rum,  sugar,  pipes,  and  tobacco 
were  to  be  provided  for  an  expedition  to  Maine  in  September,  1689.  Keeping 
a  horse  at  grass  a  day  and  night  was  3  pence,  and  at  hay  and  provender,  0 
pence." 

No  soldiers  were  doing  garrison  duty  in  Hatfield  till  the 
last  year  of  the  war,  when  the  General  Court  assigned  three 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  ]  23 

men  for  a  garrison  for  the  town  and  farm  June  10,  1698.  It 
appears  from  Pynchon's  report  of  the  encounter  in  the 
North  Meadow  that  John  Billings,  a  Hatfield  man,  was  one 
of  these  garrison  soldiers.  The  other  two  were  probably 
residents  of  the  town  also.  They  were  assigned  to  regular 
military  duty  under  pay  of  the  province,  so  that  their  fellow 
townsmen  could  be  free  to  attend  to  their  ordinary  farm 
duties. 

The  Superior  Courts  were  suspended  in  Hampshire  County 
in  1695  and  during  the  rest  of  the  war.  Taxes  were  heavy 
and  were  hard  to  collect.  Paper  money,  the  province  bills 
of  credit,  was  issued  for  the  first  time.  Hampshire  County 
was  slow  in  paying  the  taxes  and  the  money  called  for, 
instead  of  provision  pay,  was  thought  especially  burden- 
some. There  was  some  agitation  for  a  secession  to  Con- 
necticut. 

While  Samuel  Partridge  was  in  Boston  attending  the 
General  Court,  he  exchanged  grain  sent  from  Hatfield  for 
money  to  pay  the  town's  taxes  to  the  colony.  The  town 
records  of  1690  show  that  the  rate  of  £33,  15s.,  for  that  year 
was  collected  in  grain  by  the  constables  and,  if  it  miscarried 
on  the  voyage.  Captain  Partridge  ^vas  to  be  repaid.  Wheat 
was  valued  at  2s.  6d.  i>er  bushel,  peas  at  2s.,  corn  at  Is.  6d. 
and  not  over  one  third  was  to  be  paid  in  corn.  The  injustice 
of  the  money  tax  was  so  severely  felt  that  it  occasioned  many 
petitions  from  the  valley  towns,  in  one  of  which  it  was  stated 
that  "not  one  in  ten  [had]  any  income  of  money  in  any 
manner."  The  General  Court  sometimes  allowed  grain  to 
be  taken  at  a  discount  of  one  third  from  the  ruling  rates  of 
exchange. 

In  acknowledgment  of  the  assistance  furnished  by  Con- 
necticut, the  following  letter  was  sent: — 

'*The  ready  assistance  this  county  of  Hampshire,  in  their  majesties*  prov- 
ince of  the  Massachusetts  Bay,  in  New  England,  have  had  and  found  in  our 
distresses  in  the  times  of  war,  from  our  neighbors  and  friends  of  Connecticut 
colony,  calls  for  our  grateful  acknowledgment,  as  we  do  expect  the  con- 
tinuance of  their  former  friendliness  and  good  neighborhood. 

"Wherefore,  these  are  humbly  to  signify,  that  we  have  received  great  help 
and  good  a'^sistance  from  the  government  of  their  majesties*  colony  of  Con- 
necticut, in  a  ready,  large  and  plentiful  supply  of  men  and  help,  both  in  the 
first  war  in  the  years  1675  and  1676,  as  also  at  divers  times  upon  emergencies 
and  exigences,  they  have  performed  great  helpfulness  in  going  upon  discov- 
eries and  keeping  garrisons,  to  their  great  charge,  and  now  lately  in  their 
assistance  at  Deerfield,  our  chief  frontier  town;  whereby  thtou^Vv  Qi^^ 
goodness,  they  have  been  a  great  support  and  guard,  etvcoui^^ercv^TvX.  ^xA 


J  24  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

safety  to  our  county,  and  discouragement  to  the  common  enemy;  and  here- 
unto we  subscribe  our  hands,  September  28th,  1693. 

"Solomon  Stoddard,  Minister  of  Northampton. 
John  Williams,  Minister  of  Deerfield. 
William  Williams,  Minister  of  Hatfield. 
Edward  TA^xoR,  Minister  of  Westfield. 

[Springfield  and  Hadley  were  destitute  of  a  settled  minister  in  1693.] 

John  Pynchon, 

Peter  Tilton, 

Aaron  Cook, 

Joseph  Hawley, 

Samuel  Partrigg, 

Justices  of  the  Peace  for  West  Hampshire, 
in  the  province  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay. 
in  N.  E. 

Thomas  Colton,  Capt.  of  Springfield. 

Samuel  Roote,  Lieut,  of  Westfield. 

Timothy  Nash,  Lieut,  of  Hadley. 

Samuel  Partrigg,  Capt.  of  Hatfield. 

John  King,  Lieut,  of  Northampton." 

The  war  did  not  cause  the  suspension  of  other  activities 
as  did  the  first  Indian  war,  and  the  town  records  for  the 
period  indicate  great  extension  and  improvement  going  on. 
Repairs  on  the  meetinghouse  were  begun  early  in  1689,  addi- 
tional seats  were  put  in  the  galleries  on  the  north  and  south, 
the  side  windows  were  shut  up  and  covered,  and  windows 
with  four  lights  apiece  were  put  in  the  east  and  west  sides 
of  the  roof,  the  work  "to  be  w^ell  performed  and  workman- 
like.*' Fifty-three  shillings  were  appropriated  for  the  pur- 
pose. 

In  the  last  chapter  reference  was  made  to  the  first  recorded 
measures  for  the  support  of  the  poor.  In  September,  1688, 
Samuel  Belden  and  Samuel  Partridge  were  directed  to  in- 
quire into  the  state  of  William  King's  family,  and  the  next 
year  it  appears  that  Goodwife  Belden  took  charge  of  King's 
wife  during  confinement.  She  was  insane  and  evidently  sub- 
ject to  severe  outbreaks,  for  in  1689  it  was  voted  that  a 
small  house  or  cellar  should  be  built  on  King's  lot  at  the 
town's  expense  and  '*in  case  said  King's  wife  be  out  or 
unruly  to  secure  her  in  it."  May  18,  1692,  the  infirm  condi- 
tion of  Goodwife  King  was  noted.  Dr.  Hastings  was  "de- 
sired to  do  what  he  can  by  w^ay  of  physic  or  otherwise  to 
bring  her  to  a  better  pass  if  it  may  be  and  the  charge  thereof 
to  be  paid  by  the  town." 

In  1694  Thomas  Bracy  was  ordered  "to  sell  his  lot  for  the 
relief  of  his  family  to  be  disposed  to  the  selectmen  for  their 
present  support,"  and  to  prevent  the  children  from  growing 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  125 

up  in  idleness  they  were  "put  out"  for  employment  in  other 
families. 

Somewhat  later  relief  was  given  "Jane  Stratton  a  Scotch 
maid  long  resided  as  an  inhabitant  in  this  Town  and  now 
being  decrepit  and  many  infirmities  attending  her.  [The 
selectmen  were  to]  take  a  survey  of  her  infirmities  and  to 
supply  them  upon  the  towns  charge.'* 

In  this  connection  the  fact  may  be  recorded  that  on  Dec. 
19,  1698,  a  contribution  was  made  for  Daniel  Belden  and 
Martin  Smith,  who  had  been  reduced  to  straits  by  their  cap- 
tivity in  Canada  after  the  attack  on  Deerfield  in  1696. 

The  first  poorhouse  was  built  a  few  years  later.  In  March, 
1702/3,  it  was  voted  that  the  town  would  "by  way  of  rate  or 
otherwise  build  a  house  of  ten  pound  for  the  use  of  Thos. 
Bracy's  family  so  long  as  they  need  it,  afterward  to  be  for 
the  Town's  use  from  time  to  time.''  Instead  of  building  a 
house,  the  town  in  October  bought  "John  Fields  little  house'' 
and  allowed  20  shillings  for  a  cellar  to  be  dug  under  it. 
It  is  not  known  whether  this  house  stood  on  John  Field's 
lot  or  was  moved  to  one  of  the  town  lots  or  placed  in  the 
highway.  John  Field  at  that  time  owned  the  Goodwin  lot, 
where  the  first  two  ministers  had  lived,  and  he  probably 
occupied  the  house  on  it.  His  "little  house"  may  have  been 
the  one  built  by  his  father  at  the  first  settlement  of  the  town. 

The  live  stock  industry  was  becoming  more  important.  In 
1690  the  owners  of  sheep  were  allowed  to  fence  in  a  tract  of 
land  north  of  the  town,  ''provided  it  be  no  obstruction  to  the 
town  or  county  highway."  December  18,  1693,  it  was  de- 
cided to  raise  the  number  of  sheep  in  town  to  700  by  the 
first  of  the  next  April  and  a  committee  was  appointed  as 
sheep  masters  to  consider  advantageous  ways  to  promote  the 
industry.  These  sheep  masters  were  Ensign  Frary,  Sergeant 
Waite,  John  Cowles,  William  Arms,  and  Samuel  Partridge. 
For  several  years  they  entered  every  year  on  the  general 
records  an  agreement  with  a  shepherd  to  care  for  the  flocks, 
first  Robert  Ppick  or  Poag,  afterwards  William  King.  The 
ambitions  of  the  settlers  were  not  fullv  realized,  for  in  1691 
the  sheep  numbered  only  273.  By  1699  there  were  291 
owned  as  follows:  Thomas  Meekins.  2;  John  Cowles,  28; 
widow  Russell,  9;  John  Belden,  6:  Isaac  Graves,  2;  John 
Graves  Taylor,  8;  Samuel  Partridge,  30;  John  Graves,  Sr., 
10;  Nathaniel  Graves.  4;  Richard  Billings,  1;  S^mv\^\  \^\c.V 


126  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

inson,  4;  Richard  Morton,  28;  Benjamin  Waite,  16;  John 
Field,  11 ;  Isaac  Hubbard,  3;  Samuel  Belden,  Sr.,  5 ;  Jeremiah 
Alvord,  14;  William  Scott,  10;  Ichabod  Allis,  12;  Samuel 
Graves,  4;  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  14;  Thomas  Nash,  2;  Ed- 
ward Church,  11;  Samuel  Belden,  Jr.,  1;  Mr.  Williams,  11; 
Samuel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  6;  Joseph  Smith,  4;  John  White,  20; 
Eleazer  Frary,  15.  In  1697  King's  hill  was  fenced  for  a  sheep 
pasture  and  any  other  animals  found  inside  were  pounded. 

The  fattening  of  cattle  was  becoming  an  important  indus- 
try and  regulations  regarding  cattle  appear  in  the  records. 
Two  bulls  were  always  to  be  kept  in  town  and  all  old  animals 
unfit  for  service  were  to  be  killed.  Fat  cattle  were  exempt 
from  assessment  in  the  town  rates.  Corn  was  so  important 
a  crop  that  Aug.  23,  1697,  a  bounty  of  8d.  apiece  was  oflfered 
on  "blackbirds"  killed.  The  use  of  any  disagreeable  material 
such  as  tar  to  keep  the  crows  from  pulling  up  the  sprouting 
corn  was  probably  not  understood.  Large  numbers  of  hogs 
were  kept  and  pork  was  sent  to  market  down  the  river. 

The  gathering  of  tar  and  turpentine  from  the  pine  trees 
in  towns  along  the  valley  was  begun  in  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury and  continued  up  to  about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth. 
The  turpentine  was  sent  to  Boston  to  be  distilled.     In  1696 
Hatfield  forbade  the  taking  of  resin  from  pine  trees  on  ac- 
count of  the  damage  done  to  them,  but  the  practice  was  not 
stopped.     In  1699  those  who  had  boxed  trees  on  the  common 
land  so  that  they  fell  to  obstruct  the  highways  were  ordered 
to  clear  them  from  the  road.     The  industry  appeared  to  be 
quite  profitable  to  those  who  engaged  in  it,  but  detrimental 
to  the  interests  of  the  proprietors  as  a  whole.     A  record  of 
the  year  1700  shows  that  Nathaniel  Smith,  Joseph  Smith,  and 
Nathaniel  Kellogg  had  boxed  several  hundred  trees.     They 
were  allowed  to  go  on  with  the  gathering  of  turpentine  from 
these,   but   were   forbidden   to   box  any   more   trees.     Two 
years  later  John  Wells  was  given  liberty  "notwithstanding 
former  orders  to  cut  and  improve  500  pine  trees  on  the  north 
side  of  our  bounds  so  long  as  he  has  cause  for  the  use  of 
turpentine."     In  1703  Ebenezer  Billings  and  Joseph  Morton 
were  granted  liberty  to  gather  turpentine  on  the  commons 
and  it  appears  that  in  1708  Samuel  Gillett  had  1,500  trees 
boxed. 

In  1693  John  Graves,  Sr.,  was  permitted  to  build  a  malt 
house  in  front  of  his  home  lot  on  "the  Hill,"  taking  as  much 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  127 

of  the  highway  as  necessary.  The  same  year  Thomas  King 
of  Northampton  applied  for  a  grant  of  a  small  piece  of  ground 
to  set  up  a  shoemaker's  shop.  He  was  given  about  an  acre 
at  the  gate  at  the  south  of  the  town  on  condition  that  he 
remain  ten  years.  He  relinquished  the  rights  the  next  year 
and  moved  to  Hartford,  Conn.  The  advantage  of  having  a 
shoemaker  in  town  was  appreciated,  and  in  1696  King's 
grant  was  given  to  Joseph  Chamberlain  on  the  same  condi- 
tion. He  had  been  one  of  the  soldiers  who  settled  in  Hadley 
about  1676.  He  probably  set  up  a  shop  in  his  house,  but  did 
not  remain  in  town  long,  for  in  1699  he  was  allowed  to  sell 
his  house  without  completing  the  length  of  time  required 
by  the  terms  of  his  grant.     He  moved  to  Colchester,  Conn. 

Schools  were  regularly  maintained  and  the  teachers,  of 
whom  there  were  several  at  different  times,  were  paid  from 
£30  to  £35.  In  1694  Dr.  Hastings  began  to  teach  again,  and 
in  1699  "Thomas  Hastings,  son  to  Dr.  Hastings,"  was  ap- 
pointed schoolmaster.  He  taught  regularly  for  a  long  time. 
He  was  also  a  physician  and  became  prominent  in  town 
affairs  in  a  few  years. 

The  fixing  of  the  town  boundaries  occupied  much  attention 
during  this  period  and  succeeding  years.  April  1,  1689,  a 
committee  was  appointed  to  "perambulate  the  bounds  with 
Deerfield"  and  notice  was  sent  to  that  town.  An  amicable 
agreement  was  reached  with  their  neighbors  on  the  north 
and  the  bounds  were  fixed  in  April,  1696,  by  Samuel  Par- 
tridge and  Benjamin  Waite  with  Godfrey  Nims  and  Philip 
Matoon  of  Deerfield,  who  "marked  a  little  walnut  tree  with 
H.  D.  near  the  greet  river  and  [the  line  was]  so  to  r,i^n  by 
marked  trees  westward  to  the  Mill  River  Swamp,"  at  about 
the  present  boundary  line  between  Whately  and  Deerfield. 

The  trouble  with  Northampton  and  Hadley,  to  which  ref- 
erence has  been  made  before,  was  not  so  easily  adjusted  and 
petitions  were  sent  to  the  General  Court  and  many  letters 
exchanged  with  the  towns  in  question,  of  which  one  will 
serve  for  illustration: — 

"To  THE  Town  of  Hadley 

"Brethren  and  Friends — We  delight  not  in  burthening  you  or  ourselves 
with  abundance  of  words  in  matters  that  seem  to  us  plain  and  equal  and  do 
judge  it  rather  a  means  to  darken  than  to  come  at  the  truth ;  and  to  a  further 
settlement  of  things  between  us  which  we  are  ready  and  desirous  of,  we  have 
formerly  sent  to  yourselves  desiring  it  might  be  communicated  to  the  Town 
our  desires  for  a  loveing  and  speedy  settlement  of  the  bounds  between  our 
Town  and  yours.    We  have  received  a  paper  under  the  hands  oi  -^owt  ^^^cX.- 


]28  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

men  without  any  sigtiifieatioti  of  the  Towns  consent  and  concurence  with  it, 
wherein  you  in  many  things  seem  to  slight  our  proposals  10  you.  and  to  load 
us  with  many  things  which  we  ju<lge  to  be  inconsistent  with  truth  as  we  are 
able  particularly  to  evince,  and  did  we  desire  anything  more  than  love  and 
peace  wc  would  say  upon  former  things,  which  that  shall  appear.  Whether 
j'ourselves  or  we  have  been  the  party  and  covenant  breakers  the  world  may 
judge,  but  we  delight  not  in  it,  but  the  things  we  arc  desirous  of  some  jusi 
and  equal  settlement  of  Bounds  between  us  and  desire  the  things  may  be 
fairly  laid  before  your  Town  to  see  whether  something  may  not  be  done  to 
prevent  further  trouble,  and  we  would  lay  before  to  your  consideration  a  few 
things  & 

"1st  Whether  anything  can  be  judged  an  obligation  •  •  •  or  settle- 
ment of  bounds  without  mutual  agreement  of  both  Towns — 

"2d  Whether  settlement  of  the  bounds  be  not  necessary  and  whether  the 
speediest  and  lovingest  settlement  be  not  best — 

"3  Whether  the  present  devision  of  lands  between  us  for  the  payment  of 
public  dues  be  not  full  of  confusion  and  contrary  lo  reason  and  custom — 

"4  Whether  according  to  the  record  which  saith  we  were  to  join  in  one 
society  till  the  Lord  call  either  party  to  be  a  Society  by  themselves,  we  had 
not  a  clear  call  and  your  consent  also  to  be  a  Society  by  ourselves — 

"5  You  and  we  having  set  up  two  churches  are  we  not  to  do  what  tf 
sufficient  for  supporting  of  both — 

■"6  If  the  habitations  had  been  in  Hatfield  and  the  charge  as  much  lo 
uphold  a  church  there  as  at  Hadley,  should  you  not,  would  you  not  have  said 
the  land  ought  not  to  have  been  so  divided  as  to  have  left  there  one  third 
part  of  ii  to  bear  public  charges  there — 

"7  Whether  you  are  not  in  danger  to  lose  Little  Ponset  to  Korlhamplon 
if  the  River  be  not  ihe  bound  between  us.  We  desire  to  leave  these  thingi 
with  you  and  so  we  request  that  you  would  not  too  rashly  refuse  our  motions 
but  duly  weigh  and  consider  them  and  with  as  much  speed  as  may  be  that  you 
would  give  us  a  positive  and  plain  answer  to  what  we  have  desired  in  this 

"Jany  2l5t  1692/3  the  aforesaid  was  voted  by  the  Town  of  Hatfield  to  be 
sent  and  communicated  to  the  Town  of  Hadley  and  that  Ens.  Frary  and 
Samll  Marsh  have  opportunity  and  liberty  to  treat  with  Hadley  about  it,   ' 

"Samll  Paktrigg  CltrV 

The  river  was  finally  ordered  to  be  the  boundary  betwWD 
the  towiLs  by  the  General  Court.  Xov.  2,  1733. 

The  boundary  with  Northampton  was  fixed  Nov.  20.  172A 
by  a  committee  from  the  General  Court,  both  town-*  agravog 
to  accept  the  original  boundary  south  of  Capawonk  Mei^W 
e.stablished  as  the  line  between  Hadley  and  NorthatnpUil 
before  the  incorporation  of  Hatfield,  but  before  settlefn«iit 
of  the  case  was  made  there  had  been  several  lawsuits  between 
owners  of  the  land  near  the  line.  Hatfield  men  complaining 
of  trespass  on  their  property  by  Xorthampton  settlers  and 
vice  versa.  The  reason  for  the  agitation  of  the  question 
with  Xnrtham])ton  was  because  it  was  feared  that  if  the 
south  line  of  the  town  was  so  near  the  houses, — within  a 
mile  of  those  on  "the  Hill," — there  would  be  a  scarcity  of 
wood  and  stone  for  the  inhabitants  in  the  south  part  of  the 
town  and  there  could  be  no  further  growth  in  that  direction. 


HISTORY   OF   HATFrELD.  129 

No  other  settlement  was  so  near  the  limits  of  its  township 
grant.  The  line  was  surveyed  and  estabUshed  in  April,  1721, 
by  a  committee  from  both  towns. 

The  first  choice  of  assessors  as  a  separate  body  is  recorded 
under  date  of  July  24,  1694, — Lieut.  Daniel  White,  Ens. 
Eleazer  Frary,  and  Samuel  Marsh.  In  1697  heads  were 
assessed  at  2s,;  houses,  "6s.  the  highest  and  others  propor- 
tionally at  the  judgment  of  the  assessors"  ;  land,  10s.  per  acre ; 
oxen,  50s. ;  cows,  3  years  old,  30s.,  2  years  old,  20s.,  1  year 
old,  10s.;  horses,  40s.,  2  years  old,  20s.,  1  year  old,  10s. ;  hogs, 
5s. ;  sheep,  3s, ;  negroes,  2s.  This  is  the  first  reference  in  the 
town  records  to  negroes.  Mr.  Williams  had  negro  slaves 
and  possibly  other  inhabitants  did  also.  During  the  eight- 
eenth century  many  were  owned  in  town. 

The  town  officers  chosen  in  1697  were  constables,  select- 
men, clerk,  tithing  men,  surveyors  of  highways,  fence  view- 
ers, field  drivers,  and  assessors.  Packers  of  meat  and  gaugers 
of  casks  are  occasionally  mentioned.  Fence  viewers  and  field 
drivers,  who  were  important  officials  and  had  much  to  do  to 


Middle  Lane. 


prevent  damage  to  standing  crops,  were  first  called  haywards. 
Fencing  was  always  neglected  by  the  proprietors  during 
war  time. 

Middle   Lane   was  built   up   during   King  William's   war. 
John  Belden  and  Samuel  Kellogg  were  living  there  in  1696 


130 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 


and  very  likely  there  were  oth'er  occupants  of  the  grants  that 
had  been  made,  but  it  is  impossible  to  ascertain  who  they 
were  or  at  what  time  they  became  permanent  residents  of 
that  section.  Probably  several  more  houses  on  "the  Hill" 
were  built  at  this  period  also. 

In  1695  Hatfield  was  granted  additional  territory  by  the 
General  Court.  The  tract  was  three  miles  wide  and  six  miles 
long  beyond  the  western  boundaries,  nearly  the  same  as  the 
present  township  of  Williamsburg.  It  was  called  the  "Hat- 
field Addition"  or  '^Hatfield  Three  Mile  Grant,"  sometimes 
"Hatfield  Woods."  The  land  became  a  part  of  the  commons 
and  was  not  divided  among  the  inhabitants  till  1752. 


CHAPTER  X. 

ANOTHER   PERIOD   OF   PEACE,   1698-1703.     THE   PURCHASE   OF 
THE  BRADSTREET  FARM.     BUILDING  THE  SECOND 

MEETINGHOUSE. 

"  Think  naught  a  trifle,  though  it  small  appear." 

The  call  for  more  land. — Additional  grants  of  parts  of  the  meadows. — 
Taking  up  of  lots  in  Hopewell  Swamp — Purchase  of  the  Bradstreet  farm. — 
The  proprietors'  books. — Highways  and  bridges. — Improvement  of  the  breed 
of  horses. — Election  of  Thomas  Hastings,  Jr.,  as  town  clerk. — A  new  pound. — 
The  minister's  salary. — Building  of  the  second  meetinghouse. 

The  interval  of  peace  between  1698  and  1703,  when  Queen 
Anne's  war  broke  out,  seems  to  be  rather  barren  of  impor- 
tant events,  but  it  was  a  period  of  expansion,  nevertheless. 
More  land  was  needed  by  the  growing  community.  The 
commons,  as  divided  in  1684,  were  not  thought  desirable  for 
tillage  and  probably  had  grown  up  to  valuable  forests,  but 
there  was  still  some  land  at  the  disposal  of  the  town  which 
had  not  been  assigned  to  proprietors  and  the  Bradstreet  farm 
was  secured  in  this  interval. 

The  town  appointed  a  committee,  Dec.  19,  1699,  "to  survey 

any  upland  that  may  be  fit  to  improve  and  to  accommodate 

inhabitants."     Three  tracts  of  land  were  found  available  for 

the  purpose,  the  first,  the  land  between  the  Denison  farm  and 

Hopewell  Swamp.    It  was  decided  in  March,  1700,  to  lay  out 

this  tract  of  land  in  equal  portions  for  those  who  desired  to 

take  up  fields  there,  and  in  December  of  that  year  the  vote 

'■^^arding  the  perpetual  reservation  of  a  sheep  pasture  was 

''^scinded,  the  sequestered  land  again  to  be  at  the  town's 

^^sposal.     It  appears  from  the  record  that  some  men  **desired 

^^  mhabit  on  the  Plain  or  Deerfield  road."     The  intention 

^^  Purchasing  the  Bradstreet  farm  was  mentioned  at  that 
time 

^  hose  who  proposed  to  take  up  their  residences  "between 
!}^  farm  and  Hopewell"  were  Jonathan  Williams,  Joseph 
j;|^^rnberlain,  Nathaniel  Kellogg,  Josiah  Scott,  Zechariah 
*'^M,  Samuel  Russell,  John  Belden,  Samuel  M^t?>Vv,  N^J \\\\^v^ 


132  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Scott,  Jr.,  and  Benoni  Wright.  Some  of  these  were  among 
the  first  settlers  of  Whately,  but  no  houses  were  built  in  that 
part  of  the  town  as  early  as  the  time  under  consideration. 
There  seemed  to  be  considerable  opposition  to  further  divi- 
sion of  land  by  the  proprietors  who  had  held  land  for  a  longer 
period.  They  wished  to  rent  land  to  newcomers  or  the 
young  men  who  were  becoming  heads  of  families. 

Other  tracts  to  be  opened  to  grants  were  King's  hill  and 
the  land  south  of  the  Northampton  road  between  the  high- 
way and  the  Little  Ponsett  fence.     The  King's  hill  tract  was 
the  old  sheep  pasture.     March  17,  1700,  it  was  voted  that 
these  tracts,  together  with  the  land  between  the   Denison 
farm  and  Hopewell,  should  be  laid  out  in  proportion  to  those 
who  wanted  land.     Opposition  was  strong  and  the  matter 
dragged.     April  6,  1702,  it  was  voted  that  the  three  tracts 
should  be  divided  so  that  each  man  should  have  his  whole 
allotment  in  one  tract  with  permission  to  change  if  he  de- 
sired.    In  November  it  was  decided  to  have  another  survey 
before  the  bounds  were  established.     Those  who  took  up  the 
new  land  were  to  be  owners  and  not  tenants.     The  lots  were 
to  be  of  ten  acres  each.     The  subject  will  be  spoken  of  again 
in    Chapter    XII.    in    connection    with    the    settlement   of 
Whately.     The  grants  were  not  recorded  and  in  1707  a  com- 
mittee appointed  to  search  the  records  declared  that  they 
could  not  find  any  reference  to  the  matter.     The  next  year, 
however,  the  grants  were  confirmed  to  John  Belden,  Josiah 
and  William  Scott,  and  Ebenezer  Marsh.     The  vote  regard- 
ing King's  hill  was  declared  null  and  void  and  that  section 
was  reserved  again  for  a  sheep  pasture  until  1733,  when  it 
was  sold  to  Ebenezer  Bardwell  for  £422  for  the  60  acres 
included  in  it.     He  signed  a  release  to  the  town  two  years 
later  and  Israel  Williams  secured  20  acres  of  it  for  £200  and 
John  Field,  Jr.,  the  remainder  for  £200.     What  disposition 
the  town  finally  made  of  the  third  tract  spoken  of,  near  Littler 
Ponsett,  a  careful  search  of  the  records  does  not  disclose.^ 
except  that  it  was  occasionally  rented. 

Hadley  ordered  a  division  of  its  commons  in  1700,  and  i 
1703  a  report  was  made  of  the  survey  and  the  location  of  th 
lots  in  three  divisions  of  the  commons  east  of  the  village  t 
78  Hadley  proprietors  and  to  16  from  Hatfield.  The  latte 
were  as  follows : — 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  J 33 


No. 

of  the  lots. 

Rods. 

Feet. 

No.  of  the  lots. 

Rods. 

Feet. 

In  the  First  Diinsion. 

19 

Daniel  Warner 

8 

7 

4 

Samuel  Marsh 

21 

13 

20 

Widow  Warner 

8 

7 

12 

Samuel  Dickinson 

8 

13 

21 

Joseph  Smith 

4 

6 

13 

Rev.  Wm.  Williams 

7 

5 

22 

Ebenezer  Wells 

21 

14 

14 

John  Cole 

6 

8 

28 

Col.  Sam'l  Partridge 

40 

8 

15 

John  Graves 

4 

0 

47 

Nath'l  Dickinson 

3 

11 

16 

Stephen  Belden 

10 

5 

48 

Edward  Church 

35 

0 

17 

Ebenezer  Billings 

5 

2 

In  the  Second  Division. 

18 

Samuel  Belden,  Jr. 

3 

0 

34 

Thomas  Xash 

8 

13 

Every  rod  in  width  gave  an  acre  and  a  half  of  land.  The 
total  amount  of  land  given  to  the  proprietors  of  the  two 
towns  was  5,103  acres.  This  land  was  wooded  for  the  most 
part  and  was  not  cleared  for  many  years.  The  reason  the 
Hatfield  men  shared  in  the  division  of  the  Hadley  commons 
was  that  they  were  rated  in  the  Hadley  lists  as  owning 
meadow  land  belonging  to  that  town,  but  located  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river. 

December  31,  1700,  a  report  was  made  of  the  lots  taken  up 

in  Hopewell  Swamp.     This  was  the  wet  swamp  mentioned 

when  the  first  division  of  land  was  made  in  the  Mill  Swamp. 

It  was  first  called  Hopewell  in   1679.     It  ran  north  from 

Great  Pond  through  the  present  town  of  Whately.     A  vote 

had  been  passed  to  drain  it  in  1693.     Lots  of  13  acres  each 

were  taken  up  in  order,  beginning  at  the  south,  by  Samuel 

Partridge,  Ens.  Eleazer  Frary,  Lieut.  Daniel  White,  Ensign 

Frary,  John  Graves,  Sr.,  the  heirs  of  Samuel  Graves,  Samuel 

Dickinson,  and  the  heirs  of  John  Graves.     The  expenses  for 

surveying  and  staking  the  lots  were  3d.  each  per  acre.     The 

use  of  a  compass  is  mentioned  in  this  survey  for  the  first 

time. 

On  the  same  date  report  was  made  of  the  measurement 
of  the  Denison  farm  and  the  marking  of  its  boundaries. 

In  November  of  the  next  year,  1701,  the  selectmen  and 

^oivn  measurers  were  authorized  to  join  with  the  proprietors 

^1^  the  Bradstreet  farm  "to  lay  out  said  farm  so  that  neither 

^^  proprietors  nor  the  town  should  be  damnified.''    The  farm 

Ciovernor  Bradstreet,  who  died  in  1697,  was  thus  appar- 

^^^y  bought  about   1700,  but  the  first  purchasers  are  not 

/^^^"vvn  with  certainty.     These  farms  were  never  owned  by 

/^^     town  as  all  the  other  land  had  been,  which  was  granted 

y    t:he  General  Court  under  the  old  charter  and  purchased 

'^^'"^  the  Indians.     A  book  of  proprietors'  records  was  kept, 

^^P^rate  from  the  general  records  of  the  town,  b\  VW  o\nyv^\^ 


134 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


of  real  estate,  and  the  proprietors  of  the  Bradstreet  and  Den- 
ison  farms  also  met  as  legal  bodies  to  act  in  regard  to  fenc- 
ing, surveying,  and  making  roads.  They  usually  met  jointly 
and  the  records  were  kept  in  one  book.  These  records  of  the 
proprietors  of  the  Bradstreet  and  Denison  farms  cover  the 
period  from  1713  to  1735,  their  first  book  of  records — for  it 
seems  likely  there  must  have  been  an  earlier  one — being 
lost.  The  owners  of  the  Bradstreet  farm  in  1719  were  as 
follows : — 


First  Half  Mile  in  Hopcwcll- 
Samuel  Gunn, 
Josiah  Scott, 
Ebenezer  Bardwell, 
Samuel  Belden, 
John  Crafts, 
Josiah  Scott, 
John  Wait, 
Ebenezer  Morton, 
Nathaniel  Coleman, 
Thomas  Field. 
Jonathan  Smith, 
Zachery  Field. 


First  Division  of  Upper  Mile- 
Josiah  Scott, 
Zachery  Field, 
Joseph  Smith, 
John  Crafts, 
John  White, 
Jonathan  Smith, 
Zachery  Field, 
Ebenezer  Morton, 
John  Wait, 
Nathaniel  Coleman, 
Samuel  Belden, 
John  Belden, 
Ebenezer  Bardwell. 


Second  Half  Mile  in  Hopewell— 
John  Wait, 
Ebenezer  Morton, 
Joseph  Smith, 
Thomas  Field, 
John  Crafts, 
Zachery  Field, 
Jonathan  Smith, 
Josiah  Scott, 
Nathaniel  Coleman, 
Samuel  Gunn, 
John  Belden, 
Ebenezer  Bardwell, 
Samuel  Belden. 

Second  Division  of  Upper  Mile — 
Ebenezer  Bardwell, 
John  Belden, 
Samuel  Belden, 
Nathaniel  Coleman, 
John  Wait, 
Ebenezer  Morton, 
Zachery  Field, 
John  Smith, 
John  White, 
John  Crafts, 
Joseph  Smith, 
Zachery  Field, 
Jonathan  Cole. 


The  proprietors'  roads  through  the  farms  were  not  ac- 
cepted as  town  highways,  as  the  town  had  no  jurisdiction 
over  them,  but  the  main  road  north  and  south  between  the 
Old  and  West  Farms  was  undoubtedly  the  present  river 
road,  later  taken  as  a  town  and  county  highway. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  year  1701  the  two  main  highways 
through  the  commons  to  the  west  and  north  were  agreed 
upon  in  town  meeting  and  formally  accepted,  after  the  report 
of  a  committee  consisting  of  Samuel  Partridge,  Samuel  Bel- 
den, Sr.,  Daniel  White,  Sr.,  Sanuicl  Dickinson,  Sr.,  and  John 
White.  The  highways  were  laid  out  ten  rods  wide  and 
rnnrkcd  by  blazed  trees.     The  east  one  was  at  its  upper  end 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  135 

the  present  Straits  road.  It  began  at  the  Hatfield  mill  and 
ran  northward  along  what  is  now  Prospect  Street  to  the  top 
of  Clay  hill, — then  called  Clay  gully, — where  it  was  joined  by 
the  so-called  Deerfield  Lane  leading  from  the  street,  then 
followed  the  line  of  the  old  Indian  trail  that  led  to  Deerfield 
along  the  westerly  bank  of  Great  Pond  and  the  west  side  of 
Hopewell  Swamp  to  the  beginning  of  what  is  now  called  the 
Straits  road  through  Whately.  It  was  then  traveled  through 
most  of  its  extent  and  known  as  the  Pocumtuck  path.  The 
part  between  Clay  hill  and  West  Brook  is  still  open,  though 
not  so  much  used  as  branch  highways  on  either  side  laid  out 
later. 

The  western   highway  was   along  the   east   side  of  Mill 
Swamp  at  its  northern  end,  continued  by  the  present  Clave- 
rack  road.     When  the  road  was  first  laid  out  it  went  only 
as   far  as  "Upper  Going  Over''   the   Mill  Swamp  at  West 
Brook.     At  the  southern  end  the  road  is  not  in  use  as  a 
traveled  way,  but  the  town  sandbank  near  John  S.  Denlein's 
house  is  on  the  original  layout  of  this  old  town  road.     It  ran 
northward  from  there  near  the  brow  of  Mill  Swamp  hill  and 
ditches  which   showed  its   location   could   still   be  followed 
through  a  large  part  of  its  extent  till  the  land  was  brought 
under  cultivation  in  the  latter  part  of  the  nineteenth  century. 
At  intervals  some  traces  of  the  ditches  can  vet  be  discovered. 
These  two  highways  running  north  and  south  formed  the 
divisions  between  the  river  meadows,  the  upland  commons, 
and  the  wooded  hills  to  the  west.     They  were  crossed  at 
right  angles  by  the  east  and  west  roads  through  the  swamps, 
also  originally  ten  rods  wide,  "Upper,  Middle  and  Lower 
^o'ln^  Over,"  the  latter  starting  from  the  highway  to  North- 
^'"pton  at   "the  going  down   of   the   hill,''   now   known   as 
^^nics's  corner.     There  was  a  road  west  from  the  mill,  nearer 
^^  ^ill  river  than  the  present  depot  road,  but  not  extending 
^c^o^s  the  swamp.     "Middle  Going  Over''  was  what  is  called 
^^    old  depot  road.     Farther  north,  in  the  present  township 
^'N/hately,  there  were  proprietors'  roads  running  east  and 
^e^t:  to  give  access  to  the  lots,  two  of  which  were  later  taken 
^P  ^.s  public  ways.  Christian  Lane  and  the  Mt.  Esther  road. 
*^lie  bridges  on  all  the  highways  in  town  were  kept  in  a 
goc^^  state  of  repair  when  freedom  from  watching  and  ward- 
*^S*     ^as  enjoyed.     They  seemed  to  require  a  good  deal  ot 
3-tt^jitjQ,^  every  spring  on  account  of  the  ftoods.    TW'^^  wa.^ 


236  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

a  disastrous  flood  in  the  spring  of  1699  that  caused  an  ex- 
penditure to  be  made  "to  repair  the  breaches  made  by  the 
fete  flood  upon  the  Bridge  and  land  about  it  between  the 
Town  and  Hill  as  we  go  to  Northampton." 

At  this  period  the  improvement  of  the  horses  began  to 
receive  attention.  While  the  colonists  all  through  New  Eng- 
land had  kept  up  the  size  and  vitality  of  their  other  live  stock, 
the  horses  had  sadly  deteriorated  both  in  size  and  vigor, 
probably  because  they  were  not  so  necessary  as  the  other 
farm  animals  or  as  they  have  since  become.  In  the  year 
1700  Hatfield  appointed  a  committee  to  join  with  a  com- 
mittee from  Northampton  to  **consider  a  method  to  regulate 
the  breed  of  horses  and  that  we  send  to  Deerfield  to  choose 
some  men  for  the  same  to  make  return  and  fully  settle  the 
matter."  It  does  not  appear  from  the  records  what  the 
result  of  the  labors  of  the  committee  was,  but  it  mav  be 
inferred  that  better  stallions  were  secured  either  from  some 
of  the  Bay  towns  or  from  England.  The  breeding  of  horses 
in  Hatfield  received  no  attention  as  a  special  industry  till 
after   1800. 

March  17,  1701/2,  Thomas  Hastings,  Jr.,  was  elected  town 
clerk  and  the  records  from  that  time  till  1728  are  in  his 
handwriting.  In  1703  he  was  authorized  to  "find  a  book  to 
record  the  town  votes  upon  the  town's  charge."  The  new 
book  was  somewhat  larger  than  the  old  ones  and  was  well 
indexed.  At  first  the  entries  were  made  in  two  columns  on 
each  page,  but  after  a  few  pages  this  style  was  abandoned  for 
the  simpler  and  more  easily  followed  one  of  having  the  lines 
occupy  the  full  width  of  the  page.  The  penmanship  of  the 
new  clerk  was  superior  to  that  of  his  predecessors.  Many 
entries  were  made  with  a  large,  bold  hand  adorned  with 
flourishes.  The  pages  of  the  book  are  only  slightly  yellowed 
with  age,  and  the  quality  of  the  ink  was  so  good  that  the 
writing  has  not  perceptibly  faded.  The  ink  was  made  at 
home  by  the  old  formula  of  soft  maple  bark  boiled  in  vinegar, 
to  which  nails  or  scrap  iron  was  added.  Even  as  late  as  fifty 
years  ago  ink  made  after  the  manner  of  the  early  settlers 
was  sold  by  itinerant  peddlers  in  some  of  the  towns  in  the 
Connecticut  valley. 

March  31,  1699,  Richard  Billings  w^as  contracted  with  to 
build  a  new  pound.  The  specifications  were  that  the  posts 
should  he  set  three  feet  in  the  ground  and  to  be  at  least 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  137 

seven  feet  above,  "well  and  truly  mortised  for  the  rails  at 
each  end  of  them,"  with  five  rails  and  "a  substantial  gate 
well  hanged  in  irons."  The  pound  was  to  be  built  on  the 
site  of  the  old  one,  but  where  they  stood  is  not  known, 
probably  near  the  south  end  of  the  street.  Richard  Billings 
was  to  receive  47  shillings  and  the  posts  and  rails  of  the  old 
pound.  Damage  done  by  the  horses  and  cattle  belonging  to 
Northampton  and  other  towns  was  mentioned,  and  such 
stock  was  ordered  to  be  pounded  when  caught.  The  old 
proprietors'  records  are  full  of  references  to  lost  or  strayed 
animals.  The  pound  was  an  important  public  structure  in 
the  early  days. 

A  change  in  the  manner  of  collecting  the  minister's  rate 
was  made  in  1698,  for  on  December  19  of  that  year  it  was 
voted  that  the  minister's  rate  should  be  collected  by  the 
deacons  instead  of  by  the  constables  or  the  regular  collectors 
of  the  rates.  It  was  to  be  paid  in  rye  at  3s.  per  bushel, 
"Indian"  at  2s.,  barley  at  2s.  9d.,  and  oats  at  2s.  6d.  The 
minister's  salary  was  then  £50  per  year  and  firewood.  In 
1702  the  town  voted  to  give  Mr.  Williams  £55  yearly  for 
seven  years  in  current  money  and  also  furnish  firewood. 

The  old  meetinghouse  had  become  too  small  for  the  con- 
gregation and  Oct.  23,  1699,  a  committee  was  appointed  to 
report  at  the  next  town  meeting  about  building  a  new  one. 
November  13  they  reported  that  the  old  house  was  "judged 
to  be  inconvenient  and  insufficient"  and  recommendation  was 
made  for  a  new  one  45  feet  square  with  gable  windows  upon 
each  side  of  the  roof.  A  building  committee  was  chosen — 
Col.  Samuel  Partridge,  Lieut.  Daniel  White,  Dea.  John  Cole- 
man, Ens.  Eleazer  Frary,  Sergt.  Benjamin  Waite,  Samuel 
Marsh,  John  White,  Samuel  Belden,  Sr.,  and  Samuel  Dickin- 
son, Sr. — to  have  charge  of  the  work,  and  it  was  decided  to 
place  the  new  meetinghouse  on  the  knoll  where  the  former 
one  stood.  The  old  house  was  not  removed  till  the  new  one 
was  completed,  however. 

Nathaniel  Dickinson  offered  to  pay  £7  in  money  if  he 
mig-ht  be  "freed  from  further  charges  about  the  affair,"  and 
the  offer  was  accepted  by  full  vote  of  the  town.  December 
19  a  rate  of  £5  was  made  "upon  all  the  inhabitants  for  to  be 
in  money,  which  together  with  the  seven  pounds  to  be  paid 
by  Nathaniel  Dickinson  is  to  be  to  buy  and  purchase  nails 
for  the  meetinghouse  now  rebuilding." 


138  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Probably  all  the  lumber  was  cut  and  prepared  by  the  inhab- 
itants under  the  direction  of  the  building  committee  as  it 
was  for  the  first  house,  though  these  particulars  are  not 
recorded.  The  structure  was  apparently  about  two  years  in 
building.  August  25,  1701,  Samuel  Russell  was  authorized 
to  make  the  glass  for  the  windows  and  "to  put  it  in.  5s.  per 
foot  to  be  paid  for  every  foot  in  money."  December  1,  1701, 
an  account  of  Samuel  Partridge  was  allowed  for  6s.  6d.  for 
five  and  a  quarter  feet  of  glass  which  he  **found.''  In  Oc- 
tober a  rate  of  one  hundred  and  odd  pounds  was  ordered  to 
pay  the  charges  for  finishing,  the  selectmen  Jto  make  the  rate, 
every  head  to  pay  seven  shillings.  The  sum  was  not  quite 
sufficient,  for  at  the  December  meeting  an  additional  rate 
had  to  be  ordered,  no  record  of  the  amount  of  which  is  pre- 
served. At  the  same  time  the  old  meetinghouse  was  sold  to 
Samuel  Partridge,  Samuel  Belden,  Sr.,  Benjamin  Waite, 
Samuel  Belden,  Jr.,  and  Ichabod  Allis  for  £7  "to  be  paid 
from  the  meetinghouse  rate.'' 

August  25,   1701,  the  w^orkmen,  Samuel  Belden,  Jr.,  and 
Ichabod  Allis,  were  again  given  instructions  to  enlarge  the 
old  pulpit  and  make  it  uniform.  Seating  was  ordered  October 
28  "to  be  done  forthwith  by  the  best  five  men,''  w^ho  w^ere 
Samuel  Partridge,  Deacons  Coleman  and  Church,   Samuel 
Belden,  Sr.,  and  Samuel  Marsh.     They  were  instructed  in 
seating  people  "to  go  by  age  estate  and  places  of  trust"  and 
to  put  six  men  and  no  more  in  each  seat.     The  voters  also 
gave  instructions  as  to  what  seats  in  the  galleries  were  to  be 
considered  the  equivalent  of  specified  seats  in  the  body  of  the 
house.     The  galleries  were  on  three  sides.     The  house  faced 
east  and  west,  with  the  pulpit  at  the  west  end.     No  reference 
is  made  to  a  turret,  but  perhaps  there  was  one  similar  to  that 
on  the  first  meetinghouse,  since  an  elevated  watch  tower  was 
still   needed  from  which  the  approach  of  enemies  could  be 
watched.     The  old  bell  was  hung  in  the  new  structure. 


CHAPTER  XI. 
MANNERS  AND  CUSTOMS  OF  THE  SEVENTEENTH  CENTURY. 

'*  I  love  anything  that's  old: — old  friends,  old  times,  old  manners,  old  books,  old  wine." 

The  Puritans. — Life  of  the  Hatfield  pioneers. — Class  distinctions. — Horse 
racing. — Fines  for  extravagance  in  apparel. — The  dress  of  the  Puritans. — 
Love  for  the  beautiful. — Architecture. — Gardens. — Music. — Use  of  titles. — 
Books. — The  Bible  and  its  influence. — Home  industries. — Farm  work  and 
crops. — Social  gatherings. — Marriage  customs. — Funerals. — Drinking  habits. 

Concerninpf  the   Puritan   fathers   of  New   England   much 
has  been  written  that  glorifies  their  lives  and  extols  their 
virtues  to  an  extreme  degree  and  on  the  other  hand  unsym- 
pathetic   accounts    convey   wrong   impressions    about    their 
austerity,  hatred  of  pleasure,  and  joyless  mode  of  life.     The 
truth,    as    usual    in    such    cases,    lies    midway    between    the 
extremes.     When  the  veil  of  obscurity  that  clouds  the  past 
is  lifted  and  the  men  and  women  of  two  hundred  and  two 
hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  are  revealed  by  what  they  said 
and  did,  it  is  seen  that  the  founders  of  Hatfield  were  very 
human  and  loved  the  good  things  of  life  quite  as  much  as 
their  descendants  at  any  subsequent  period.     Ideas,  points 
of   view,   social   and  business   habits   have   changed   greatly 
with  the  lapse  of  time,  but  human  nature  is  ever  the  same. 

The  life  of  the  pioneers  was  simple  in  many  ways  and 
they  were  straightforward  and  direct  in  speech,  but  in  some 
respects  there  was  a  complexity  and  a  cumbersomeness 
in  their  ways  that  was  simplified  as  time  went  on.  Division 
of  labor  and  better  organization  in  business  have  brought 

• 

increased  efficiency.  The  almost  absolute  democracy  of  the 
government  that  existed  in  the  conduct  of  town  aflfairs, 
^vhen  all  met  together  at  frequent  intervals  to  order  with 
"Minute  care  how  all  things  should  be  done,  soon  gave  way 
^Q  representative  government  and  more  authority  was  given 
officials.  Changes  in  this  matter  and  the  methods  of  taxa- 
tion have  already  been  spoken  of. 
Try  as  they  would  to  make   all  people  co\\Iot\w  \.o  ^^t^- 


140  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

scribed  rules  of  conduct,  the  independent  and  non-con- 
formist spirit  that  animated  the  English  colonists  of 
New  England  broke  over  the  bounds  they  themselves  had 
reared  and  rendered  null  and  void  arbitrary  sumptuary  laws, 
nor  could  the  democratic  equality  they  sought  for  be  wholly 
maintained  against  the  force  of  the  habits  of  the  past.  Class 
distinctions  based  on  wealth  and  birth,  their  heritage  from 
feudal  England,  showed  in  many  ways,  notably  in  the 
matter  of  seating  the  people  in  the  meetinghouse,  a  task 
that  always  caused  jealousy  and  ill  feeling. 

The  early  settlers  were  somewhat  sparing  in  the  use  of 
titles,  the  full  Christian  name  being  applied  usually  without 
a  prefix.  Few  were  called  Mr.  except  the  minister,  who 
was  above  the  level  of  the  rest  in  education  and  often  also 
in  wealth  and  social  position.  Rev.  did  not  come  into  use 
for  many  years  after  the  settlement  of  the  town.  It  was 
first  applied  in  the  records  to  William  Williams  and  not 
alwavs  to  him.  Deacon  was  from  the  first  an  honored  title 
and  military  rank  was  acknowledged  in  speech  and  writing 
wherever  it  existed.  The  term  Worshipful  was  given  to 
those  who  were  in  commanding  authority  or  whose  superior 
ability  was  recognized.  For  others  Goodman  and  Good- 
wife,  or  Goody,  sufficed.  The  wife  and  daughter  of  a  Mr. 
might  be  called  Mistress. 

That  the  love  of  sport  led  even  the  hard  working  and 
austere  settlers  to  extremes  is  indicated  by  the  references 
in  the  Hatfield  records.  In  1672  the  selectmen  ordered 
that  all  racing  in  the  meadows  and  highways  should  be 
stopped  because  of  the  damage  done  the  fields  and  crops 
and  because,  in  addition  to  the  danger  of  being  hurt,  many 
children  and  servants  spent  too  much  time  in  watching 
the  sport.  Probably  the  selectmen  in  their  self-imposed 
task  of  stopping  the  practice  found  it  difficult  to  control  the 
young  men,  and  on  the  long  straight  course  between  the 
lines  of  fences  leading  through  the  meadows  to  the  landing 
at  Hadley,  out  of  sight  of  the  village  street,  the  youth 
learned  lessons  in  horsemanship  that  fitted  them  to  become 
dragoons  in  the  Indian  wars  tliat  soon  came  on. 

Tlie  natural  desire  for  display  in  dress  early  brought  to 
some  the  ])enalties  of  the  laws  of  the  land,  for  the  early 
str'itiitcs   commended — 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  141 

"unto  all  sortes  of  persons  the  sober  and  moderate  use  of  those  blessings 
which,  beyond  expectation,  the  Lord  hath  bin  pleased  to  aflfoard  unto  us  in 
this  wilderness,  and  also  to  declare  our  utter  detestation  and  dislike  that  men 
or  weomen  of  meane  condition  should  take  upon  them  the  garbe  of  gentle- 
men, by  wearing  gold  or  silver  lace  or  buttons,  or  points  at  their  knees,  or  to 
walk  in  greatc  bootes,  or  weomen  of  the  same  rancke  to  weare  silke  or 
tiffany  hoodes  or  scarfes,  which  though  allowable  to  persons  of  greater 
estates,  or  more  liberall  education,  yett  wee  cannot  but  judge  it  intollerable 
in  persons  of  such  like  condition: — itt  is  therefore  ordered  by  this  Courte, 
and  the  authority  thereof,  that  no  person  within  this  jurisdiction,  or  any  of 
their  relations  depending  uppon  them,  whose  visible  estates,  reall  and  per- 
sonall,  shall  not  exccede  the  true  and  indifferent  valew  of  two  hundred 
pounds,  shall  wear  any  gold  or  silver  lace,  or  gold  or  silver  buttons,  or  any 
bone  lace  above  two  shillings  pr.  yard,  or  silk  hoods,  or  scarfes,  uppon  the 
penaltie  of  tenn  shillings  for  every  such  offence,  and  every  such  delinquent 
to  be  presented  by  the  graund  jury." 

This  law  ''against  excesse  in  apparelP'  passed  Oct.  14, 
1651,  required  the  selectmen  of  towns  to  "have  regard  and 
take  notice  of  apparell  in  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  their 
several  towns  respectively."  In  1676  sixty-eight  persons, 
both  men  and  women,  were  tried  at  the  County  Court  in 
Northampton  for  "wearing  silk  and  that  in  a  flaunting 
manner,  for  long  hair  and  other  extravagances,'*  and 
several  Hatfield  people  were  fined.  The  law,  however, 
soon  became  a  dead  letter. 

The  idea  that  the  dress  of  the  Puritans  was  somber  is 
erroneous.  In  the  ordinary  garments  of  homespun  rich 
tones  of  russet  and  brown  were  worn  by  the  men,  often 
trimmed  with  brighter  hues,  while  for  shirts  striped  goods 
of  blue  and  white  were  favorites.  Dyes  of  logwood,  mad- 
der, and  indigo  furnished  reds  and  blues  for  the  women 
and  for  additional  adornment  green  ribbons  were  eagerly 
sought.  Demure  faces  peeped  from  beneath  many  a  red 
ridinghood. 

Among  the  God-fearing  iconoclasts,  who,  denying  the 
divine  rights  of  kings  and  bishops,  left  their  homes  in  Eng- 
land to  escape  the  tyranny  of  the  Stuart  kings  and  the 
persecution  of  ecclesiastical  authorities  and  who  protested 
against  the  unrestrained  license  of  the  Restoration,  there 
-was  a  love  of  the  beautiful  no  less  strong  than  a  love  of  the 
good.  An  American  art  w^as  slow  of  development,  but 
one  does  not  have  to  look  far  to  discover  an  aesthetic  sense 
among  the  early  settlers.  It  found  its  chief  expression  in 
the  colonial  architecture.  While  no  houses  remain  in 
Hatfield  that  date  back  to  the  seventeenth  century,  prob- 
ably there  was  no  great  difference  between  iVvetw  ^wA.  \\vos^ 


142 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


erected  a  little  later.  Some  of  the  colonial  houses  have  a 
simple  and  dignified  beauty  of  line  lacking  in  many  more 
pretentious  structures  of  a  later  period  and  not  a  few  were 
adorned  with  hand  carved  portals  and  interior  moldings 
of  great  beauty  of  design  and  workmanship.  The  curves 
of  the  Hatfield  streets,  whose  original  layouts  have  been 
preserved,    show    that    those    who    surveyed    them    had    an 


eye  to  the  artistic  possibilities.  The  picturesque  Indian 
names  are  j)rcserved  in  the  jlesignations  of  localities,  and 
naiues  chosen  by  the  settlers,  like  Bashan.  indicate  an 
appreciation  of  the  natural  beauties  of  the  surroundings. 
The  noble  trees  which  have  always  been  an  attraction  of 
the  Connecticut  valley  werfi  allowed  to  grow  unmolested- 
There  is  a  record  that  an  oak  tree  standing  near  the  Cow 
Bri<lge  was  to  be  preserved  for  shade  and  a  heavy  penalty 
was  ordained  for  any  one  who  should  fell  it  or  even  lop  its 
branches. 

The  busy  housewives  found  time  amid  their  household 
duties  to  tend  and  care  for  some  of  the  flowers  they  had 
loved  in  their  I'^njrlish  homes  and  many  unfamiliar  ones 
that    blossomed    in    profusion    in    the    new    land.     Josselyn 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  143 

in  his  account  of  his  travels,  published  in  1672,  mentioned 
the  gardens  in  the  dooryards  of  the  colonists.  He  says: 
"Fever-few  prospereth  exceedingly;  white  sattin  groweth 
pretty  well,  and  so  doth  lavender  cotton ;  gilly  flowers  will 
continue  two  years;  horse  leek  prospereth  notably;  holly- 
hocks; comferie  with  white  flowers;  clary  lasts  but  one 
summer;  sweetbryer  or  eglantine;  celandine  but  slowly; 
bloodwort  but  sorrily,  but  patience  and  English  roses  very 
pleasantly." 

The  singing  of  psalms  was  much  enjoyed  by  the  early 
settlers  all  through  New  England,  though  very  likely  their 
singing  was  not  tuneful.  The  practice  of  "lining  out"  or 
"deaconing"  the  hymns  originated  very  early.  Few  of  the 
old  psalm  books  had  music  and  not  all  the  congregation 
were  supplied  with  books,  so  that  it  was  necessary  to  sing 
the  hymns  a  line  at  a  time  and  one  of  the  deacons  was  usu- 
ally the  one  chosen  to  lead  the  singing  of  the  few  tunes  that 
wet^.  then  in  use.  There  were  probably  few  musical  instru- 
niiesits  in  Hatfield  in  the  early  days,  though  the  bass  viol 
wfUl- tised  to  accompany  singing  in  church  in  the  eighteenth 
ocaiitiiry  and  may  have  been  so  employed  earlier. 

There  were  few  books  owned  by  the  settlers.  The  min- 
istefs,  of  course,  had  libraries  consisting  of  sermons,  tracts, 
and  other  theological  works.  Some  books  of  travel  like 
Josselyn's  "New  England  Rarities'*  or  the  historical  works 
of  Hubbard  and  Mather  may  have  been  possessed  by  a  few. 
The  public  statutes  were  required  by  law  to  be  familiar 
to  all  and  no  doubt  some  legal  publications  were  circulated 
and  read.  There  is  in  Memorial  Hall  in  Hatfield  a  book 
that  was  the  property  of  Samuel  Partridge,  containing  the 
charter  granted  by  William  and  Mary  and  some  of  the 
statutes. 

The  English  Bible  was  the  one  book  familiar  to  all,  read 
and  studied  by  every  household  till  its  language  became  the 
language  of  the  street,  the  market,  and  the  place  of  public 
assembly,  as  well  as  the  house  of  worship,  the  model  of 
w^ritten  expression  in  letters,  petitions,  and  legislative  utter- 
ances as  well  as  the  basis  of  sermons.  The  following  quo- 
tation from  Green's  "History  of  England"  shows  the 
influence  exerted  by  it  even  before  the  departure  of  the 
colonists   to  America  : — 


244  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"The  popularity  of  the  Bible  was  owing  to  Other  causes  besides  that  of 
religion.  The  whole  prose  literature  of  England,  save  the  forgotten  tracts  of 
Wyclif,  has  grown  up  since  the  translation  of  the  Scriptures  by  Tyndall  and 
Coverdale.  No  history,  no  romance,  no  poetry,  save  the  little-known  verse 
of  Chaucer,  existed  for  any  practical  purpose  in  the  English  tongue  wheo  the 
Bible  was  ordered  to  be  set  up  in  churches.  Sunday  after  Sunday,  day  after 
day,  the  crowds  that  gathered  around  Bonner's  Bibles  in  the  tiave  of  St 
Paul's,  or  the  family  group  that  hung  on  the  words  of  the  Geneva  Bible  in 
the  devotional  exercises  at  home,  were  leavened  with  a  new  literature. 
Legends  and  annals,  war  song  and  psalm,  State-rolls  and  biographies,  ibt 
mighty  voices  of  prophets,  the  parables  of  evangelists,  stories  of  missioo 
journeys,  of  perils  by  the  sea  and  among  the  heathen,  philosophic  arguinetits, 
apocalyptic  visions,  all  were  flung  broadcast  over  minds  unoccupied  for  the 
most  part  by  any  rival  learning.  The  disclosure  of  the  stores  of  Gredc 
literature  had  wrought  the  revolution  of  the  Renaissance.  The  disclosure  of 
the  older  mass  of  Hebrew  literature  wrought  the  revolution  of  the  Refomia- 
tion.  But  the  one  revolution  was  far  deeper  and  wider  in  ils  effects  than  tlit 
other.  No  version  could  transfer  to  another  tongue  the  peculiar  charm  of 
language  which  gave  their  value  to  the  authors  of  Greece  and  Rome 
Classical  letters,  therefore,  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  learned— -tfaat 
is,  of  the  few ;  and  among  these,  with  the  exception  of  Colei  and  Mor&  W 
of  the  pedants  who  revived  a  Pagan  worship  in  the  gardens  of  the  Flo  "" 
Academy,  their  direct  influence  was  purely  intellectual.  But  the  lol 
the  Hebrew,  the  idiom  of  the  Hellenic  Greek,  lent  themselves  . 
curious  felicity  to  the  purposes  of  translation.  As  a  mere  literary 
■  ment.  the  English  version  of  the  Bible  remains  the  noblest  example 
English  tongue.  Its  perpetual  use  made  it  from  the  instant  of  its  : 
the  standard  of  our  language.  But  for  the  moment  its  literary 
less  than  its  social.  The  power  of  the  book  over  the  ir.^iss  of  Englt) 
showed  itself  in  a  thousand  superficial  ways,  and  in  none  more  ( 
ously  than  in  the  influence  it  exerted  on  ordinary  speeth.  It  for 
must  repeat,  the  whole  literature  which  was  practica.lly  accessible  to 
Englishmen;  and  when  we  recall  the  number  of  common  phra 
owe  to  great  authors,  the  bits  of  Shakespeare,  or  Milton,  o 
Thackeray,  which  unconsciously  iciterweave  themselves  in  our  ordin, 
we  shall  better  understand  the  strange  mosaic  of  Biblical  words  and 
which  colored  English  talk  two  hundred  years  ago.  The  mass  of  pict_ 
allusion  and  illustration  which  we  borrow  from  a  thousand  book^ 
fathers  were  forced  to  borrow  from  one;  and  the  borrowing  was  the  qf, 
and  the  more  natural  that  the  range  of  the  Hebrew  literature  fllied  itii 
the  expression  of  every  phase  of  feeling." 

The  seventeenth  century  was  the  age  of  home  industries. 
Hatfield  had  a  corn  mill,  sawmill,  and  a  blacksmith  shop. 
All  other  work  was  done  at  home.  The  women  of  tlie  house- 
hold had  constant  labor  to  supply  the  wants  of  the 
family.  Food  supplies  had  to  be  preserved  for  use  for  the 
year.  There  were  no  stores  or  markets  in  town  to  supply 
deficiencies,  ami  sugar  and  salt  were  practically  the  only 
groceries  to  be  obtained.  The  Indians  tauglit  the  settlers  i 
to  make  maple  sugar.  Herbs  for  flavoring  and  for  medic- 
inal purposes  were  grown  and  cured.  Candles  were  not 
used  very  much  in  the  seventeenth  century,  candle  wood — 
knots  and  splinters  of  resinous  wood — taking  their  place. 
The    wool   of   the   flocks   and   the   flax   grown   in    the   fields 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  [45 

nished  the  material  for  clothing  and  other  household 
■rics  and  the  steps  in  the  preparation  of  the  raw  material 
re  understood  by  ail.  A  fulling  miil  was  in  operaion  at 
;st  Brook  quite  early,  though  not  until  after  1700.  The 
nning  wheel,  the  loom,  and  the  dye  pot  were  in  every 
me  and  most  of  the  tailoring  and  dressmaking  was  per- 
med by  the  members  of  the  household.  Linsey-woolsey, 
lixture  of  linen  and  wool,  was  the  commonest  fabric,  while 
V,  the  refuse  combings  of  the  flax,  was  made  into  towels 
1   other  coarse  goods.     Flax   was   worth  alx>ut  6d,  per 


ind  and  tow  3d.  Some  things,  like  mittens  and  stockings, 
re  of  wool,  others  all  linen,  like  the  sheets  and  handker- 
efs.  Cotton  from  the  West  Indies  came  into  use  quite 
ly.  It  was  spun  on  a  large  wheel  like  wool  and  some- 
les  mixed  with  wool.  The  small  wheels  were  used  for 
£,  Checked  and  striped  goods  of  blue  and  white  were 
nufactured,  and  when  in  excess  of  the  wants  of  the 
isehold  were  exchanged  for  calico  and  silk.  When  there 
s  an  extra  supply  of  flax  flaxen  yarn  was  sometimes  sold, 
I  homemade  tow  cloth,  36  inches  wide,  found  a  ready 
rket  at  2s.  per  yard. 
ipinning  was  encouraged  by   the   following  co\cn\\a.\  X^'N  , 


146  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

passed  by  the  General  Court  May  14,  1656,  and  in  force  for 
over  a  century: — 

"This  Court,  taking  into  serious  consideration  the  present  streights  and 
necesseties  that  lye  uppon  the  countrie  in  respect  of  cloathing,  which  is  not 
like  to  be  so  plentifully  supplied  from  forraigne  parts  as  in  times  past,  and 
not  knowing  any  better  way  and  meanes  conduceable  to  our  subsistence  than 
the  improving  of  as  many  hands  as  may  be  in  spinning  woole,  cotton,  flax,  &. 

"It  is  therefore  ordered  by  this  Court  and  the  authoritie  thereof,  that  all 
hands  not  necessarily  imploide  on  other  occasions,  as  weomen,  girles  and 
boyes,  shall  and  hereby  are  enjoyned  to  spinn  according  to  their  skills  and 
abilitie;  and  that  the  selectmen  in  every  toune  doe  consider  the  condition 
and  capacitie  of  every  family,  and  accordingly  to  assesse  them  at  one  or  more 
spinners;  and  because  several  families  are  necessarily  emploied  the  greatest 
part  of  theire  time  in  other  busines,  yet,  if  opportunities  were  attended,  some 
time  might  be  spared .  at  large  by  some  of  them  for  this  worke,  the  said 
selectmen  shall  therefore  assesse  such  families  at  half  or  a  quarter  of  a 
spinner,  according  to  theire  capacities. 

"Secondly,  that  every  one  thus  assessed  for  a  whole  spincr  doc,  after  this 
present  yeare,  1656,  spinn,  for  thirty  weekes  every  yeare,  three  pounds  pr. 
weeke  of  linin,  cotton  or  woollen,  and  so  proportionably  for  half  or  quarter 
spinners,  under  the  penaltie  of  twelve  pence  for  every  pound  short;  and  Ac 
selectmen  shall  take  speciall  care  of  the  execution  of  this  order,  which  may 
be  easily  effected,  by  deviding  their  several  tounes  into  tenn,  six  or  five  to 
take  an  account  of  theire  division,  and  to  certifie  the  selectmen  if  any  are 
defective  in  what  they  are  assessed,  who  shall  improove  the  aforesaid  penal- 
ties imposed  upon  such  as  are  negligent,  for  the  encouragement  of  those 
that  are  diligent  in  their  labour." 

The  work  of  the  men  on  the  farms  has  already  been 
spoken  of.  Each  man  was  adept  through  long  practice 
in  felling  and  hewing  timber  and  splitting  it  for  clapboards, 
shingles,  and  rails.  Most  of  them  were  carpenters,  coopers, 
cartwrights,  and  masons,  and  expert  at  all  kinds  of  repairs. 
Rope  for  the  harnesses  was  made  at  home  as  well  as  the 
wooden  collars  for  the  horses  and  yokes  for  oxen.  The 
axles  of  the  carts  were  of  wood.  Probably  all  the  tanning 
of  hides  was  done  at  home  till  the  Partridges  built  a  tan 
yard  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

The  staple  crops  were  wheat,  corn,  and  peas.  Rye  and 
oats  were  not  raised  very  much  at  first.  Barley  had  to  be 
raised  for  malt,  though  for  this  a  mixture  of  wheat  and  rye 
known  as  meslin  could  be  employed.  Meslin  was  also  used 
as  flour.  Potatoes  were  unknown  to  the  pioneers.  Hemp 
was  found  growing  wild,  being  used  by  the  Indians  for 
lines  and  nets.  There  were  few  fruits.  Even  apples  were 
not  raised  to  any  extent  in  the  seventeenth  centurv:  the 
first  mention  of  an  orchard  in  the  Hatfield  records  is  in 
1694.  The  common  drink  was  home  brewed  beer.  Pump- 
kin  .sauce  took  the  place  of  apple  sauce,  the  art  of  pumpkin 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  147 

drying  having  been  learned  from  the  Indians.  "Pumpkin 
parings''  were  perhaps  as  common  social  gatherings  as  the 
"apple  parings''  of  a  later  day.  Husking  bees  no  doubt 
originated  very  early. 

The  marriage  customs  of  the  early  settlers  are  described 
thus  by  Judd  in  his  "History  of  Hadley,"  the  marriages 
being  performed  by  magistrates  or  persons  authorized  by  the 
General  Court  till  about  1700 — even  after  that  ministers 
xsrere   not   always    employed: — 


"Not  much  is  known  respecting  the  nuptial  festivities  and  wedding  cus- 
toms in  this  part  of  the  country,  in  the  17th  and  part  of  the  18th  centuries. 
Marriages  were  occasions  of  joy  and  merriment.  The  groom  had  some  new 
garments,  and  the  bride  had  as  rich  a  wedding  dress  as,  in  her  circumstances, 
could  be  afforded.  Mather,  in  1719,  said  it  was  expected  that  the  newly 
married  couple  would  appear  as  such,  in  the  public  assembly,  on  the  next 
Lord's  day.  This  custom  continued  more  than  a  century  after  1719.  It  was 
termed  'coming  out  groom  and  bride.'    It  still  remains  in  many  places. 

"Kissing  the  bride  was  not  customary  in  the  interior  of  New  England, 
until  some  time  in  the  present  century,  and  the  practice  is  far  from  being 
general  now.  It  was  derived  from  the  English,  who  have  been  notorious  for 
kissing,  on  various  occasions,  for  centuries.  Dancing  at  weddings  was  rare 
among  the  people,  in  most  parts  of  New  England,  in  the  17th  century,  but 
became  very  frequent  in  the  18th  century.  The  people  of  Hadley  danced 
at  weddings  in  the  last  century,  but  the  practice  has  been  uncommon  in  that 
town  for  forty  years  past."  (Written  about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth 
century.) 

The  custom  prevailed  in  some  places  of  stealing  the  bride 
and  concealing  her  for  a  time.  There  is  no  well-authenti- 
cated tradition  of  this  being  done  in  Hatfield,  but  this  is  not 
conclusive  evidence  of  its  absence.  The  practice  lasted 
nearly  up  to  the  Revolution,  according  to  Judd,  wrho  also 
says    further   in   regard   to   marriages    that   they   usually — 

"took  place  on  Thursday,  but  many  on  Wednesday,  and  some  on  other  days. 
Very  few  on  Saturday,  or  Sunday.  Marriages  were  usually  solemnized  at  the 
residence  of  the  bride.  The  paternal  mansion  seems  to  be  the  most  appro- 
priate place.     Marriages  in  meetinghouses  have  been  very  rare. 

•'The  marriage  fee  was  fixed  at  3  shillings  in  1692,  4s.  in  1716,  1753  and 
1760,  and  6s.  in  1787.  The  fee  of  the  town  clerk  for  the  publishment  and 
certificate  was  Is.  6d.  after  1716.  The  minister  or  justice  was  to  pay  for 
recording  the  marriage. 

"In  some  towns  in  this  vicinity,  in  former  days,  when  a  couple  had  agreed 
to  be  united,  the  father  of  the  young  man  went  to  the  parents  of  the  young 
woman,  and  asked  leave  for  his  son  to  marry  their  daughter.  This  was 
'asking  leave.'    It  was  sometimes  done  by  the  young  man  himself. 

"There  were  occasionally  second  day  weddings,  or  wedding  festivities, 
kept  up  the  second  day,  in  the  last  and  present  centuries,  with  much  eating, 
drinking  and  dancing.  February  2,  1769,  Josiah  Dwight  of  Hatfield  was 
married,  and  had  a  two-days'  wedding  in  Hatfield  Addition,  now  Williams- 
burg^. About  18  couples  attended  the  wedding  from  Hatfield,  and  had  a 
good  dinner,  and  spent  most  of  the  succeeding  night  in  dancing  and 
frolicking.  The  next  morning  'we  greeted  the  rising  sun  with  fiddUu^  ;vxvd. 
dancingTf'  says  one  of  the  party,  in  his  diary." 


148  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  English  aversion  to  marriage  with  a  deceased  wife's 
sister  was  shared  by  the  colonists  in  New  England  for  a 
long   time.     Divorce   proceedings   were   very   rare. 

Funerals  were  at  first  simple,  a  solemn  procession  fol- 
lowing the  body  to  the  grave  accompanied  by  the  tolling 
of  the  bell.  The  minister  was  present,  but  no  prayer  was 
offered  and  no  funeral  sermon  preached.  According  to 
Mather,  about  1719  the  custom  was  inaugurated  of  having 
the  minister  make  a  prayer  at  the  house  and  a  short  speech 
at  the  grave.  The  continental  funeral  customs  of  wakes, 
revelry,  and  lavish  expense  for  mourning  garments  obtained 
a  foothold  in  the  Bay  towns  but  did  not  come  into  general 
practice  in  the  Connecticut   valley. 

Drinking  to  excess  was  uncommon  in  the  early  years 
of  Hatfield's  history,  though  the  use  of  strong  liquors  was 
prevalent  throughout  the  eighteenth  century  and  part  of  the 
nineteenth.  It  was  not  easy  for  the  early  settlers  to  get 
liquor  in  large  quantities.  Brandy  and  Jamaica  rum  became 
more  c6mmon  as  commerce  increased.  There  were  a 
number  of  family  stills  in  both  Hadley  and  Hatfield,  but 
licenses  to  sell  were  not  granted  till  1681,  as  previously 
noted.     There  were  no  public  houses  for  many  years. 


CHAPTER  XII. 

AfORE  INDIAN  FIGHTING.    QUEEN  ANNE'S  WAR,  1703-1713.    AN 
INTERVAL  OF  PEACE.    FATHER  RASLE'S  WAR,   1722-1725. 

"  He  stirring  as  the  time  ;  be  fire  with  nt'e ; 
Threaten  the  threatener." 

Beginning  of  Queen  Anne's  war. — Hatfield  fortifications. — Account  of  the 
desolation  of  Deerfield  from  the  Hatfield  town  records. — ^Thc  fight  in  the 
Deerfield  meadows. — Progress  of  the  war. — Victims  of  the  war. — War 
expenses. — A  short  interval  of  peace. — Settlement  begun  in  Whately. — Father 
Rasle's  war. 

Queen  Anne  declared  war  on  France,  May  4,  1702,  and  the 
next  year  the  New  England  frontiers  were  again  the  scenes 
of  fighting  lasting  for  ten  years.  It  was  learned  in  the  spring 
of  1703  from  Mohawk  spies  that  an  expedition  was  fitting 
out  in  Canada  for  an  attack  on  Deerfield.  That  town  was 
at  once  fortified  and  garrisoned.  Augfust  30,  1703,  Hatfield 
"voted  to  fortify  several  houses  on  the  Hill,  Col.  Samuel 
Partridge's,  Richard  Scott's  and  also  John  Meekins's,  and  in 
the  town  they  do  agree  to  fortify  the  house  of  Jonathan 
Graves,  John  White,  Mr.  Williams,  John  or  Sergt.  Waite's, 
Sergt.  Belden,  Goodman  Marsh." 

Colonel  Partridge,  who  was  in  charge  of  military  affairs 
in  the  Connecticut  valley,  wrote  to  Governor  Dudley,  Octo- 
ber 27,  1703:— 

"The  Town  of  Deerfield  who  lye  much  exposed  to  ye  present  enemy,  wch 
obstructe  them  much  in  their  occations,  their  Lives  hanging  in  doubt  every- 
where wn  they  goe  out.  Also  they  are  now  forced  to  rebuild  their  fortifica- 
tions at  much  disadvantage  to  them,  &  it  being  320  rods  or  upwards,  will  fall 
very  heavy  to  do  it  all  upon  their  own  charge,  were  verry  earnest  with  me 
wn  lately  there,  to  plead  with  this  Corte  for  some  allowance  towards  the 
doing  of  it  out  of  their  publique  Rates  now  to  be  collected  there;  as  also, 
that  they  might  be  Quitted  of  Rates  to  ye  publique  for  ye  tyme  being  of  this 
present  warr,  wh  is  so  destressing  upon  them.  Saml  Partridge." 

The  garrison  was  kept  at  Deerfield  during  the  winter  of 
1703-4,  on  February  29th  of  which  occurred  the  memorable 
attack  under  Hertel  de  Rouville  with  200  French  and  140 
Indians. 

An  account  of  the  assault  was  placed  in  the  Hatfield  town 
records  in  the  book  already  spoken  of  as  containing  the  oath 


150  '  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

of  allegiance  administered  by  Major  Pynchon  in  1678.  The 
account  is  indexed  as  "Massacre."  This  record  of  the 
slaughter  was  written  by  Dr.  Hastings,  who  was  then  town 
clerk,  and  he  continued  in  diary  form  notes  of  other  attacks 
as  they  occurred  up  to  the  time  of  his  death  in  1728.  The 
record  was  then  continued  by  Oliver  Partridge.  It  is  here 
given  in  full  for  its  interest  as  a  contemporary  account  of  a 
half  century  of  conflict,  with  a  few  explanatory  additions  in 
brackets.  The  italicized  headings  are  not  in  the  original. 
The  record  is  remarkably  accurate  and  full  of  the  casualties 
that  occurred  in  Hampshire  County. 

Queen  Anne*s   War. 

"An  Account  of  the  Desolation  of  Deerfield,  the  last  Day  of  February, 
1704. — Four  hundred  of  French  and  Indians  (as  is  thought)  assaulted  the 
fort,  took  it,  and  killed  and  captured  162  of  the  inhabitants,  and  consumed 
most  of  their  estates  into  flames. 

"Slain  in  the  fort,  John  Catlin  and  his  son  Jonathan,  John  French,  Samson 
Frary,  Mercy  Rood,  Jonathan  Kellogg,  Philip  Metoon  and  his  wife  and  diild, 
Henry  Nyms,  Mary  Mercy  and  Mehitable  Nims,  Alice  Hawks,  John  Hawks, 
Mary  and  William  Brooks,  Samuel  Smood  and  wife  and  two  children,  Sergt 
Benoni  Stebbins,  Deacon  Sheldon's  wife  and  her  daughter  Mercy,  Samuel 
Hinsdell,  Mary  and  Thomas  Carter,  Joseph  Ingingson,  Thomas  Selden,  Goody 
Smood,  Andrew  Stevens,  David  Alexander,  Mrs.  Williams,  Jerusha  and 
John,  her  children,  Sarah  Field,  Martin  Smith,  Sarah  Price. 

"Slain  in  the  fight  in  Deerfield  Meadow:  of  Deerfield,  David  Hoyt,  Jr., 
and  Joseph  Catlin ;  of  Hatfield,  Sergt.  Benjamin  Waite,  Samuel  Allis,  Samuel 
Foot;  of  Hadley,  Sergt.  Boltwood,  his  son  Robert,  Jonathan  Ingram,  and 
Nathaniel  Warner,  Jr. 

"Women  and  children  slain  in  the  journey  to  Canada,  20  persons,  viz., 
Lieut.  Hoyt,  Jacob  Hickson,  Goodwife  Brooks,  Goodwife  Belden,  Goodwife 
Carter,  Goodwife  Nyms,  Goodwife  Frary,  Goodwife  French,  Goodwife 
Warner,  Widow  Coss,  Goodwife  Pumry,  Elizabeth  Hawks,  and  six  more 
children,  and  Frank,  the  negro.  [The  list  counts  only  19J  Died  at  Canada, 
in  1705,  Zebcdec  Williams,  Goodwife  Jones,  and  Abigail  Furbit. 

"May  10,  1704. — John  Allen  and  his  wife  slain  by  Indians  at  Deerfield. 

"May  12,  1704. — Pascommuck  Fort  taken  by  the  French  and  Indians,  being 
about  72.  They  took  and  captured  the  whole  garrison,  being  about  Z7  per- 
sons. The  English  pursuing  of  them  caused  them  to  knock  all  the  captives 
on  the  head,  save  five  or  six.  These  they  carried  to  Canada  with  them. 
The  others  escaped,  and  about  seven  of  those  knocked  on  the  head  recovered, 
the  rest  died.  Capt.  John  Taylor  was  killed  in  the  fight,  and  Samuel  Bartlett 
wounded. 

"July  29,  1704. — Thomas  Bettys  slain  by  the  Indians  coming  post  from 
Boston. 

"July  the  last,  1704. — One  Benton,  and  William  Olmstead,  soldiers,  slain 
by  the  Indians,  and  two  of  the  enemy  slain. 

"July,  1706. — Judah  Trumball  and  Widow  Gash  (perhaps)  slain  by  the 
Indians. 

"July,  1707.— Edward  Bancroft  slain  at  Westfield. 

"1704. — Some  time  in  July  (19th),  Tlionias  Russell,  at  Deerfield,  and  one, 
Kindness,  an  Indian,  at  liattield  Mill,  slain  by  the  Indians. 

"July  9,  1708. — Samuel  Persons,  of  Northampton,  slain  by  the  Indians,  and 
his  brother  Joseph  slain  or  captured ;  found  killed  and  scalped. 

"July,  1708. — A  fort  taken  at  Skipmuck  [Chicopee],  where  were  killed 
Aaron  Persons,  Wm.  Hubbard's  son,  and  three  more,  and  one  taken  and  two 
wounded. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  151 

"Oct.  13,  1708.— Abijah  Bartlctt,  of  Brookfidd,  was  killed,  and  John 
Green,  Joseph  Ginnings,  and  Benjamin  Ginnings  wounded,  and  a  boy  of  John 
Woolcot's  captured. 

**Oct  26,  1708. — Brother  Ebenezer  Field  was  slain  by  the  enemy  in  going 
to  Deerfield,  near  the  Muddy  Brook. 

"August,  1708. — One  Barber,  of  Windsor,  was  slain  a  hundred  miles  up  the 
Great  River,  and  Martin  Kellogg,  Jr.,  taken  and  one  of  the  enemy  slain  and 
another  wounded. 

"May,  1709. — ^John  Wells,  of  Deerfield,  slain  by  the  enemy  near  the  Lake, 
and  John  Burt  killed  or  taken  or  lost  at  the  same  time;  and  in  that  expedi- 
tion about  eight  of  the  enemy  slain. 

"April,  1709. — Mehumane  Hinsdale  taken  captive.  [He  and  the  next  five 
mentioned  were  Deerfield  men.] 

"June  23,  1709. — Joseph  Clesson  and  John  Arms  taken  captive. 

"June  24,  1709. — Joseph  Williams  slain,  and  Matthew  Clesson  and  Isaac 
Metune  wounded, — said  Clesson  died  four  days  after  of  his  wound. 

"Aug.  8,  1709. — ^John  Clary  and  Robert  Granger  slain  at  Brookfield. 

"July  22,  1710. — ^John  Grovenor,  Ebenezer  Howard,  John  White,  Benjamin 
and  Stephen  Ginnings,  and  Joseph  Kellogg  were  slain  at  Brookfield. 

"Aug.  10,  1711. — Samuel  Strong  captured  and  his  son  slain  by  the  enemy 
at  Northampton  agoing  into  their  south  meadow  gate  in  the  morning. 

"Aug.  22,  1711. — Benjamin  Wright  wounded. 

"July  29,  1712. — Joseph  Wright's  son,  of  Springfield,  taken  captive. 

"July  30,  1712. — Samuel  Andross  killed  upon  the  scout  above  Deerfield, 
and  Jonathan  Barrett  and  William  Sand  ford  taken  captive." 


Father  Rash's  War. 

"In  August,  1723,  the  enemy  killed  Thomas  Holton  and  Theophilus  Merri- 
man  at  Northfield.  Two  days  following,  they  killed  Rev.  Joseph  Willard 
and  two  sons  of  Ens.  Stevens,  of  Rutland,  and  carried  captive  two  other  of 
his  sons. 

"Oct.  11,  1723. — ^The  enemy  assailed  Northfield,  killed  Ebenezer  Severance, 
and  wounded  Enoch  Hall  and  Hezekiah  Stratton,  and  Samuel  Dickinson  was 
captured. 

"June  18,  1724. — The  enemy  killed  Benjamin  Smith,  and  took  Joseph 
Allis  and  Aaron  Wells  captives.    Allis  was  killed  the  next  day. 

"June  27,  1724. — ^The  enemy  killed  Ebenezer  Sheldon,  Thomas  Colton,  and 
John  English,  an  Indian,  above  Deerfield. 

"July  10th,  Samuel  Allen  and  Timothy  Childs  wounded  at  Deerfield. 
August  following.  Nathaniel  [Noah]  Edwards  slain,  and  Abram  Miller 
wounded  at  Northampton.  The  next  day  Nathaniel  Bancroft  wounded  at 
Wcstfield. 

"The  enemy  wounded  Deacon  Samuel  Field,  of  Deerfield,  Aug.  25,  1725, 
a  ball  passing  through  the  right  hypochondria,  cutting  off  three  plaits  of  the 
mesenteria,  which  hung  out  of  the  wound  in  length  almost  two  inches,  which 
was  cut  off  even  with  the  body,  the  bullet  passing  between  the  lowest  and 
the  next  rib,  cutting,  at  its  going  forth,  part  of  the  lowest  rib ;  his  hand  being 
close  to  his  body  when  the  ball  came  forth,  it  entered  at  the  root  of  the 
ball  of  the  thumb,  cutting  the  bone  of  the  forefinger,  passed  between  the  fore 
and  the  second  finger,  was  cut  out,  and  all  of  the  wounds  cured  in  less  Uian 
five  weeks  by  Dr.  Thomas  Hastings. 

"Sept.  11,  1725. — ^The  enemy  came  upon  Fort  Dummer  scouts  and  killed 
one  John  Pease,  of  Enfield,  one  Bedortha,  of  Springfield;  took  Nathaniel 
Chamberlain  [of  Hatfield]  and  one  Farragh  and  one  Baker  captives,  and 
carried  them  to  Canada;  one  Steel  escaped." 

French  and  Indian  War. 

^'July  5,  1745. — The  enemy  took  one  Phipps  as  he  was  hoeing  corn  at  the 
place  called  the  Great  Meadow,  above  Fort  Dummer,  carried  him  about  half 
a  mile,  then  killed  him  and  mangled  his  body  in  a  most  inhuman  manner. 

"On  July  10,  1745,  the  enemy  killed  Deacon  Fisher  at  Upper  Ashuelot, 
within  about  sixty  rods  of  the  garrison. 


J  52  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

**Oct.  11,  1745. — About  fourscore  French  and  Indians  assaulted  the  Fort 
at  the  Great  Meadow,  and  took  captive  Nehemiah  Stow  and  killed  David 
Rugg  coming  down  the  river  in  a  canoe. 

"April  19,  1746. — The  Indian  enemy  captivated  Capt.  Spafford,  Stephen 
Farnsworth,  and  one  Parker.  They  were  taken  between  the  fort  at  No.  4. 
above  the  Great  Fall  and  the  mill,  in  that  township,  and  on  Monday  follow- 
ing Moses  Harvey  was  shot  upon  by  the  enemy  in  the  road  between  Dcer- 
field  and  Northficld,  who  fired  upon  the  enemy  and  escaped. 

"April  23,  1746. — The  enemy  assaulted  the  upper  Ashuelot,  killed  one 
Bullard  and  an  aged  woman  named  Keny,  and  took  one  Blake  captive  and 
burned  a  number  of  buildings  in  that  place. 

"On  the  25th  of  April,  1746,  one  Holton,  of  Northfield,  went  over  to 
Lunenburgh,  and  on  his  return  was  killed  by  the  enemy. 

"May  5,  1746. — At  the  township  called  No.  4,  one  Putnam  was  slain  by 
the  Indian  enemy,  as  he,  with  others,  was  going  from  the  fort  to  a  bam. 

"May  6,  1746. — Deacon  Timothy  Brown  and  one  MoflFett,  a  soldier,  were 
captivated  at  the  lower  Ashuelot. 

"May  9,  1746. — About  fifty  of  the  enemy  assaulted  Deacon  Sheldon's  fort 
at  Fall  Town  and  wounded  John  Burk. 

"May  10,  1746. — The  enemy  fired  upon  Sergt.  John  Hawks  and  one  Miles 
near  the  province  fort  at  Hoosick.  and  wounded  them  both.  On  the  same 
day  the  enemy  killed  Matthew  Clark,  of  Colerain,  and  wounded  his  wife  and 
daughter." 

The  fight  in  the  Deerfield  meadows  mentioned  in  the  sec- 
ond paragraph  of  the  above  was  between  the  forces  of  the 
French  and  Indians  and  the  rehef  expedition  which  set  out 
from  the  towns  below  for  the  rescue  of  Deerfield  early  in  the 
morning  after  the  terrible  massacre.     The  account  of  the 
part  borne  by  Hatfield  men  cannot  be  better  told  than  in 
the  words  of  the  Deerfield  historian,  George  Sheldon.     This 
quotation  is  taken  from  an  address  delivered  by  him  at  the 
field  day  of  the  Pocumtuck  Valley  Memorial  Association  at 
Hatfield,  Sept.  19,  1889,  in  commemoration  of  the  massacre 
at  Hatfield  in  1677. 

"Our  forefathers,  in  the  day  of  their  need,  found  the  people  of  Hatfield 
most  generous.  Hospitable  homes  opened  the  doors  wide  to  shelter  them, 
when  forced  to  flee  from  the  wrath  of  the  Indians  in  Philip's  war;  and 
again  in  the  devastation  of  Feb.  29,  1704.  To  the  promptness  and  bravery 
of  Hatfield  men  on  that  fateful  morning,  it  was  largely  due  that  a  remnant 
of  our  people  needed  any  shelter,  save  that  in  the  bosom  of  mother  earth. 

"We  have  no  need  to  analyze  the  motives  of  these  brave  men.  As  they 
rode  with  headlong  speed  up  the  snowy  Pocumtuck  path,  the  lurid  light 
reddening  the  northern  sky  and  reflecting  on  the  white  openings  in  the  woods 
through  which  they  sped,  told  too  well  the  dire  disaster  befalling  their 
neighbors  and  their  kin :  and  that  was  all  they  need  to  know. 

"Faster  and  faster  the  panting  steeds  were  urged,  until  in  the  morning 
light  their  riders  saw  a  horrible  scene  of  desolation  and  woe.  Tall  chimneys, 
with  fire  place  and  oven  standing  naked,  amid  the  glowing  cellar,  where  had 
stood  the  settler's  home.  Ruins  of  heavy  timbered  barns  lay  smoking  about 
the  blackened  hay  mows,  which  still  sent  out  fitful  flashes  of  flame  with  every 
eddy  of  the  troubled  air.  Carcasses  of  cattle,  sheep,  and  swine  scattered 
about  upon  the  trampled  and  bloody  snow,  where  they  were  killed  in  wanton- 
ness or  slaughtered  for  food.  And  most  ghastly  sight  of  all,  nude  and 
mangled  forms  of  men,  women  and  children,  their  neighbors,  friends  and 
kindred,  victims  of  a  most  hellish  act  of  civilized  France,  lying  where  their 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  J  53 

murderers  left  them  on  wintry  beds  of  snow,  which  now  had  taken  on  a 
crimson  hue. 

"The  foray  of  Ashpelon,  in  1677,  was  an  act  of  savages,  the  last  wave  of 
Philip's  war.  It  was  a  raid  merely  for  plunder,  and  by  the  code  of  Indian 
warfare,  conducted  with  humanity.  The  assault  upon  Deer  field  was  not  an 
act  of  international  warfare.  It  was  fwt  an  attempt  of  the  Pocumtucks  and 
Norwottucks  to  recover  the  homes  of  their  fathers.  Probably  not  one  of 
their  number  was  with  the  invaders.  It  was  not  an  attempt  to  conquer  terri- 
tory. De  Rouville,  the  commander,  never  for  one  moment  thought  of  holding 
the  captured  town  for  France.  No,  it  is  clearly  established  that  Gov.  Vau- 
dreuil  sent  his  trusty  officers  of  the  Line,  with  a  horde  of  blood-thirsty 
barbarians  to  surprise  and  sack  a  Xew  England  village,  and  murder  its 
sleeping  inhabitants,  as  a  cold  blooded  act  of  French  policy.  It  was  to  show 
the  northern  Indians  that  the  French  were  their  friends,  able  and  willing  to 
give  them  opportunities  for  gratifying  their  natural  propensity  for  blood  and 
plunder,  and  thus  to  secure  their  alliance.  All  the  sentimental  stories  about 
this  bloody  raid  being  a  grand  and  patriotic  attempt  of  the  Indians  to 
revenge  their  wrongs,  recover  their  old  hunting  grounds  and  the  graves  of 
their  fathers,  are  pure  fiction,  and  must  vanish  into  thin  air,  before  the  facts 
of  history. 

"Your  ancestors  and  mine,  seeing  and  hearing  the  dreadful  sights  and 
sounds,  on  their  arrival  at  Deerfield,  did  not  know — nor  did  they  need  to 
know — these  facts,  to  awaken  their  manhood,  inflame  their  hearts,  and  nerve 
their  arms.  At  the  time  of  their  arrival,  the  main  body  of  the  enemy  had 
drawn  off  with  their  captives  and  booty  across  the  river.  Scattered  bands 
were  engaged  in  wanton  destruction  of  animals  and  property;  and  a  con- 
siderable body  was  still  besieging  the  house  of  Benoni  Stebbins.  These  flew 
like  chaff  from  the  threshing  floor  before  the  charge  of  the  infuriated  men 
from  below,  towards  the  main  body,  which  many  never  reached.  Observing 
this  charge,  De  Rouville  hastily  threw  his  army  into  an  ambuscade.  The 
reckless  daring  of  the  pursuers,  led,  doubtless,  by  Sergeant  Benjamin  Waite, 
carried  them  into  the  trap,  with  fatal  consequences.  Overpowered  ten  to  one, 
our  men  retreated,  fighting  inch  by  inch,  to  the  fort. 

"No  plumed  and  armored  knight,  coursing  with  lance  in  rest,  or  smiting 
with  sword  and  mace  a  Paynim  horde  around  the  walls  of  Jerusalem,  showed 
nK>re  chivalric  fire  or  nobler  daring  than  this  brave  band  in  homespun,  fight- 
ing their  pagfan  and  Christian  foes  on  Deerfield  North  Meadow,  in  the 
attempt  to  revenge  the  slain  and  rescue  the  miserable  captives  out  of  the 
hands  of  the  spoiler. 

"That  my  theme  is  not  leading  me  so  far  as  it  might  seem,  from  the  men 
and  events  of  Sept.  19,  1677,  will  appear  as  a  few  words  are  said  connecting 
in  a  remarkable  manner  the  actors  and  victims  of  each  occasion.  I  wish 
here  to  state  clearly,  that  what  I  have  said  of  the  Hatfield  men  applies  as 
well  to  the  men  of  Hadley  and  Northampton,  their  comrades  in  the  ride ;  and 
to  the  men  of  Deerfield  who  joined  them  on  their  arrival.  Limit  of  time 
compels  a  confinement  in  the  brief  personal  notes  which  follow,  to  those 
Hatfield  men.  who  were  of  that  troop  which  rode  up  the  dark  valley,  on  the 
morning  of  Feb.  29,  1704.  As  I  cannot  speak  of  them  in  order  of  merit, 
while  each  was  eager  to  be  foremost,  they  will  be  named  alphabetically. 

"First.  Samuel  A  His. — He  knew  that  his  mother  and  two  sisters  were  in 
the  fated  town,  and  the  furious  gallop  was  a  lagging  pace  to  his  anxious 
fears ;  and  the  discovery  that  she  lay  dead  and  mangled  among  the  ruins,  and 
that  they  were  captives  in  the  hands  of  barbarians,  may  have  aroused  him 
to  that  pitch  of  fury  which  banished  all  prudence  and  carried  him  headlong 
to  his  death  in  the  fatal  ambuscade. 

"Second.  Samuel  Belden. — He  could  not  forget  how  the  savages  had 
murdered  his  mother  at  Hatfield,  Sept.  19,  1677;  nor  could  his  half  brother, 
Richard  Billings,  who  rode  by  his  side,  equally  eager  to  be  avenged  on  the 
dcstrovers.  But  thev  could  not  outride  Nathaniel  Coleman,  son  of  Dea.  John 
Coleman,  whose  wife  was  killed  Sept.  19.  and  whose  daughter,  Sarah  Cole- 
man, is  the  picturesque  heroine  of  to-day's  celebration. 

"Third.  Ehenezer,  Nathaniel  and  Samuel  Dickinson. — Their  uncle,  Oba.- 
diah  Dickinson,  was  a  captive  of  Sept.  19,  the  man  whom  \.W  ?»3ln2lVL^%,  >nVOcv  ^ 


154  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

refinement  of  cruelty,  unknown  to  the  Inquisition,  compelled  to  lead  his 
friend  and  companion,  old  Sergt.  Plympton,  to  the  stake,  soon  after  their 
arrival  in  Canada.    These  young  men  could  not  be  laggards  in  the  race. 

"Neither  could  Samuel  Field,  remembering  that  his  father  had  been  shot 
by  prowling  Indians  at  Hatfield  ten  years  before ;  nor  Benjamin  Field,  a 
nephew  of  the  murdered  man.  But  Samuel  Field  could  not  know  how  his 
whole  future  life  was  to  be  shaped  by  the  events  of  this  day.  While  bravely 
fighting  in  the  meadow  by  the  side  of  David  Ho3rt  of  Deerfield,  one  of  the 
seven  defenders  of  the  Benoni  Stebbins's  house,  the  latter  fell.  Two  years 
later  Samuel  married  his  widow,  settled  in  Deerfield,  and  became  one  of  her 
most  honored  citizens.  His  sister  Mary  married  Jonathan  Hoyt,  of  Deerfield, 
a  brother  of  David,  a  young  captive  of  that  sad  day,  and  in  the  course  of 
events  became  my  great  great  grandmother. 

"Samuel  Foote. — His  mother,  Mary  Foote,  with  two  children,  was  taken 
in  Ashpelon's  raid.  His  little  sister  Mary,  after  enduring  the  hardships  of 
the  long  miserable  march,  was  murdered  in  Canada.  Was  it  the  recollection 
of  these  cruel  wrongs  which  urged  him  to  the  fore  front,  where  he  bravdy 
fell,  fighting  with  his  face  to  the  foe? 

"Samuel  Gillef. — He  was  one  of  the  three  children  of  widow  Hannah 
Gillet,  who  had  been,  on  Sept.  19,  1677,  five  months  the  wife  of  Stephen 
Jennings.  She  with  two  of  her  children  were  carried  captive.  All  were 
brought  back  by  her  husband  and  Benjamin  Waite  the  next  spring,  with  the 
addition  of  her  new  born  daughter — Captivity  Jennings. 

"John  Graves. — His  father  was  one  of  the  slain  of  Sept.  19.  John  was 
now  a  man  of  mature  age  with  a  wife  and  six  children.  Prudent  but  brave, 
he  was  not  backward  in  the  contest.  As  he  warmed  up  in  the  pursuit  across 
the  meadows,  he  threw  oflF  his  belt,  coat  and  waist-coat,  which  were  lost  in 
the  retreat ;  but  he  was  cool  enough  to  pick  up  a  blanket  and  a  hatchet  which 
had  been  dropped  by  the  Indians,  whom  they  had  driven  in  their  first  onset 
Had  this  hatchet  appeared  on  this  platform,  with  well  established  traditions 
how  it  had  been  preserved  in  the  Graves  of  his  ancestral  line  for  nine  score 
years  and  five;  in  spite  of  my  reputation  hereabouts  as  an  iconoclast,  I  could 
not  have  the  heart  to  send  this  to  keep  company  with  the  iittle  hatchet'  of 
G.  W.  But  as  I  too  'cannot  tell  a  lie,*  only  careful  concealment  would  have 
been  made  of  the  fact  that  the  hatchet  picked  up  by  John  Graves  was  taken 
by  the  government  and  sold  for  one  shilling  and  sixpence. 

"John  Marsh. — Two  of  this  name  were  living  in  Hatfield  at  this  time,  and 
our  John  cannot  be  certainly  identified.  But  he  was  there  and  probably  his 
double.  A  petition  to  the  General  Court  gives  the  name  of  John  Marsh  as 
one  of  the  band  of  fighters  on  the  meadows.  By  another  official  list  we  find 
'John  Marsh  and  Sarah  Dickinson,  two  Hatfield  persons,*  named  as  among 
the  captives.  Finding  these  two  persons  thus  conjoined  by  those  who  Imew 
the  facts,  I  have  looked  for  some  romantic  sequel  to  this  untoward  result 
of  John  and  Sarah's  unfortunate  visit  to  Deerfield  and  consequently  to 
Canada.     So  far  the  search  has  been  fruitless. 

"Thomas  Russell. — His  mother  and  two  brothers  were  killed  Sept  19, 
when  he  was  but  four  years  old.  The  traditions  of  this  event  must  have 
come  to  him  this  morning  with  a  new  reality,  and  nerved  his  arm  for  the 
desperate  encounter.  But  he  came  off  safe,  only  to  be  killed  while  on  a 
scout  near  Deerfield  the  next  year. 

"John  and  Joseph  Smith  were  of  the  rescuing  party,  but  of  the  six  Johns 
and  fire  Josephs  living  at  this  date  in  Hatfield,  these  two  cannot  be  identified, 
and  credit  must  be  given  to  the  Smith  family  in  general.^  The  probabitities 
are.  however,  that  Joseph  was  the  son  of  that  John  Smith  who  was  killed 
by  Indians  on  your  meadow  May  30,  1676.  and  the  husband  of  Canada  Waite, 
daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Martha  Waite,  born  in  captivity,  January,  1678. 
In  this  case,  Joseph  must  have  witnessed  the  death  of  his  father-in-law 
while  fighting  by  his  side. 

"Beiiiamin  IVaite. — Your  adopted  son.  the  hero  of  to-day,  the  trusted  guide 
of  Capt.  William  Turner,  on  his  march  to  Peskeompskut,  May  18,  1676. 
When  his  fellow  guide.  Experience  Hinsdcll,  lost  his  head  and  his  bearing. 
the  next  morning,  and  led  one  party  to  destruction  in  the  dark  morass,  our 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  I55 

cool  headed  hero  led  Capt.  Turner's  main  body  through  the  swarming 
savages,  mad  for  revenge,  and  brought  it  safe  to  Hatfield. 

"John  Waite,  son  of  Benjamin,  could  not  be  far  from  the  side  of  his 
father.  Little  could  he  anticipate,  as  he  looked  upon  the  desolation  of 
Deerfield,  that  his  daughter  would  marry  one  of  the  rescued  boys,  and  that 
hundreds  with  his  blood  in  their  veins,  would  become  prominent  in  the 
annals  of  reconstructed  Deerfield. 

"Daniel,  John  and  Samuel,  sons  of  Daniel  Warner,  must  have  been  full  of 
anxiety  for  the  safety  of  the  family  of  their  brother  Ebenezer,  and  their 
sister  Lydia,  with  her  two  weeks  old  baby.  They  found  in  the  -place  of 
Ebenezer's  comfortable  home,  a  glowing  chasm ;  and  his  whole  family  in  the 
power  of  the  red-handed  foe.  Their  sister  with  her  baby  was  safe,  and  her 
husband  joined  the  brothers  in  the  vain  attempt  to  recover  their  kindred. 

"Ladies  and  gentlemen,  you  and  I  have  a  direct  and  personal  interest  in 
these  men.  Their  blood  flows  in  the  veins  of  many  I  see  around  me,  and 
doubtless  many  a  heart-beat  has  quickened  at  the  mention  of  their  names  and 
deeds.  For  myself  I  count  among  them  two  direct  ancestors.  Twelve  of 
allied  blood  fought  shoulder  to  shoulder  with  your  ancestors  on  that  fated 
day;  two  of  whom  left  dead  upon  the  field  of  honor,  rest  in  the  same  grave 
which  holds  the  ashes  of  their  unfortunate  companions  in  arms  from  Hatfield 
and  Hadley.  What  wonder  if  our  blood  grows  hot  as  we  recall  that  day  of 
horror.  The  life  current  of  sixteen  of  my  kindred  crimsoned  the  snow  upon 
which  their  mangled  bodies  had  been  ruthlessly  flung,  and  twice  that  number 
were  captives  in  the  hands  of  the  marauders;  forlorn,  despairing,  hopeless, 
destined  to  a  march  through  the  deep  snows  of  the  unbroken  forest  to  the 
far  off  Canada. 

"If  these  personalities  seem  obtrusive,  bear  in  mind  that  I  represent  not 
myself  alone.  My  story  is  but  the  duplicate  of  that  which  may  be  told  by 
many  who  hear  it.     I  speak  for  them  also." 

The  following  additional  information  about  the  attack  at 
the  Hatfield  mill  in  1704  was  written  by  Rev.  Stephen  Wil- 
liams of  Longmeadow : — 

"About  the  middle  of  July  (the  10th)  1704,  a  friend  indian  was  killed  at 
Hatfleld  Mill.  His  name  was  Kindness.  The  enemy  had  not  opportunity  to 
scalp  him.  On  the  same  week,  Thomas  Russell,  a  young  man  of  Hatneld, 
(being  then  a  soldier  at  Deerfield)  was  sent  out  into  ye  woods  with  others 
as  a  scout,  but  he  rambling  from  his  company,  was  killd  by  ye  indians. 

"Some  tracks  discovered  Deacon  Sheldon  wth  some  others  went  after  ym 
&  came  in  sight  of  ym,  and  shot  at  ym,  &  jry  at  ye  english  at  a  great 
distance,  &  then  yy  past  along  on  ye  west  side  of  ye  Town,  &  fird  yr  guns  in 
a  bravado,  &  went  along  up  to  ye  Northward,  &  killd  Thos  Russell  July 
20.  1704." 

The  summer  of  1704  was  a  time  of  great  anxiety  in  all 
the  valley  towns.  The  fortifications  in  Hatfield  were  again 
built  as  they  had  been  in  King  William's  war  and  those 
living  outside  were  ordered  to  assist  those  who  felt  too 
greatly  burdened  by  the  work  of  completing  the  part  on 
their  land.  Stairs  were  built  to  the  turret  on  the  meeting- 
house. The  town  stock  of  ammunition  was  inventoried  and 
found  to  consist  of: — 

"one  half  bbl  powder  about  50  weight 
one  small  bbl  40 

one  greater 
Lead  in  bullets  50  weight.     Bars  15  in  number." 


156  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

An  appropriation  was  made  to  purchase  250  pounds  of 
lead,  450  flints,  and  6  guns. 

After  the  capture  of  Pascommuck  Fort,  an  outlying  ham- 
let of  Northampton,  at  the  northeast  end  of  Mt.   Tom,  a 
report   came   that  an   army  was   fitting  out   in    Canada  to 
destroy   all    the   settlements    on   the    river.      Maj.    William 
Whiting  was  sent  from  Connecticut  with  342  men  and  addi- 
tional troops  were  sent  to  him  from  time  to  time.      These 
preparations  were  reported  by  the  Indian  spies  and  the  army 
of  the   enemy,  consisting  of  700   Indians   and    125    French 
soldiers  under  Captain  de  Beaucours,  turned  back,  not  daring 
to  attack,  though  they  came  within  one  day's  march  of  the 
towns.    Governor  De  Vaudreuil  reported  to  the  French  gov- 
ernment that  a  panic  seized  the  Indian  allies  after  the  deser- 
tion of  a  French  soldier  and  they  could  not  be  prevented 
from  retreating.     Major  Whiting  reported  to  the  governor 
of  Connecticut  that  his  march  north  from  Pascommuck  in 
pursuit   of   the    Indians   was   "near   sixty   miles    in    a    most 
hideous,  mountainous  and  swampy  country."      The  report 
further  stated  that  after  the  return  to  the  headquarters  at 
Hatfield,  May  16,  there  were  200  men  stationed  there  and 
at  Hadley  and  Northampton.     Colonel  Partridge  and  Major 
Whiting  determined  that  the  best  defense  would  be  to  keep 
strong  and  alert  garrisons  in  the  towns  rather  than  to  attack 
in  force  the  enemy  in  the  wilderness.     Scouting  parties  were 
frequently  sent,  w^ho  reported  the  enemy  to  be  gathered  in 
large  numbers  at  Cowass  (Barnet),  Vt. 

November  18,  1705,  Colonel  Partridge  was  allowed  by  the 
General  Court  £20  for  his  ''Extraordinary  Trouble  and  Serv- 
ice in  the  affairs  of  the  War." 

The  negotiations  for  the  redemption  of  prisoners  taken  at 
Deerfield  and  other  places  occupied  a  long  time  and  the 
French  governor  became  alarmed  for  the  safety  of  Canada, 
against  which  Governor  Dudley  of  Massachusetts  was  anx- 
ious to  organize  an  expedition.  Scouting  parties  were  sent 
out  by  both  the  English  and  French  and  the  wilderness 
between  Canada  and  the  English  frontier  towns  became 
familiar  to  the  whites  as  w^ell  as  to  the  Indians  in  the  many 
skirmishes  which  took  place.  The  English  towns  were  kept 
garrisoned  and  a  sharp  watch  was  maintained  to  forestall  any 
attack.  Some  of  the  Deerfield  captives  were  returned  to 
their  homes  in   1705,  many  more  in   1706,  others  in   1707. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  157 

Some  never  returned  to  their  homes,  preferring  the  wild  and 
free  life  among  the  savages.  A  general  truce  was  observed 
while  negotiations  for  the  ransom  of  the  captives  was 
going  on. 

Hatfield  took  advantage  of  the  lull  in  hostilities  to  build 
a  new  schoolhouse.  In  December,  1706,  specifications  for  it 
were  acted  upon  in  town  meeting  and  all  the  inhabitants  were 
called  upon  to  perform  part  of  the  labor.  It  was  to  be  "in 
length  twenty  five  feet,  in  breadth  as  the  old  house,  the  sides 
and  ends  to  be  done  with  hewn  log  timber,  with  sills  and 
plates  and  beams,  with  a  roof  as  is  usual,  boarded  and 
shingled,  and  a  new  chimney  of  brick  and  stone."  The  old 
building  was  torn  down  and  as  much  of  the  timber  used  as 
was  found  suitable.  Thirty-five  pounds  was  at  that  time  paid 
Dr.  Hastings  for  his  services  as  teacher,  and  each  boy  who 
attended  school  had  to  furnish  one  load  of  wood,  or,  if  he 
attended  only  three  months  in  the  winter,  half  a  load. 

A  threatened  attack  in  1707  by  a  small  party  of  French 
and  Indians  was  averted  by  news  sent  to  Colonel  Partridge 
by  Col.  Peter  Schuyler  at  Albany  on  intelligence  brought  by 
Mohawk  spies.  If  the  Indians  could  not  be  sure  of  surprise, 
they  were  not  willing  to  undertake  an  attack  on  a  fort  or 
garrisoned  town.  Lurking  savages  committed  murders 
throughout  the  war  whenever  they  found  opportunity. 
Labor  in  the  fields  had  to  be  done  under  a  strong  guard. 

The  year  1708  was  another  of  alarm.  Preparations  for  an 
expedition  were  begun  in  Montreal  early  in  the  year,  but 
nothing  was  done  till  summer.  August  6  Colonel  Schuyler 
sent  word  that  800  men  were  marching  toward  New  Eng- 
land. Many  of  them  were  French  Mohawks.  The  Indians 
were  induced  by  Colonel  Schuyler's  messengers  to  desert 
and  many  other  Indians  also  deserted.  De  Rouville,  the 
commander  of  the  expedition,  kept  on  with  the  French  troops 
and  some  savages  and  attacked  Haverhill  August  29.  It  was 
feared  that  he  would  appear  in  the  Connecticut  valley  and 
troops  were  again  secured  from  Connecticut,  but  the  alarm 
proved  groundless. 

During  1708  the  French  were  kept  on  the  defensive  by  an 
abortive  attempt  against  Canada.  General  Nicholson,  lieu- 
tenant governor  of  New  York,  advanced  with  an  army  of 
1,500  from  Albany.  He  halted  at  Lake  Champlain  to  await 
the  arrival  of  an  English  fleet  to  cooperate  \v\  aw  ^iXl^cV  ovi 


258  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Quebec.  The  fleet  did  not  appear  and  the  land  expedition 
returned.  Reverses  suffered  by  the  English  in  Portugal  were 
responsible  for  the  failure  of  the  fleet  to  sail  to  America.  In 
April  of  that  year  a  scouting  party  under  Capt.  Benjamin 
Wright  of  Northampton,  with  volunteers  from  the  valley 
towns,  defeated  bands  of  Indians  at  French  river  and  on 
Lake  Champlain.  Joseph  Waite,  son  of  Benjamin  Waite,  and 
Joseph  Root  of  Hatfield  took  part  in  this  expedition.  Cap- 
tain Wright  was  allowed  £12  for  his  services,  and  each  of  his 
men  £6.  He  had  15  men  with  him,  including  two  Indians, 
and  they  were  gone  over  a  month.  This  is  the  expedition 
noted  by  Dr.  Hastings  under  date  of  May,  1709.  Colonel 
Partridge  in  forwarding  an  account  of  the  affair  to  the  Gen- 
eral Court  to  secure  a  reward  for  the  men  said  that  they 
were  very  sure  they  killed  four  of  the  enemy  at  Lake  Cham- 
plain  and  four  more  at  French  river.  One  scalp  was  brought 
home. 

A  counter  attack  was  made  in  June  by  a  party  of  180 
under  De  Rouville.  They  were  repulsed  at  Deerfield  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  month.  Few  particulars  of  this  encounter 
have  been  preserved.  The  entries  made  by  Dr.  Hastings 
under  date  of  June  23  and  24,  1709,  refer  to  it. 

In  1711  another  expedition  was  fitted  out  against  Canada. 
Ten  transports  and  1,000  men  were  lost  by  shipwreck  in  the 
St.  Lawrence  in  August  and  the  expedition  turned  back  to 
Boston,  whence  they  had  set  out  with  15  war  ships  and  40 
transports.  General  Nicholson  had  an  army  of  4,000  ready 
at  Albany,  but  they  did  not  strike  a  blow.  Among  the  18 
companies  furnished  by  Massachusetts  was  one  from  Hamp- 
shire County  under  command  of  Capt:  Ebenezer  Pomeroy  of 
Northampton.  The  pay  roll  of  this  company  from  June  2  to 
October  26  amounted  to  £367  2s.  lOd.,  but  the  muster  roll  has 
not  been  preserved,  so  the  soldiers'  names  are  not  knov^m. 

Through  the  winter  an  outpost  was  maintained  thirty  or 
forty  miles  above  Deerfield.  Connecticut  sent  troops  to  aid 
Colonel  Partridge  in  the  defense  of  Hampshire  County  and 
two  companies  of  men  equipped  with  snowshoes  were  sent 
from  the  Bay  to  be  under  his  orders.  In  the  spring  of  1712 
he  was  allowed  seven  shillings  each  for  468  pairs  of  snow- 
shoes  and  moccasins  which  he  had  furnished  the  members  of 
the  Hampshire  regiment.  No  particulars  of  that  winter's 
cfinipnii^^n  have  been  fovrnd. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  159 

The  last  Indian  raid  in  the  war  was  made  in  the  summer 
of  1712.  the  following  account  of  it  being  from  a  letter 
written  by  Colonel  Partridge  to  Governor  Dudley : — 

"Hatfield  Aug  4,  1712 
"May  it  please  yor  Excellency 

"On  Wednesday  the  30  July  past  in  ye  forenoone  came  too  me  a  Messengr 
en  forming  of  a  young  man  taken  by  a  ptie  of  the  Enemy  at  Springfield  in  the 
aftemoone  a  massenger  from  Derefd  that  or  western  scout  from  thence  was 
attaqued  by  the  enemy  &  sd  ther  were  most  of  them  taken  &  killed,  but  upon 
a  more  full  acct  there  is  one  man  killed  &  two  taken  of  them,  at  Night  a 
Messenger  from  or  Eastern  scouts  gave  news  of  the  discovery  of  a  ptie  of 
8  or  9  seen  &  they  made  shot  at  ym  but  the  enemy  soon  ran  out  of  reach 
towards  Brookfd  We  immeadiately  sent  a  post  to  Brookfd  to  en  forme  them, 
who  immeadiately  sent  out  to  all  there  work  folks  abroad  &  in  there  way  see 
6  or  8  Indians — Alarmed  the  ye  said  workers  &  disappointed  the  Enemy  who 
were  about  Secretly  to  way  lay  them,  but  run  for  it — ^by  all  this  it  plainly 
appears  the  Enemy  are  on  every  hand  of  us — Laying  waite  for  to  accomplish 
their  bloody  designes — ^the  same  night  a  post  from  Albany  came  with  the 
Enclosed,  The  lettr  doth  not  speak  of  it,  but  the  Missingrs  say  ye  Govr  of 
Canada  Looks  for  a  speedy  Peace,  but  will  do  as  much  spoyle  as  he  can 
before  it  comes. 

**I  have  Given  Notice  to  Capt  How  of  the  Enemy s  Appearance  here  wch 
may  soone  come  over  to  ym 

"Major  Stoddard  &  myself  are  Secureing  all  pts  by  scouts  &  guards  as 
much  as  we  can  to  prvent  the  Sudden  Surprizes  of  the  Enemy  who  doubt- 
less will  do  all  the  mischeef  they  can  before  they  go  off  with  my  Humble 
Service  prsented  to  yr  Excellency  &  whole  family  Rendering  my  Self 

"yor  Obeydient  &  very  Humble  Servt 

"Samll  Partridge. 

"Yor  Excellency's  directions  is  at  all  tymes  advantageous  to  us." 

Dr.  Hastings's  entries  of  July  29  and  30,  1712,  give  the 
names  of  the  victims.  The  son  of  Joseph  Wright  of  Spring- 
field was  Benjamin,  aged  eighteen.  He  was  killed  by  his 
captors. 

The  Peace  of  Utrecht,  signed  March  30,  1713,  brought  the 
war  to  a  close.  The  total  loss  of  lives  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Hampshire  County  was  119;  25  had  been  wounded  and  125 
were  captured,  of  whom  112  belonged  to  Deerfield.  Deer- 
field  suffered  more  than  any  other  town,  having  60  of  its 
inhabitants  slain  and  9  wounded,  and  it  would  have  been 
abandoned  again  but  for  the  determined  efforts  of  Colonel 
Partridge  in  keeping  a  garrison  there  after  the  massacre  of 
1704  to  protect  the  few  settlers  who  were  willing  to  remain. 

The  Hatfield  men  killed  were  Benjamin  Waite,  Samuel 
Allis,  and  Samuel  Foote  in  the  fight  in  the  Deerfield  mead- 
ows, March  1,  1704;  Thomas  Russell  at  Deerfield,  July, 
1705;  and  Ebenezer  Field  at  Bloody  Brook,  Oct.  26,  1708. 
To  these  should  be  added  Stephen  Jennings,  killed  at  Brook- 
field,  July  22,  1710.     He  was  either  the  Sle\A\^Yv  "^^xvxvwv^^ 


150  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

who  was  the  companion  of  Benjamin  Waite  in  his  expedition 
to  Canada,  or  his  son.  The  family  had  moved  to  Brookfield 
after  King  Philip's  war. 

Two  of  the  captives  belonged  in  Hatfield.  An  account  ot 
the  massacre  at  Deerfield  found  among  the  papers  of  Fitz 
John  Winthrop,  governor  of  Connecticut  from  1698  to  1707, 
now  in  the  possession  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Soci- 
ety, gives  the  names  of  "Jno  Marsh  and  Sarah  Dickinson,  2 
Hatf'd  persons"  in  the  table  of  losses.  This  John  Marsh  was 
probably  one  of  the  sons  of  Daniel  Marsh.  He  was  born 
March  9,  1679,  so  that  he  was  about  twenty-four  at  the  time 
of  his  captivity.  It  is  not  known  how  long  he  remained  in 
Canada.  The  onlv  Sarah  Dickinson  who  could  have  been  the 
person  named  was  the  twelve-year-old  daughter  of  John 
Dickinson.  She  was  married  Feb.  15,  1709,  to  John  Leonard 
of  Springfield.  Nothing  about  her  captivity  or  ransom  has 
been  discovered. 

The  war  expenses  fell  very  heavily  on  Massachusetts  and 
a  large  debt  was  incurred.  In  May,  1713,  the  amount  of  the 
unredeemed  province  bills  was  £127,000.  The  tax  levied  on 
Hampshire  County  yearly  amounted  to  over  £1,000.  Hat- 
field's share  of  the  province  tax  was  £136  10s.  in  1708  and 
about  the  same  amount  in  other  vears. 

After  Queen  Anne's  war  came  an  interval  of  peace  lasting 
till  1722.  During  this  time  occurred,  as  previously  noted,  a 
new  survey  of  the  common  lands  divided  in  1684,  and  prob- 
ably many  of  the  fields  were  then  fenced,  cleared,  and  culti- 
vated, for  during  the  next  war  the  difficulty  and  danger  of 
harvesting  the  crops  on  the  outlying  farms  is  often  spoken 
of  in  reports  and  letters.  Many  Hatfield  men  shared  in  the 
distribution  of  commons  in  Hadley  lying  south  of  Mt.  Hol- 
yoke.  The  amount  of  land  divided  is  not  known.  Allotment 
was  made  in  1720  according  to  the  estates  given  in  the 
adjoined  table,  which  is  taken  from  Judd's  ''History  of  Had- 
ley.*' The  Hadley  citizens  had  larger  proportions,  their 
estates  being  valued  at  from  £20  to  over  £100.  The  largest 
landholder  from  Hadley  was  Samuel  Porter,  Esq.,  who 
received  an  allotment  proportioned  to  a  valuation  of  £295 
18s. 

"Col.  Samuel  Partridge,  Esq £48  Os. 

Thomas   Nash    6  0 

Isaac  Hubbard  26  0 

Richard  Church  19  10 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  151 

John  Graves  2  0 

Ichabod  Porter 16  0 

Jonathan  Cowles 4  10 

Joseph  Smith  3  0 

Sergt.  Stephen  Belding 4  0 

Deac.  Samuel  Marsh 15  0 

Nathaniel  Dickinson    2  10 

Samuel  Dickinson  3  0 

Daniel  Warner 12  0 

Ebenezer  Billing  6  0 

Comet  Samuel  Belding 5  0 

Ebenezer  Warner   4  0 

Ebenezer  Wells  11  0 

Jonathan  Smith  2  0 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  2d 13  10 

Joseph  Kellogg   7  0 

Jonathan  Graves  3  0 

Thomas  Dickinson's  heirs  in  Connecticut 6  10 

i6,063         8s." 

In  1720  all  the  unassigned  land  in  Hopewell  Swamp  was 
sequestered  for  the  support  of  schoqls.  Northfield  was  reoc- 
cupied  in  1714,  this  time  permanently,  and  the  same  year  a 
settlement  was  made  at  Sunderland,  first  called  Swampfield, 
chiefly  by  men  from  Hatfield  and  Hadley.  A  settlement  was 
made  on  the  Hoosatonic  at  Sheffield  about  the  same  time. 
The  settlement  of  new  towns  gave  additional  security  to 
those  that  had  so  long  been  exposed  to  attacks  as  frontier 

OUtfMDStS. 

Shortly  after  the  war  a  small  settlement  was  begun  at 
West  Brook.  Jeremiah  Waite  had  been  granted  use  of  the 
stream  to  set  up  a  fulling  mill  in  1709  and  he  probably  settled 
there  as  soon  as  peace  was  assured.  He  was  joined  by  sev- 
eral others.  Sawmill  privileges  there  were  granted  to 
Joseph  Belden,  Richard  Scott.  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Joseph 
Clary,  and  Joseph  Scott.  Some  of  these  houses  were  on  the 
Straits  road  in  the  present  town  of  Whately.  Joseph  Bel- 
den's  house,  which  was  fortified,  was  the  Zabina  Bartlett 
place  at  Bartlett's  Corner.  North  of  him  houses  were  soon 
after  built  by  Josiah  Scott,  Jr.,  Ebenezer  Bardwell,  and 
I>erhaps  Elijah  and  Benjamin  Scott.  South  of  Belden's  were 
Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  David  Graves,  John  Waite,  and  Elisha 
Smith.  There  is  reference  in  the  Hatfield  records  to  a 
schoolhouse  at  the  Straits  as  early  as  1733,  showing  that  by 
that  time  there  must  have  been  quite  a  few  families  there. 
James  M.  Crafts,  who  revised  and  enlarged  Temple's  "His- 
tory of  Whately"  in  1899,  and  whose  authority  is  followed 
in  the  statements  of  these  early  Whately  settlers,  iKom^VvX. 


152  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

that  Samuel  Wells  built  on  his  lot  in  the  Bradstreet  farm  on 
the  river  road  as  early  as  1710.  The  Chestnut  Plain  road,  on 
which  the  Whately  street  was  located,  was  not  built  upon  as 
early  as  this.  Whately  was  incorporated  in  1771.  The  other 
early  settlers  of  the  town  before  and  after  its  incorporation 
are  fully  noted  in  the  Crafts  "History." 

The  fourth  period  of  Indian  warfare  lasted  from  1722  to 
1725  and  is  known  as  Father  Rasle's  war.  Sebastian  Rasle 
was  a  Jesuit  missionary  stationed  at  Norridgewock  on  the 
Kennebec.  He  stirred  up  the  Eastern  Indians,  or  Abenakis, 
against  the  English,  acting  under  orders  from  Governor 
De  Vaudreuil.  In  June,  1722,  the  Indians  captured  a  num- 
ber of  English  in  Maine  and  burned  Brunswick.  War  was 
declared  upon  them  July  25  by  Gov.  Samuel  Shute  of  Massa- 
chusetts. De  Vaudreuil  sent  160  Indians  from  Canada  to 
join  the  hostile  savages,  ^but  no  French  troops  took  part  in 
the  operations  in  this  war. 

Col.  Samuel  Partridge,  then  seventy-six  years  old,  was 
again  put  in  command  of  the  forces  in  Hampshire  County, 
having  as  his  lieutenant  John  Stoddard  of  Northampton,  who 
was  commissioned  lieutenant  colonel  and  afterwards  became 
a  very  prominent  man.  Headquarters  were  again  at  Hat- 
field. A  blockhouse  was  built  above  Northfield  (just  below 
Brattleboro,  Vt.),  which  was  soon  after  called  Fort  Dummer 
in  honor  of  the  newly-appointed  acting  governor,  William 
Dummer,  who  took  charge  of  the  affairs  of  the  province 
Dec.  27,  1722.  Work  was  begun  on  the  fort  in  December, 
1723. 

The  fighting  was  mostly  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  prov- 
ince, in  Maine  and  New  Hampshire,  and  it  was  hard  to  secure 
from  the  governor  appropriations  for  military  preparations  in 
the  western  part,  where  a  general  alarm  was  also  felt.  Col- 
onel Partridge  said  in  a  letter  written  May  14,  1723: — 

"The  river  is  pretty  well  secured  by  the  forts  and  men  at  Northfield  and 
Dccrfield,  yet  Sunderland,  Hatfield  and  Hadley,  Northampton,  Westfield, 
Brookfield  and  Rutland  arc  too  much  exposed  to  invasion  from  the  East  and 
West.  ♦  ♦  ♦  These  towns  can't  stand  the  strain  upon  them  to  watch  and 
ward,  scout  and  fort  without  pay  while  their  spring  work  is  pressing  to  be 
done,  they  can't  get  a  living." 

The  Scatacooks  took  advantage  of  the  war  to  again  make 
attacks  on  the  valley  towns  and  the  settlers  experienced 
another  period  of  guerrilla  warfare.  The  woods  were  full 
of   lurking  foes   ever   ready   to   make   a   sudden   onslaught. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  I53 

Northfield  was  attacked  August  13,  with  the  results  as  given 
in  Dr.  Hastings's  account  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  chapter. 
Colonel  Partridge  sent  the  following  report  of  the  attack 
on  Hatfield,  June  18,  1724,  to  the  governor: — 

"Hatfield  June  20  1724 
"Honorable  Sr 

"On  the  18th  Inst  at  10  oclock  in  the  forenoon  the  Enemy  made  an  assault 
in  Hatfield  on  some  of  our  men  at  a  mowing  field  about  3  miles  from  Town 
at  Nehe  Waits  swamp  lot  where  he  with  severall  men  &  carts  were  loading 
hay.  They  killed  Benj.  Smith  son  of  Joseph  Smith  &  have  taken  Aaron 
Wells  &  Joseph  Allis  Captives  as  we  judge  because  all  the  rest  Escaped  home 
&  these  two  are  not  to  be  found,  They  also  killed  two  oxen  of  one  of  our 
Temcs  &  drew  of,  the  men  that  was  there  judge  there  was  8  or  10  of  the 
Enemy.  We  have  sent  immediately  to  Deerfd  &  Northfd  &  the  fort  above 
Deerfd  immedeately  sent  out  20  men  into  the  Western  Woods  &  we  from 
hence  have  sent  out  17  men,  from  hence  with  provisions  for  ten  days  prsute 
of  the  sd  Enemy  or  discovery  of  any  pties  of  the  Enemy.  I  presume  this 
Enemy  will  take  a  Westward  course  clear  out  of  the  Reach  of  all  or  Upper 
forces  So  or  unguarded  Towns  are  in  a  evil  case  &  although  we  have  some 
men  of  or  own  in  Northampton  Hadley,  Hatfield  Sunderland  &  Westfield  yet 
we  have  none  but  what  have  Occasions  abroad  in  the  Fields  so  that  our 
towns  all  the  day  are  so  emptred  of  men  that  we  are  very  much  exposed  & 
the  Enemy  seem  to  shape  their  course  upon  the  lower  Towns  and  our  men 
abroad  at  their  worke  at  a  moments  tyme  may  be  shot  down  before  anything 
can  be  seen  who  it  is  that  doth  it. 

"In  my  letr  by  Capt  Dwight  of  the  13th  inst  I  proposed  for  some  Reliefe 
&  gave  my  Reasons  I  shall  not  need  to  ad  expecting  every  hour  yr  Honors 
directions  in  the  prmeses.  I  think  we  may  say  the  Lord  of  Mercy  upon  us 
&  doubt  not  yr  care  &  consideration  of  our  circumstances  the  seat  of  war 
seems  to  be  here 

"with  my  earnest  desire  &  prayr  for  divine  Guidance  &  support  to  yr 
Honor  &  the  whole  Corte  I  am  yr 

"Afflicted  &  very  Humble  Servt 

"Samuel  Partridge" 

The  experiences  of  a  scouting  party  sent  in  pursuit  are 
narrated  by  Dr.  Hastings  in  the  following  letter : — 

"To  the  Hon'ble  the  Gentlemen  of  the  House  of  Representatives  in  General 
Court  Convened: 

"May  it  please  your  Hons,  I  being  desired  by  Sergt  Clesson  and  Sergt 
Wajrtc  to  inform  what  I  know  of  their  Expedition  in  June  last  to  Otter  Creek, 
Do  Inform  on  my  Certain  Knowledge  that  the  Expedition  being  suddenly 
formed  Suitable  Nessessaries  was  wanting  for  such  a  Long  &  hard  Journey; 
Saw  most  of  ye  men  when  they  went  forth,  they  were  Lusty  and  in  good 
Plight — EflFective  men;  Saw  them  when  they  returned  &  they  were  much 
emaciated  &  their  feet  so  Swolen  &  galled  that  they  could  scarce  Travel  on 
their  feet,  for  some  they  necessitated  to  hire  horses,  some  one  or  more 
applied  to  me  to  dress  their  feet  &  were  under  my  care  a  week  or  more 
in  bathing  &  emplastering  before  they  were  anything  Tolerably  Recruited,  in 
Imhc  they  underwent  much,  &  I  believe  they  were  hearty  in  their  desires  & 
faithful  m  their  Indeavors  to  overtake  the  Enemy  &  make  Reprisals. 

"With  Leave  humbly  says  its  Pitty  Such  Persons  undergoing  such  Diffi- 
culties for  ye  Country's  cause  should  fail  of  a  suitable  Reward. 

"Excuse  me,  I  pretend  not  to  prescribe  to  yr  Hon's  Wishing  the  Blessings 
of  Heaven  on  your  persons  &  on  your  Consultations  for  the  Good  of  the 
People  whom  you  Represent,  I  crave  Leave  to  subscribe  yoV  most  humble  & 
ob't  Scvt,  Thomas  Hasti^c»s>. 

"Hatfield,  May  26,  1725." 


264  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  aid  of  Connecticut  was  again  sought,  with  the  result 
that  money  was  sent  to  Colonel  Partridge  to  pay  soldiers  for 
keeping  a  constant  outlook  and  for  scouting  expeditions. 
This  was  felt  to  be  more  advantageous  than  maintaining  a 
large  garrison  of  troops. 

Negotiations  with  the  Mohawks  to  secure  their  coopera- 
tion against  the  Eastern  Indians  failed  of  the  desired  results, 
though  a  large  sum  of  money  was  expended  by  Massachu- 
setts for  presents  and  the  services  and  maintenance  of  the 
commissioner.  Lieut.  Col.  John  Stoddard  attended  the  con- 
ferences, which  were  held  in  Albany  in  1724.  The  influence 
of  the  Dutch  traders  kept  the  Indians  from  taking  the  war 
path.  A  few  scouts  served  in  the  pay  of  the  English  at 
various  times. 

The  casualties  of  the  summer  of  1724  and  the  year  1725  are 
given  in  Dr.  Hastings's  narrative.  Dr.  Hastings  was  of 
great  service  to  the  soldiers  in  this  and  the  previous  war. 
The  state  archives  show  many  accounts  allowed  him  for 
treatment  of  wounded  men  and  for  medicines  and  supplies. 
In  an  account  of  the  wounding  of  Dea.  Samuel  Field  at 
Greenfield,  by  Rev.  Stephen  Williams,  the  same  particulars 
of  the  severity  of  the  wounds  are  given  as  by  the  physician, 
and  he  goes  on  to  say,  "All  the  wounds  thro'  the  blessing  of 
God  upon  means  were  heal'd  in  less  than  five  weeks  by 
Dr.  Thomas  Hastings  whose  death  since  ye  war  is  a  great 
frown  upon  us." 

In  the  last  part  of  June,  1724,  great  alarm  was  caused  by 
reports  of  another  expedition  from  Canada  and  reinforce- 
ments of  white  and  Indian  soldiers  from  Connecticut  were 
sent  to  Colonel  Partridge.  The  expected  attack  was  not 
made. 

The  authorities  at  Boston  sent  an  army  of  280  against  the 
Eastern  Indians  in  Maine.  August  12  they  surprised  Nor- 
ridgewock  and  killed  30  or  40  of  the  savages.  Father  Rasle 
was  also  slain  and  his  church  was  burned. 

The  end  of  the  war  was  brought  about  by  the  death  of 
Governor  De  Vaudreuil  on  Oct.  10,  1725.  The  Indians  had 
become  tired  of  the  fighting  and  were  ready  to  make  peace 
when  the  pressure  from  the  French  commander  and  priests 
was  removed.  A  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Boston, 
Dec.  15,  1725. 

During  the  war  there  were  two  troops  of  cavalry  recruited 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  J  55 

from  Hampshire  County,  that  from  the  northern  towns  num- 
bering 39,  under  command  of  Capt.  Henry  Dwight  of  Hat- 
field. The  other  officers  were  Westwood  Cooke  of  Hadley, 
cornet,  and  Nathaniel  Coleman  of  Hatfield,  quartermaster. 
The  names  of  the  troopers  are  not  known. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

A    PERIOD    OF    GREAT    PROSPERITY,    1725-1765.     THE    GOLDEN 
AGE.     PROMINENT   AND   INFLUENTIAL  CITIZENS. 

"  There  were  giants  in  those  days." 

The  "River  Gods." — The  last  two  Indian  wars. — Petition  for  more  land 
west  of  the  town. — The  "Hatfield  Equivalent"  in  Ashfield. — Installation  of 
Rev.  Timothy  Woodbridge. — Death  of  Rev.  William  Williams. — Building  of 
the  third  meetinghouse. — A  tan  yard  and  an  oil  mill  built. — Col.  Israel 
Williams. — Col.  Oliver  Partridge. — Col.  Ephraim  Williams,  founder  of 
Williams  College. 

The  middle  portion  of  the  eighteenth  century  brought 
increasing  wealth  and  influence  to  Hatfield.  The  later  Indian 
wars  did  not  involve  for  its  people  a  life  and  death  struggle 
for  their  homes  and  the  fields  that  furnished  them  sustenance. 
A  chain  of  protecting  forts  across  the  northern  frontier  ren- 
dered the  villages  less  exposed  to  attack,  and  the  settlement 
of  other  towns  made  the  brunt  of  the  conflict  fall  less  on  the 
older  ones.  The  stress  of  the  conflict  with  the  French  and 
Indians  developed  a  group  of  leaders  of  strength  and  ability, 
who  came  to  be  known  as  the  "River  Gods/'  Conspicuous 
among  these  powerful  men  who  gained  such  prestige  for 
western  Massachusetts  were  Col.  John  Stoddard  of  North- 
ampton, Col.  John  Worthington  of  Springfield,  Col.  Israel 
Williams  of  Hatfield,  and  Col.  Oliver  Partridge  of  Hatfield. 
The  story  of  the  town  during  this  period  is  in  large  measure 
the  record  of  the  careers  of  these  two  last  mentioned  leaders, 
wdio  succeeded  Col.  Samuel  Partridge  in  military  and  political 
influence. 

The  details  of  the  last  two  French  and  Indian  w^ars  are  so 
well  known  as  matters  of  general  history  that  they  need  not 
be  fully  repeated  in  these  pages.  In  the  first  one,  known  as 
the  Old  French  war,  lasting  from  1744  to  1748,  occurred  the 
capture  of  Louisburg  on  June  17,  1745.  For  this  expedition 
many  men  were  recruited  from  the  Hampshire  tow^ns,  but 
few  of  the  names  have  been  preserved.  There  was  again  a 
period  of  scouting  and  fighting  on  the  Massachusetts  fron- 
tiers and  the  losses  suffered  in  the  various  towns  are  noted  in 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  167 

Dr.    Hastings's    diary,    continued    through    this    period    by 
Oliver  Partridge. 

The  chain  of  forts  across  the  frontier  comprised  the  greatly 
strengthened  and  enlarged  Fort  Dummer,  Fort  Shirley  in 
Heath,  Fort  Pelham  in  Rowe,  and  Fort  Massachusetts  in 
Adams.  There  were  blockhouses  at  Northfield,  Greenfield, 
Charlemont,  Fall-town  (Bernardston),  and  Colrain. 

The  second  war,  called  the  French  and  Indian  war,  in 
which  George  Washington  became  prominent,  occupied  nine 
years,  from  1754  to  1763,  and  was  concluded  by  the  conquest 
of  Canada  by  the  British  after  Wolfe's  victory  over  Mont- 
calm on  the  Plains  of  Abraham.  The  Hatfield  soldiers  who 
are  known  to  have  taken  part  in  the  expedition  are  noted 
in  Mr.  Partridge's  reminiscences  in  Part  H. 

From  the  close  of  Father  Rasle's  war  in  1725  the  colonists 
enjoyed  a  period  of  peace  for  nearly  thirty  years.  It  was  a 
time  of  business  expansion  throughout  the  region.  Facilities 
for  transportation  were  greatly  increased  by  the  opening  of 
good  highways  on  the  so-called  Bay  Paths  to  Boston.  Very 
high  prices  were  received  for  the  produce  of  the  farms.  All 
the  beef,  pork,  and  mutton  that  could  be  raised  were  easily 
disposed  of,  and  flax,  wool,  and  yarn  were  extensively  traded 
in.  Little  grain  seems  to  have  been  sent  away.  It  served 
still  to  some  extent  as  a  medium  of  exchange,  very  fortu- 
nately so,  for  the  currency  of  the  province  was  greatly  depre- 
ciated in  value.  The  records  of  the  change  in  the  minister's 
salary  serve  as  a  good  index  of  prices.  Mr.  Williams's  was 
gradually  increased  from  £50  or  £60  to  £160  in  bills  of  credit 
in  1737.  Regulations  fixing  the  prices  of  grain,  which  appear 
from  time  to  time  on  the  town  records,  do  not  show  a  great 
advance  over  earlier  values.  The  market  w^as  held  steady  by 
the  grain,  which  was  apparently  readily  received  as  currency 
in  the  absence  of  silver  or  bills.  ^m^^e 

Hatfield  men  appointed  as  trustees  of  the  public  fflitf/f^ 
helped  to  float  a  loan  of  £50,000  in  bills  of  credit  in  1721 
after  Queen  Anne's  war  and  £60,000  in  1728.  Hatfield's 
share  of  the  first  was  £233  15s.;  of  the  second,  £238  10s. 
Money  was  plenty  and  an  era  of  great  speculation  in  land 
began.  Whole  townships  in  the  unsettled  hill  country  both 
east  and  west  were  bought  by  individuals  or  small  groups  of 
partners. 

In  1736  the  town  of  Hatfield  voted  to  petHiow  \.Vv^  Cx^w^tA 


J58  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Court  for  a  grant  of  a  township  six  miles  square  on  the  west 
of  their  boundary,  or,  if  they  failed  in  that,  to  get  one  mile 
and  a  half  additional.  The  petition  was  not  granted.  At  this 
time  it  was  voted  to  allot  among  the  inhabitants  the  Wil- 
liamsburg land,  "the  Hatfield  Addition/'  but  it  was  not  staked 
out  for  private  owners  till  1750.  The  lots  were  laid  out  in 
four  ranges  running  north  and  south,  divided  by  highways 
each  ten  rods  wide,  of  which  two  probably  remain,  at  least  in 
part,  in  use,  the  road  through  Great  Plain  and  Mountain 
Street  in  Williamsburg.  The  old  road  westward  across  the 
ranges  was  over  the  top  of  Horse  mountain. 

Agreement  was  made  in  1744  to  divide  the  8,064  acres 
secured  for  the  town  in  Ashfield  as  the  "Hatfield  Equiv- 
alent" for  land  taken  by  the  town  of  Deerfield.  It  was  not 
divided,  however,  till  after  the  last  war,  in  1765.  Two  vears 
later  a  carriage  way  was  cut  through  the  woods  to  get  to  it. 
By  the  time  this  land  was  divided  the  town  had  increased 
in  population  so  that  there  were  159  polls  on  the  lists.  Divi- 
sion was  made  according  to  polls  and  estate  in  both  these 
divisions,  and  polls  were  reckoned  as  equal  to  £20  of  estate. 
The  population  in  1765  was  803,  including  those  residing  in 
Whately   and   Williamsburg.      (See   Appendix,   Note    8.) 

Rev.  Timothy  Woodbridge,  a  graduate  of  Yale  College  and 
a  tutor  in  that  institution,  was  installed  as  colleague  of  Mr. 
Williams,  Nov.  14,  1739.    The  long  pastorate  of  Rev.  William 
Williams  was  ended  by  his  death,  Aug.  29,  1741.     His  funeral 
sermon  was  delivered  by  Rev.  Jonathan  Edwards,  who  paid 
high  tribute  to  his  character  and  services.     Mr.  Woodbridge 
continued  his  pastoral  labors  until  his  death  in   1770.     The 
tablet  that  marks  his  grave  in  the  old  burying  ground  bears 
this  inscription :     "In  memory  of  the  Rev'd  Timothy  Wood- 
bridge  for  30  years  Pastor  of  the  Church  of  Christ  in  the 
Town  of  Hatfield.     This  Man  of  God  who  called  on  the  Lord 
out  of  a  pure  heart  followed  after  Righteousness,  Godliness, 
Faith,   Love,   Patience,  Meekness,  Apt  to  teach,  charitable 
and  gentle  unto  all  men,  departed  this  life  on  the  3  day  of 
June  A.  Domi :  1770  in  ye  58  year  of  his  age." 

During  Mr.  Woodbridge's  pastorate  a  new  meetinghouse 
was  built,  56  feet  long  and  45  feet  broad,  at  a  cost  of  over 
£4,000  in  old  tenor  province  bills.  The  structure  was  built 
in  the  summer  of  1750.  The  second  house  of  worship  was 
for/2  clown  and  some  of  the  timbers  were  used  for  the  new 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  169 

one.  This  third  meetinghouse  is  still  standing,  in  use  as  a 
barn  on  F.  H.  Bardweirs  place,  whose  father,  Elijah  Bard- 
well,  bought  it  when  the  present  church  was  built  in  1849. 
Some  of  its  red  oak  beams,  still  sound,  were  undoubtedly 
used  in  building  the  meetinghouse  of  1699.  This  building 
had  a  belfry  and  a  tower  with  Gothic  points.  The  beams 
were  cased  and  "decently  coloured"  and  ornamental  step 
stones  were  provided.  It  stood  in  the  street  where  the  others 
had.  In  the  belfry  was  hung  a  bell  weighing  about  900 
pounds.  This  was  cracked  in  a  Fourth  of  July  celebration 
in  1876  and  recast  into  a  larger  one.  The  large,  square  pews 
of  the  meetinghouse,  with  their  high  backs,  are  remembered 
by  several  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town.  There  were  pews 
in  the  galleries  on  either  side  over  the  stairs  for  the  unmar- 
ried people,  the  old  maids'  pew  on  the  south  and  the  bach- 
elors' on  the  north.  They  were  built  in  the  first  place  by 
groups  of  young  people  so  that  they  might  sit  together,  but 
as  the  original  occupants  became  ineligible  their  places  were 
assigned  to  others  by  the  seating  committee,  and  the  pews 
were  reserved  for  spinsters  and  bachelors  till  well  into  the 
nineteenth  century,  though  there  came  to  be  much  opposition 
on  the  part  of  some  of  the  young  ladies  at  the  unpleasant 
prominence.  The  first  seats  in  the  gallery  were  reserved  for 
singers,  and  back  of  them  sat  the  children,  the  boys  on  the 
north  and  half  of  the  east  side,  the  girls  on  the  south  and  the 
other  half  of  the  east  side.  Two  seats  in  the  gallery  were 
reserved  for  the  colored  men  and  women. 

There  is  little  else  of  importance  to  record  of  the  events 
in  the  life  of  the  town  during  this  period.  Schools  were 
maintained  as  they  had  been  previously.  The  schoolmaster's 
salary  was  raised  to  about  £50  per  year.  A  new  schoolhouse 
was  built  in  1730. 

The  Partridges  built  their  tan  yard  at  some  time  during 
this  period  and  also  established  a  store  which  brought  them' 
trade  from  a  large  region. 

John  Fitch  built  in  1737  a  mill  for  making  linseed  oil,  the 
first  in  Massachusetts.  The  first  in  New  England  had  been 
built  in  1718  in  New  Haven.  Fitch  had  a  patent  from  the 
province  on  his  mill  for  fifteen  years.  It  was  on  Running 
Gutter  brook,  about  a  half  mile  above  A.  L.  Strong's  saw- 
mill. The  Hubbards  had  a  sawmill  at  this  spot  till  the  middle 
of  the  nineteenth  century. 


170  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  movement  known  as  the  "Great  Awakening'*  in  the 
eighteenth  century,  which  caused  considerable  controversy 
in  parts  of  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut,  seems  to  have 
had  little  effect  in  Hatfield.  George  Whitefield  preached  in 
Hadley,  but  was  not  invited  to  Hatfield,  where  Rev.  William 
Williams,  though  seventy-five  years  old,  still  ruled  with  a 
firm  hand  and  was  opposed  to  such  revivals.  His  son,  Col. 
Israel  Williams,  was  also  active  in  opposition  to  Whitefield. 
It  is  reported  that  Whitefield's  stentorian  tones  were  heard 
across  the  river.  Some  of  Mr.  Williams's  parishioners  took 
the  opportunity  to  hear  him  in  Hadley  and  Northampton. 

To  note  now  some  of  the  remarkable  men  who  appeared  on 
the  stage  during  the  portion  of  the  eighteenth  century  under 
consideration,  attention  is  first  drawn  to  Col.  Israel  Wil- 
liams. He  was  born  in  1709,  the  youngest  son  of  Rev. 
William  Williams.  After  graduating  from  Harvard  in  1729. 
he  returned  to  Hatfield  and  became  at  once  prominent  in  its 
affairs.  He  was  elected  to  the  board  of  selectmen  in  1732 
and  continued  to  serve  on  it  yearly  till  1763.  He  was  a 
representative  to  the  General  Court  from  1733  to  1737,  1748 
to  1760,  again  in  1768  and  1771-1772.  He  was  influential  in 
county  affairs,  serving  as  clerk  of  the  courts  in  Northampton 
during  most  of  his  life  and  as  judge  of  the  Probate  Court 
from  1764  to  1779. 

As  the  wealthiest  man  in  the  community  he  built  a  mag- 
nificent residence  on  which  he  lavished  money  unstintedly. 
It  was  a  large  gambrel-roofed  house  standing  on  the  site  of 
the  present  town  hall,  and  remained  till  1852,  when  it  was 
torn  down  to  make  way  for  the  town  hall.  The  front  rooms 
had  high  wainscoting,  paneled  and  carved  by  hand,  and  rich 
paper  was  on  the  walls ;  that  of  the  parlor  was  a  deep  crimson 
velvet.  Immense  fireplaces  were  found  in  every  room,  and 
elaborate  hand-carved  mantels  and  beautifully-designed  cor- 
ner cupboards  abounded.  The  front  door  stone  was  con- 
sidered a  marvel  of  the  stonecutter's  art,  with  its  beaded 
and  molded  edge.  This  stone  is  preserved  and  now  in  use 
at  the  Congregational  i)arsonage. 

Israel  Williams  was  the  possessor  of  one  of  the  two  riding 
chairs  owned   in  Hampshire  County  in   colonial  times,  th^ 
other  being  owned  by  Moses  Porter  of  Hadley.     These  rid  - 
ing  chairs  had  a  sort  of  chaise  body  but  no  top.     Chaises  ar^^i 
cnrriaiTcs  did  not  appear  till  after  the  Revolution. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


171 


Israel  Williams  became  a  captain  of  militia  in  1734,  He 
as  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  to  treat  with  the 
ew  York  Indians  at  Fort  Dummer  in  1737.  This  confer- 
ice  amounted  to  little  except  the  securing  of  a  few  vague 
omises  of  friendship  from  the  savages,  evidently  not  sin- 


A  Coen: 


-re  and  soon  broken.  When  war  broke  out  in  1744,  Capt- 
''liams  was  commissioned  major  and  was  second  in  com- 
■rxd  to  Col.  John  Stoddard,  who  was  in  charge  of  the 
^  nse  of  the  western  frontier.     He  was  a.u  a.Vi\e  3.^^\^\.a^\'^ 


172  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

to  his  chief,  and  when  Stoddard  died  in  1748  he  became 
commander  in  chief  of  the  western  forces  after  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Porter  of  Hadley  resigned  the  post,  for  which  he  was 
unfitted. 

When  the  last  French  and  Indian  war  was  threatening, 
Gov.  William  Shirley  of  Massachusetts  sent  orders  to  all 
the  towns  to  lay  in  a  supply  of  ammunition  and  to  make 
preparations  for  defense.  In  August,  1754,  he  appointed 
Colonel  Williams  to  be  the  commander  of  all  the  forces  to 
be  raised  for  the  defense  of  Hampshire  County  and  of  the 
chain  of  forts.  The  experience  he  had  gained  in  the  pre- 
vious war  and  his  thorough  knowledge  of  the  country  led 
him  to  submit  to  Governor  Shirley  a  plan  of  defense  which 
was  accepted  with  only  slight  modifications.  Forts  Shirley 
and  Pelham,  which  had  been  of  little  use  in  the  previous 
war,  were  abandoned.  Dummer  and  Massachusetts  were 
strengthened  and  supplied  with  cannon.  The  blockhouses 
between  were  well  garrison^ed,  a  few  new  ones  were  erected, 
and  swivels  were  placed  in  some  of  them.  There  were  gar- 
risons at  Bernardston,  Colrain,  Charlemont,  Pontoosuck 
(Pittsfield),  Williamstown,  Sheffield,  Stockbridge,  and 
Blandford.  As  a  commander,  Colonel  Williams  showed  fore- 
sight and  sagacity  and  the  men  under  him  worked  loyally 
together.  He  kept  closely  in  touch  with  all  the  operations 
of  the  enemy,  forestalling  expected  attacks  by  sending  out 
scouting  parties.     The  valley  towns  were  unmolested. 

Colonel  Williams  at  the  height  of  his  civil  and  military 
power  was  known  as  "ye  monarch  of  Hampshire."  He  was 
autocratic  and  domineering  in  manner,  the  most  august  and 
imperious  of  all  of  the  "Lords  of  the  Valley."  His  opinion 
had  great  weight  with  the  governor  and  council  and  his 
word  was  law  at  home. 

Another  trusted  and  able  commander  was  Col.  Oliver 
Partridge.  He  was  born  in  Hatfield  in  1712.  His  father, 
Edward  Partridge,  was  the  son  of  Col.  Samuel  Partridge. 
Oliver  graduated  from  Yale  College  in  1730,  where  he  gave 
much  attention  to  the  study  of  surveying.  He  was  appointed 
in  1734  joint  clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  of  Hamp- 
shire County  with  Israel  Williams  and  the  same  year  was 
married  to  Anna  Williams,  daughter  of  Rev.  William  Wil- 
h'ams  of  Weston  and  granddaughter  of  Rev.  Solomon  Stod- 
dard   of   Northampton   and   of    Rev.    William   Williams  of 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD.  173 

Hatfield.  His  alliance  with  such  influential  families,  in 
addition  to  the  renown  of  his  grandfather,  Col.  Samuel 
Partridge,  who  took  especial  interest  in  him,  gave  him  as  a 
very  young  man  a  commanding  position.  He  was  high 
sheriff  of  Hampshire  County  from  1741-1743.  His  knowl- 
edge of  surveying  caused  his  appointment  to  survey  the 
boundaries  of  many  of  the  grants  that  were  then  being  made 
to  individuals  and  towns  in  the  western  hill  country  that 
became  Berkshire  County.  He  surveyed  the  township  of 
Hadley  and  established  its  bounds  in  1740. 

The  deeds  in  Berkshire  towns  show  that  at  about  that  time 
he  was  owner  of  large  tracts  of  land  in  that  county  in  Lee, 
Great  Barrington,  Sheffield,  and  Pittsfield,  which  he  bought 
as  agent  for  others  and  for  himself.  He  and  Israel  Williams 
and  others  had  grants  from  the  General  Court  of  Massa- 
chusetts in  the  southern  part  of  New  Hampshire,  known  as 
the  **Ashuelot  Grants.*'  When  the  territory  was  added  to  New 
Hampshire  in  1740,  after  a  dispute  between  the  colonies,  the 
grantees  were  allowed  to  choose  land  elsewhere,  which  they 
did  in  the  present  town  of  Dalton,  then  knowm  as  the  "Ash- 
uelot  Equivalent."  He  aided  in  the  building  of  the  forts  in 
Berkshire  County  in  the  French  and  Indian  war  of  1744- 
1748  and  in  the  rebuilding  of  Fort  Massachusetts,  which  was 
burned  in  1746.  He  drew  a  lot  in  the  township  of  Williams- 
town,  when  that  was  distributed  in  1752,  which  he  owned  till 
1768,  thus  being  one  of  the  46  original  proprietors  of  that 
town,  though  never  a  resident. 

One  of  the  most  important  public  services  of  Oliver  Par- 
tridge was  as  member  from  the  province  of  Massachusetts  to 
a  convention  of  delegates  from  the  northern  provinces  called 
by  the  British  government  to  meet  at  Albany  in  1754  to 
formulate  plans  for  defense  against  a  common  enemy.  The 
assembly  was  empowered  to  treat  with  the  Indians  about  war 
or  peace,  trade  regulations  and  the  purchase  of  lands,  to 
raise  and  pay  soldiers,  build  forts  and  ships,  and  to  lay 
imports,  duties,  and  taxes.  A  plan  for  union  and  confedera- 
tion was  presented  at  this  assembly  by  Benjamin  Franklin  of 
Pennsylvania,  which  was  discussed  along  with  the  negotia- 
tions with  the  chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations,  with  whom  many 
conferences  had  been  held  before.  The  historian  Bancroft 
says  of  this  assembly : — 

"America   had   never    seen    an    assembly    so    remarkaVAe    lot    ^i^cv^   %\.'aX.^^ 


174  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

represented,  or  for  the  great  men  that  composed  it.  They  were  detained  in 
this  hospitable  old  Dutch  town  for  more  than  three  weeks.  *  *  *  Frank- 
lin's plan  was  not  approved  by  a  single  one  of  the  colonial  assemblies  before 
which  it  was  brought.  *  *  *  No  action  was  ever  taken  on  it  in  England 
Yet  there  is  no  contribution  to  constructive  statesmanship  preceding  the  year 
1776  which  had  a  profounder  effect  on  the  subsequent  growth  and  devdop- 
ment  of  the  idea  of  American  nationality." 

Franklin's  plan  was,  however,  favorably  received  by  the 
delegates  and  adopted  and  signed  by  them  July  4,  1754. 
Franklin  had  printed  in  his  paper  at  Philadelphia  a  wood  cut, 
in  which  was  the  representation  of  a  snake  cut  into  pieces 
with  the  sections  lettered  to  represent  the  scattered  colonies 
and  the  inscription  '*Unite  or  Die."  The  design,  which 
showed  graphically  the  weakness  of  the  colonies,  was  after- 
ward used  as  ^  flag. 

Oliver  Partridge  had  been  a  delegate  to  conventions  at 
Albany  to  treat  with  the  Six  Nations  or  with  New  York  in 
regard  to  boundaries  in  1746,  1747,  1751,  and  1753.  Imme- 
diately after  his  return  to  Massachusetts  in  1754  he  was  com- 
missioned colonel  and  sent  back  to  Berkshire  County  by 
Col.  Israel  Williams  with  "orders  to  strengthen  the  fron- 
tiers, but  not  to  build  forts  anywhere.  If  the  inhabitants  can 
supply  themselves  with  provisions  Col.  Partridge  will  supply 
the  soldiers  and  the  necessities.'*  In  1757  he  succeeded 
Colonel  Williams  in  command  of  the  western  forces.  In  the 
last  years  of  the  French  and  Indian  wars  Colonel  Partridge 
was  a  recruiting  officer  for  the  County  of  Hampshire  under 
royal  authority,  stationed  at  Fort  Massachusetts. 

In  1762  he,  with  Governor  Shirley  and  Elisha  Jones  of 
Weston,  purchased  at  auction  township  No.  2,  which  included 
the  present  town  of  Peru  and  a  part  of  Hinsdale  and  Middle- 
field.  It  was  first  called  Partridgeville  and  was  incorporated 
in  1771.  He  sold  many  of  his  lots  there  between  1767  and 
1775,  but  some  were  sold  by  his  heirs  as  late  as  1792.  His 
holdings  of  real  estate  in  Berkshire  County  were  in  twelve 
separate  towns  as  divided  to-day,  and  his  influence  in  building 
up  that  part  of  the  state  was  as  important  a  contribution  as 
his  military  service. 

In  his  native  town  he  was  highly  honored  and  offices  of 
trust  were  freely  bestowed  upon  him  as  they  had  been  upon 
his  grandfather.  He  held  the  office  of  town  clerk  from  1731 
to  1784,  was  elected  selectman  in  1733  and  re-elected  almost 
every  year  till  1774,  again  in  1780  and  1781,  and  served  as 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  175 

representative  in  the  General  Court  from  1741  to  1747,  in 
1761,  and  1765-1767. 

Another  noted  commander  of  the  western  troops  in  the 
French  and  Indian  wars  was  Col.  Ephraim  Williams,  a 
nephew  of  Rev.  William  Williams  and  Rev.  John  Williams 
of  Deerfield,  with  whom  he  made  his  home  when  not  engaged 
in  active  fighting.  He  was  born  in  Newton  in  1715.  A  rov- 
ing disposition  led  him  to  take  up  the  life  of  a  sailor,  and  as 
a  young  man  he  made  several  voyages  to  Europe,  visiting 
England,  Spain,  and  Holland.  He  abandoned  the  sea  at  the 
outbreak  of  hostilities  between  England  and  France  in  1744 
and  enlisted  in  the  army  in  New  England  for  service  against 
Canada.  He  was  stationed  at  Fort  Massachusetts  in  com- 
mand of  a  company  and  for  gallant  action  he  was  soon  raised 
to  the  rank  of  major.  After  the  peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  in 
1748  he  returned  to  the  Connecticut  valley  to  live,  dividing 
his  time  between  Hatfield  and  Deerfield.  Hatfield  had  strong 
attractions  for  him,  for  he  was  seeking  the  hand  of  his  fair 
cousin  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Rev.  William  Williams.  Tra- 
dition says  that  he  was  rejected  in  their  last  interview 
because  of  his  excessive  use  of  liquor.  She  remained  single 
all  her  life.  Her  bequest  in  his  will  was  £20  and  his  cream 
pot  and  silver  teaspoons. 

When  fighting  was  resumed  in  1753,  Ephraim  Williams, 
then  commissioned  colonel,  was  sent  with  a  regiment  raised 
chiefly  in  Hampshire  to  assist  Sir  William  Johnson  in  the 
expedition  against  Crown  Point.  He  fell  at  Lake  George  in 
the  engagement  called  "the  bloody  morning  scout,"  Sept.  8, 
1755.  His  force  was  ambushed  by  a  large  party  of  French 
and  Indians  and  was  practically  cut  to  pieces.  In  this  regi- 
ment were  several  other  noted  men  of  the  name  of  Wil- 
liams,— Rev.  Stephen  of  Longmeadow,  the  chaplain;  Dr. 
Thomas  of  Deerfield,  the  surgeon;  Capt.  William  of  Deer- 
field, and  another  William,  son  of  Rev.  Solomon  Williams  of 
Lebanon,  Conn.,  and  grandson  of  the  Hatfield  pastor.  This 
William  Williams  was  then  adjutant  general  and  in  later 
years  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence. A  letter  of  Dr.  Thomas  Williams  to  his  wife, 
from  which  some  extracts  are  here  given,  furnishes  particu- 
lars of  the  engagement.  The  letter  is  printed  in  full  in  the 
"Williams's  Family  Genealogy." 


J 76  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"Lake  George,  Sept  11,  1755. 

"My  dear  Spouse — Last  Monday,  the  8th  instant,  was  the  most  awful  day 
that  my  eyes  ever  beheld,  and  may  I  not  say  that  ever  was  seen  in  New 
England,  considering  the  transactions  of  it.  Having  intelligence  of  an  army 
of  French  and  Indians  that  were  discovered  by  our  Indian  scouts,  part  of 
our  army  were  sent  to  intercept  their  retreat,  as  it  was  supposed  they  were 
designed  for  Fort  Lyman  [now  Fort  Edward],  at  the  south  end  of  the 
carrying-place;  about  one  thousand  whites  under  the  command  of  my  dear 
brother  Ephraim,  who  led  the  van,  and  Lieut.  Col.  Whiting,  who  brought  up 
the  rear,  and  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  Mohawks,  under  the  command  of 
King  Hendrick,  their  principal  speaker,  were  attacked  by  the  French  army, 
consisting  of  twelve  hundred  regulars,  and  about  nine  hundred  Canadians  and 
savages,  about  three  miles  from  our  encampment,  and  the  main  of  our 
detachment  it  is  said,  put  to  a  precipitate  flight,  but  the  certainty  is  not  yet 
known ;  be  sure  those  brave  men  who  stood  fighting  for  our  dear  country 
perished  in  the  field  of  battle.  The  attack  began  about  half  an  hour  after 
ten  in  the  morning,  and  continued  till  about  four  in  the  afternoon  before  the 
enemy  began  to  retreat.  The  enemy  was  about  an  hour  and  a  half  driving 
our  people  before  them,  before  they  reached  the  camp,  when  to  give  them 
due  credit,  they  fought  like  brave  fellows  on  both  sides  for  near  four  hours, 
disputing  every  inch  of  ground,  in  the  whole  of  which  time  there  seemed  to 
be  nothing  but  thunder  and  lightning,  and  perpetual  pillars  of  smoke.  Our 
cannon  (which,  under  God,  it  appears  to  me)  saved  us,  were  heard  down  as 
low  as  Saratoga,  notwithstanding  the  wind  was  in  the  north,  and  something 
considerable,  and  which,  by  the  way,  was  a  great  disadvantage  to  our  troops, 
as  the  smoke  was  drove  in  our  faces.  The  wounded  were  brought  in  ver)' 
fast,  and  it  was  with  the  utmost  difliculty  that  their  wounds  could  be  dressed 
fast  enough,  even  in  the  most  superficial  manner,  having  in  about  three  hours 
forty  men  brought  to  be  dressed.  Dr.  Pynchon,  his  mate,  and  William  [son 
of  Col.  Williams,  of  Pittsfield],  with  myself,  were  all  to  do  it;  my  mate 
being  at  Fort  Lyman,  attending  to  divers  sick  men  there.  The  bullets  flew 
like  hail  stones  about  our  ears  all  the  time  of  dressing,  as  we  had  not  a 
place  of  safety  prepared  to  dress  the  wounded  in,  but  through  God's  goodness 
we  received  no  hurt,  any  more  than  the  bark  of  the  trees  and  chips  flying  in 
our  faces  by  accidental  shots,  which  were  something  frequent. 

"Our  tent  was  shot  through  in  divers  places,  which  we  thought  best  to 
leave  and  retire  a  few  rods  behind  a  shelter  of  a  log  house,  which  was  so 
loose  laid  as  to  let  the  balls  through  very  often.  I  have  not  time  to  give  the 
list  of  the  dead,  which  are  many,  by  reason  I  have  not  time  to  attend  the 
wounded  as  they  ought  to  be.  My  necessary  food  and  sleep  are  almost 
strangers  to  me  since  the  fatal  day ;  fatal  indeed  to  my  dear  brother  Ephraim. 
who  was  killed  in  the  beginning  of  the  action,  by  a  ball  through  his  head. 
Great  numbers  of  brave  men,  and  some  the  flower  of  our  army  died  with  him 
on  the  spot ;  *  *  *  The  remainder  of  the  French  army  were  attacked  by 
two  hundred  and  fifty  of  the  New  Hampshire  troops,  after  they  left  us,  and 
put  to  a  precipitate  flight;  as  they  were  not  apprized  of  these  troops,  Acy 
left  their  baggage  and  most  of  their  provisions  and  some  guns,  and  many 
dead  bodies  on  the  spot  where  the  attack  began  in  the  morning,  and  when 
our  troops  came  upon  them,  and  they  were  sitting  down  to  rest  after  their 
fatigue  with  us.  The  French  General  says  he  lost  six  hundred  of  his  men, 
and  the  Aid-de-camp  says  more,  and  that  they  have  lost  one  thousand.  It  is 
certain  they  were  smartly  paid,  for  they  left  their  garments  and  weapons  of 
war  for  miles  together,  like  the  Assyrians  in  their  flight.  If  we  had  had 
five  or  six  hundred  fresh  troops  to  have  pursued,  it  is  thought  very  few 
would  have  gone  back  to  Crown  Point  to  tell  what  had  become  of  their 
brethren. 

"It  is  now  eleven  of  the  clock,  and  I  have  had  scarcely  any  sleep  since  the 
action,  must  therefore  wish  you  goodnight.  I  subscribe  myself,  your  affec- 
tionate Husband.  Thos.  Williams.** 

It  is  said  that  this  was  the  first  battle  fought  with  regular 
troops  in  America,  and  the  ftrsl  time  that  bayonets  were  used 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  YJJ 

in  this  country.  They  were  employed  by  the  French  sol- 
diers. The  English  loss  in  both  engagements  was  216  killed 
and  96  wounded,  a  total  of  312,  besides  a  few  missing,  accord- 
ing to  the  return  made  by  Dr.  Perez  Marsh,  surgeon's  mate 
in  Colonel  Williams's  regiment.  This  regiment  suffered  the 
most,  46  being  killed,  20  wounded,  and  several  missing.  The 
zolonel's  brother,  Josiah,  who  was  an  ensign  in  his  company, 
was  severely  wounded,  so  that  he  died  of  the  effects  of  his 
wound  eventually.  Several  officers  of  distinction  were  lost, 
ilso.  A  number  of  Hatfield  men  were  members  of  this  regi- 
ment, but  their  names  are  not  known. 

Before  going  to  the  front,  Colonel  Williams  made  his  will 
It  Albany  July  22,  1755,  appointing  as  executors  his  cousin. 
Col.  Israel  Williams  of  Hatfield,  and  Col.  John  Worthington 
3f  Springfield.  This  will,  which  is  filed  in  the  probate  office 
in  the  courthouse  in  Northampton  and  begins,  "I,  Ephraim 
Williams  of  Hatfield,"  laid  the  foundation  of  Williams  Col- 
ege.     Some  of  its  provisions  were  as  follows: — 


"It  is  my  will  and  pleasure  that  all  of  the  residue  of  my  real  estate  not 
otherwise  disposed  of  be  sold  by  my  Executors,  or  the  survivor  of  them 
Mrithin  five  years  after  an  established  peace,  (which  a  good  God  soon  grant) 
iccording  to  their  discretion,  and  that  the  same  be  put  out  at  interest,  on 
jood  security  and  that  the  interest  money  yearly  arising  therefrom,  and  the 
nterest  arising  from  my  just  debts  due  to  me,  and  not  otherwise  disposed  of, 
>e  improved  by  said  Executors,  and  such  as  they  shall  appoint  Trustees  for 
:he  charity  aforesaid  after  them,  for  the  support  and  maintenance  of  a  free 
school  in  the  township  west  of  Fort  Massachusetts  (commonly  called  the  west 
ownship)  forever,  provided  said  township  fall  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Province  of  the  Massachusetts  bay,  and  continue  under  that  jurisdiction — and 
>rovided  also  the  Governor  of  said  Province,  with  the  Assembly  of  said 
Province,  shall,  (when  a  suitable  number  of  inhabitants  are  settled  there) 
ncorporate  the  same  into  a  town  by  the  name  of  Williamstown,  and  if  the 
nterest  of  such  monies  be  more  than  sufficient  for  such  a  purpose,  that  which 
'emains  be  improved  as  aforesaid  for  the  support  of  a  like  school  in  the  East 
ownship  therein,  in  which  said  fort  now  stands;  but  in  case  the  aforesaid 
Provisos  are  not  complied  with,  viz.:  if  said  west  township  fall  not  within 
Mud  Massachusetts  Province,  or  do  not  continue  under  that  jurisdiction,  or  it 
ihall  be  incorporated  by  any  other  name  than  that  above  mentioned,  then  my 
irill  is  that  such  interest  of  said  monies  be  applied  to  some  other  public 
leneficial  and  charitable  purpose,  by  my  Executors  as  above  directed,  respect- 
ng  other  parts  of  my  estate,  according  to  their  discretion  and  good  judg- 
nent  Ephraim  Williams." 

In  1785  trustees  of  the  school  were  appointed,  in  1791  it 
»vas  opened,  and  in  1793  it  was  incorporated  as  a  college. 

Before  Williams  College  was  actually  begun,  the  people  of 
:he  Connecticut  valley  were  laying  plans  for  an  educational 
nstitution  in  their  midst.  It  was  to  be  called  Queen's  Col- 
ege  and  was  to  be  located  in  Hatfield,  Hadley,  or  North- 


178  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

ampton.  One  tradition  affirms  that  the  people  of  Hatfield 
went  so  far  as  to  erect  a  building  which  they  called  Queen's 
College,  but  this  is  unlikely.  A  petition  was  sent  to  the 
General  Court  for  a  charter  Jan.  20,  1762,  and  a  bill  was 
passed  to  be  engrossed,  but  it  was  finally  defeated.  February 
26,  1762,  a  charter  was  made  out  by  Gov.  Francis  Barnard, 
but  never  signed,  incorporating  Israel  Williams  and  eleven 
others  into  "a  body  politic  by  the  name  of  the  President  and 
Fellows  of  Queen's  College."  For  some  reason  the  plans 
were  pushed  no  further,  probably  because  of  the  disastrous 
loss  by  fire  at  Harvard  College  and  the  political  agitation  that 
was  arising  over  the  oppressions  of  the  British  government. 
The  hope  of  a  college  in  the  valley  was  not  realized  till  the 
establishment  of  Amherst  in  1821. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

A  PERIOD  OF  STRIFE,  1765-1789.    THE  REVOLUTIONARY  WAR. 
THE  ELY  INSURRECTION.    SHAYS'S  REBELLION. 


<« 


Give  me  liberty  or  give  me  death." 


Acts  of  Parliament  directed  against  the  American  colonies. — ^The  Whigs 
and  Tories. — Attitude  of  Hatfield  at  the  beginning  of  the  struggle. — ^The 
spirit  changed  by  the  preaching  of  Dr.  Joseph  Lyman. — Overthrow  of  the 
Tories. — ^Town  meetings  of  the  year  1774. — Mobs  prevent  the  holding  of  the 
courts. — ^A  mob  in  Hatfield. — Preparations  for  resistance  to  the  king's  author- 
ity.— Petition  to  the  militia  officers  to  retain  their  offices. — ^Taxes  ordered  paid 
to  the  provincial  treasurer. — Delegates  to  the  Provincial  Congress. — Companies 
of  minutemen  organized. — ^The  Tories  compelled  to  declare  in  favor  of  the 
colonies.— Colonel   Williams  meets  trouble. — He  and  his  son   arrested  and 
imprisoned. — News  from  Concord  and  Lexington. — ^The  Hatfield  soldiers.— 
Incorporation  of  Whately  and  Williamsburg. — Hatfield  votes  for  independ- 
ence—Supplies furnished  during  the  war. — ^The  Hubbard  tavern  and  others. — 
The  faculty  tax. — Liberation   of   the   slaves. — Lieut.   David   Billings. — Hard 
times   following  the  Revolution. — Conventions   held   at  Hatfield. — ^Thc   Ely 
insurrection. — Shays's  rebellion. 

No  sooner  was  the  war  with  the  French  over  than  the  de- 
cayed struggle  between  England  and  her  American  colonies 
t>egfan  again.  The  origin  of  the  difficulties  with  the  mother 
Country  has  already  been  pointed  out  in  an  earlier  chapter. 
Blncroachments  on  their  rights  by  George  III.  and  his 
Ministers  met  with  determined  resistance.  The  British 
g'overnment  was  aiming  not  only  at  lessening  the  political 
liberties  of  America,  but  also  at  trade  restrictions  for  its 
Own  benefit  to  the  detriment  of  the  prospering  West  India 
trade  of  the  colonies.  The  New  England  ports  especially 
felt  the  damage  arising  from  the  growing  restrictions  upon 
Commerce  with  the  French  colonies  and  Boston  became 
the  center  of  discontent.  The  Sugar  Act  of  1764,  the 
Stamp  Act  of  1765,  and  other  acts  of  Parliament  were 
denounced  in  fiery  language  as  destructive  of  chartered 
rights.  The  comment  of  John  Fiske  on  the  result  of  the 
struggle  should  be  noted  in  this  connection: — 

"It  was  not  so  much  that  the  American  people  gained  an  increase  in 
freedom  by  their  separation  from  England,  as  that  they  kept  the  freedom 
they  had  always  enjoyed,  the  freedom  which  was  the  inalienable  birthright 
of  Englishmen,  but  which  George  III.  had  foolishly  sought  to  \m^2AT. 


180  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"The  American  Revolution  was  tlierefore  in  no  sense  destructive.  It  "ns 
the  most  conservative  revolution  known  to  history,  thoroughly  English  id 
conception  from  beginning  to  end.  It  had  no  likeness  whatever  to  the  ter- 
rible popular  convulsion  which  soon  after  took  place  in  France.  The  mis- 
chievous doctrines  of  Rousseau  found  few  readers  and  fewer  admirers  amoag 
the   Americans." 

The  couTitry  at  first  was  by  no  means  united  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  royal  authority.  Parties  sprang  up.  called 
as  they  were  in  England.  Whigs  and  Tories.  In  the  be- 
ginning of  the  contest  the  whole  western  part  of  Massa- 
chusetts was  dominated  by  the  Tories.  The  economic 
reasons  for  revolt  did  not  appeal  as  strongly  to  the  interior 
agricultural  centers  as  they  did  to  the  seaport  towns.  The 
large  landed  proprietors,  naturally  conservative,  saw  only 
danger  ahead  from  the  inflammatory  and  seditious  talk. 
Most  of  the  influential  citizens  had  held  royal  commissions 
from  the  crown  and  their  military  oath  bound  them  to 
loyal  defense  of  the  crown,  for  which  they  had  fought  in 
many  campaigns  against  the  French  and  Indians.  The 
clergy  were  also  for  the  most  part  on  the  .side  of  the  king 
and  Parliament.  It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the  Toi'  * 
did  not  feel  wronged  by  the  action  of  the  British  goV< 
ment,  but  they  differed  from  the  Whigs  in  the  method 
employ  to  secure  redress. 

Col.   Israel  Williams  and  Col.  Oliver  Partridge   wcrt 
leaders    of   the    Tories    in    Hatfield,    the    former    beinp 
representative  to  the  General  Court  and  a  judye  of  the  CI 
courts,  and  the  latter  town  clerk  and  treasurer,  and 
the   other  was  always   moderator  in   town   meeting, 
were  followed  by  all  the  militia  officers  and  the  maj 
of  the  heavy  taxpayers.     Their  attitude  is  well    expni 
by  the  reply  sent  in  176S  to  the  town  of  Boston  in  ri 
to   a   letter   asking   for   Hatfield's   position    in    rcg;ard 
convention  to  be  called  to  consider  the  rapidly  approai 
crisis,  and  especially  the   sending  of   British   troops, 
was    felt   at    Boston    to   be   a   threat   of   stern    measures 
repression.     The    answer,    which    was    long    and    full,    was 
framed  by  Colonel  Williams  and  was  unanimously  adopted 
by  the  town.     It  stated  that  the  people  of  Hatfield  doubted 
the  damage  threatened  by  the  coming  of  the  troops   (they 
might   be   needed   for   defense   of   the   colonies);   that   they 
considered  the  language  gf  the  last  General  Court  unneccs- 
sarily  harsh  toward  the  king-,  and  iVvat  the  proposed  action 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  Jgl 

vould  do  harm  rather  than  good.     Especially  noteworthy 
re  the  following;  quotations: — 

"We  are  sensible  that  the  colonies  labor  under  many  difficulties  and  we 
reatly  fear  what  the  consequences  of  the  dispute  with  our  mother  country 
*ill  prove.  However,  we  are  far  from  thinking  the  measures  you  are 
ursuing  have  any  tendency  to  deliver  the  good  people  of  this  province,  bul 
n  the  contrary  to  immerse  them  In  greater. 

"If  by  any  sudden  excursions  or  insurrections  of  some  inconsiderate  people 
he  king  has  been  induced  to  think  the  troops  a  necessary  check  upon  you, 
fe  hope  you  will  by  your  loyalty  and  quiet  behavior  soon  convi 
lajesty  and  the  world  they  are  no  longer  necessary  for  that  purpose. 

"Suffer  us  to  observe  that  in  our  opinion  the  measures  the  town  oi 
toston  are  pursuing  and  proposing  unto  us  and  Ihe  people  of  this  province 
a  unite  in,  are  unconstitutional,  illegal,  and  wholly  unjusti liable,  and  what 
rill  give  the  enemies  of  our  Constitution  the  greatest  joy,  subversive  of 
ovemment  and  destructive  of  the  peace  and  good  order  which  is  the  cement 

"Thus  we  have  freely  expressed  our  senlimcnis.  having  an  equal  right 
fith  others,  though  a  lesser  part  of  the  community,  and  lake  this  first 
■pportunity  to  protest  against  the  proposed  Convention,  and  hereby  declare 
•ur  loyalty  to  Ihe  king,  and  fidelity  lo  our  country,  and  thai  it  is  our  firm 
esolution  to  the  utmost  of  our  power  to  maintain  and  defend  our  rights  in 
very  prudent  and  reasonable  way,  as  far  as  is  consistent  with  our  duty  to 
k>d  and  the  king." 


D».  J. 


Before  many  years  a  change  came  over  the  attitude  of 
he  inhabitants,  a  change  due  principally  to  the  presence 
nd  actions  of  one  man.  Rev.  Timothy  Woodbridge  died 
n    1770  and   Rev.  Joseph   Lyman   of  Lebanon,  Coun.,  ^m^^ 


182  •  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

called  and  settled  as  the  head  of  the  church  in  1772.  He 
was  a  young  man  of  resolute  will  and  indomitable  courage, 
filled  with  zeal  for  the  liberties  of  the  colonies.  In  spite  of 
the  protests  of  his  parents  he  plunged  into  the  contest  in 
which  Otis  and  Adams  were  laboring.  His  mother  wrote 
him  to  "walk  softly,"  and  not  stir  up  the  spirit  of  rebellion 
and  to  "lay  aside  all  political  disputes,"  fearing  that  he 
would  be  in  danger  on  account  of  his  rashness.  But  the 
entreaties  fell  on  deaf  ears.  He  is  reported  to  have  said 
of  Colonel  Williams,  "There  is  a  man  here  now  he  cannot 
rule." 

In  the  pulpit  he  preached  the  doctrine  of  resistance 
to  the  tyranny  of  the  king  and  his  ministers  with  burning 
words  and  in  town  meeting  he  raised  his  voice  in  favor  of 
the  cause  of  liberty.  Within  two  years  he  wrought  a 
revolution  in  the  sympathy  of  people  of  the  town.  The 
Whigs  became  the  majority  party. 

The  "Boston  tea  party"  in  December,  1773,  and  the 
high-handed  actions  of  General  Gage  in  Boston  brought 
the  crisis  rapidly  on.  The  Hatfield  Whigs  elected  John 
Dickinson  representative  to  the  General  Court  in  1773  and 
the  power  of  Colonel  Williams  was  at  an  end.  Mr.  Lyman 
tried  to  have  him  dismissed  from  the  church,  but  was  unabfe 
to  do  so,  though  a  council  was  called  for  the  purpose  in 
1778.  Many  of  the  other  ministers  of  the  vicinity  were  still 
strongly  Tory  in  sympathy. 

Oliver  Partridge  continued  in  office  as  town  clerk,  but  he 
did  not  attend  the  town  meetings  after  the  March  meeting 
of  1774.  He  entered  upon  the  books,  "The  following  are 
the  proceedings  of  the  town  at  several  meetings  as  returned 
to  me  by  their  moderators." 

A  meeting  was  held  in  the  schoolhouse  July  8,  at  which 
Elijah  Morton  was  chosen  moderator.  A  committee  was 
appointed  to  confer  with  Mr.  Lyman  to  appoint  a  day  of 
fasting  and  prayer.  The  General  Court  had  ordered  that 
the  21st  of  July  should  be  so  set  apart.  The  fast  was  held, 
but  the  Tories  took  no  notice  of  it.  At  this  meeting  there 
was  a  discussion  of  "what  might  be  proper  for  the  town  to 
do  with  regard  to  entering  into  a  covenant  to  withdraw  all 
commercial  intercourse  with  Great  Britain  by  a  disuse  of 
their   manufactures  till   such   time   as  the  general   interests 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  183 

of  the  colonies  are  settled  or  our  charter  rights  restored." 
The  committee  appointed  to  confer  about  the  matter  with 
representatives  from  other  towns  was  John  Dickinson, 
Perez  Graves,  Elijah  Morton,  Elihu  White,  and  John  Hast- 
ings. It  was  voted  to  pay  £1  7s.  5d.  for  the  expenses  of 
a  Provincial  Congress  and  the  town  treasurer  was  author- 
ized to  pay  the  sum  to  Hon.  Thomas  Gushing  of  Boston. 
It  was  further  voted  that  the  absent  town  clerk  be  directed 
to  record  the  transactions  of  the  meeting  on  the  town 
records. 

August  25  another  meeting  of  the  patriots  was  held  and 
delegates  were  appointed  to  a  convention  at  Hadley  the 
next  day, — ^John  Dickinson,  Perez  Graves,  and  Elijah  Mor- 
ton. The  chief  subject  for  deliberation  at  this  convention, 
the  first  held  in  Hampshire  County,  was  the  stopping  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  courts.  The  convention  was  divided, 
some  favoring  attempts  to  stop  the  sessions  by  force  if  the 
officers  tried  to  carry  them  on. 

The  Court  of  General  Sessions  was  convened  at  Spring- 
field, August  30.  It  was  interrupted  by  a  mob  of  about  a 
thousand  people  and  the  judges  were  called  upon  to  explain 
their  actions.  Colonel  Worthington  and  Colonel  Williams 
were  asked  to  renounce  their  allegiance  to  Governor  Gage. 
They  tried  to  placate  the  mob,  which  was  in  an  ugly  humor, 
and  succeeded  in  dispersing  it  without  any  acts  of  violence, 
but  they  were  unable  to  proceed  with  the  session. 

Colonel  Williams  was  considered  the  Tory  ring-leader 
and  many  of  the  Whigs,  especially  those  from  Berkshire 
County,  were  very  bitter  against  him.  Law  and  order  men 
from  both  parties  tried  to  prevent  any  outrages. 

September  5  was  a  day  of  excitement  in  Hatfield.  Mes- 
sengers were  sent  out  before  daybreak  to  neighboring 
towns  with  the  news  that  "all  the  western  world  was 
comming  down  to  mob  Col.  Williams  and  others."  A 
hundred  men  from  Deerfield  responded  to  the  call,  one 
hundred  and  ten  from  Hadley,  and  seventy  from  Amherst. 
A  mob  of  fifty  men  appeared  in  the  afternoon.  They  were 
not  allowed  to  go  till  a  "Covenant  to  be  signed  by  the 
people  to  prevent  mobbing'*  was  agreed  upon,  of  which  a 
copy  was  to  be  sent  to  each  town.  Colonel  Williams  does 
not  appear  to  have  been  called  upon  by  the  mob,  but  Colonel 


184  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Partridge  came  out  and  vindicated  himself  of  some  charges 
that  were  presented. 

September  21  Hatfield  appointed  as  delegates  to  a  con- 
vention called  to  meet  at  Northampton  John  Dickinson, 
Elihu  White,  and  John  Hastings  "to  deliberate  upon  some 
measures  proper  to  be  taken  by  this  county  at  this  very 
critical  day."  It  was  "voted  that  the  selectmen  be  directed 
forthwith  to  procure  a  sufficient  stock  of  powder  and  lead 
for  the  use  of  the  town."  The  first  committee  of  corre- 
spondence was  then  appointed, — John  Dickinson,  Elijah 
Morton,  Remembrance  Bardwell,  Phineas  Frary,  John 
Allis,  David  Waite,  Perez  Graves,  Elihu  White,  and  John 
Hastings. 

The  convention  at  Northampton,  September  22  and  23,  af- 
firmed allegiance  to  King  George,  but  protested  against  the 
oppressions  of  Governor  Gage.  A  Provincial  Congress  was 
called  for  to  meet  at  Concord,  anarchy  and  rioting  were 
condemned,  and  holding  of  town  meetings  legal  in  every 
way  was  urged.  The  inhabitants  of  the  towns  were  ad- 
vised to  "acquaint  themselves  with  the  military  art*'  and 
procure  arms. 

On  account  of  the  action  of  this  and  other  county  con- 
ventions held  about  the  same  time  Governor  Gage  forbade 
the  session  of  the  General  Court  called  to  meet  at  Salem, 
October  5.  The  representatives  met,  however,  and  resolved 
themselves  into  a  Provincial  Congress.  They  then  ad- 
journed to  meet  at  Concord,  October  11.  The  news  of  the 
action  of  the  delegates  was  received  by  post  from  Salem  and 
at  a  town  meeting  held  October  6  John  Dickinson  was 
chosen  a  delegate  to  the  Concord  Congress. 

The  military  organizations  were  disrupted  by  the  strife 
between  the  opposing  parties.  Many  of  the  officers  in  the 
Hampshire  regiment,  commanded  by  Col.  Israel  Williams, 
refused  to  continue  in  the  service  and  training  was  neg- 
lected. A  paper  presented  to  Memorial  Hall  in  Deerfield 
by  Samuel  D.  Partridge  shows  the  attitude  of  some  of  the 
Hatfield  militia  in  regard  to  the  situation. 

"We  the  subscribers  being  Apprehensive  that  Military  Exercises  arc 
Specially  Requisite  at  this  clay 

"And  also  Captn  Allis.  Lieut  Partridge  and  Ensign  Dickinson  have  Pub- 
lickly  Declared  they  will  not  Act  or  Exercise  any  Authority  as  Military 
Officers  under  the  late  acts  of  Parliament  or  in  the   Support  of  the  same 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  Ig5 

yet  we  are  desirous  that  they  would  at  such  Times  as  they  think  Proper  Call 
us  Together  and  Exercise  us  by  themselves  or  such  others  as  they  shall  judge 
likely  to  Teach  and  Instruct  us  in  the  Military  Art. 

"And  we  hereby  Promise  to  Attend  at  such  time  and  place  as  they  Shall 
Direct  and  Submit  ourselves  to  their  Orders  in  Leading  and  Exercising  of 
us  as  Witness  our  hand  this  fourth  Day  of  Octr  1774 

"Harry  Dwight  Jesse  Billings 

Israel  Wms.  Jnr.  David  Trobridge 

Thomas  Meekins  A.  J.  White 

John  Allis  Samuel  Belding 

Joseph  Dickinson  Josiah  (Abels?) 

Abel  Allis  Silas  Billings 

Gaius  Crafts  Joshua  L.  Woodbridge 

Elez.  Warner  Tillotson  Miller 

Benjamin  Blanchard  William  Partridge 

Simon  Church 
John  Partridge 
John  Seemer 
Samll  Partridge 
Samuel  Dickinson 
Ebenezer  Dwight 
Elihu  Trobridge 
Josiah  Allis 
Jona  Wells 
Elisha  Smith" 

The  Provincial  Congress  took  up  the  matter  of  military 
organization  and  granted  authority  to  the  militia  officers 
who  retained  their  commissions  to  reorganize  the  com- 
panies and  divide  the  regiments.  At  a  meeting  held  in 
Northampton,  November  10,  the  first  Hampshire  regiment 
was  organized  and  Seth  Pomeroy  of  Northampton  was  chosen 
colonel  and  Ezra  May  of  Goshen  major.  A  paper  was 
signed  "renouncing  and  disdaining  any  authority  they  might 
have  by  virtue  of  any  commission  from  Thomas  Hutchin- 
son, Esq.,  late  Governor."  It  was  soon  afterward  directed 
by  the  Provincial  Congress  that  a  fourth  of  the  organized 
militia  should  be  drilled  as  "minute-men/*  ready  to  march 
at   a   moment's  notice. 

Only  one  more  town  meeting  was  held  in  that  eventful 
year  of  1774.  At  a  meeting  on  the  5th  of  December  the 
most  revolutionary  act  was  taken,  transferring  the  pay- 
ment of  the  taxes  to  the  new  authority  of  the  Provincial 
Congress.  The  point  of  taxation  without  representation 
had  been  pushed  too  far.     The  minutes  are  as  follows : — 

"In  this  meeting  the  question  was  put  whether  the  Town  would  give 
directions  to  their  constables,  collectors  or  other  persons  who  have  any  part 
of  the  province  tax  of  the  town  in  their  hands  or  possessions  that  they 
immediately  pay  the  same  to  Henry  Gardiner,  Esq.  of  Stowe  who  is  appointed 
Receiver  General  by  the  provincial  congress  &  also  expressly  engages  to  such 
constables,  collectors  or  other  persons  as  shall  have  towtv  motvWs  m  >Ja^\x 


185  HISTORY    OF   HATFIELD. 

hands  that  they  paying  the  same  to  Henry  Gardiner  Esq.  &  producing  his 
receipt  therefor  shall  ever  operate  as  an  effectual  discharge  to  such  persons 
for  the  same.    And  it  passed  in  the  Affirmative." 

The  Provincial  Congress  appointed  Dec.  15,  1774,  to 
be  observed  as  a  day  of  thanksgiving  and  on  that  day  Dr. 
Lyman  preached  a  vigorous,  patriotic  sermon  on  the  issues 
of  the  day,  which  the  town  ordered  printed  with  a  vote  of 
thanks  to  the  author.  A  copy  is  in  Deerfield  Memorial 
Hall.  It  was  printed  by  Edes  and  Gill  in  Boston  in 
Queen  Street  in  1775.  In  it  he  fearlessly  arraigned  the 
acts  of  the  British  ministry  and  the  obnoxious  governor  of 
the  province. 

January  9,  1775,  John  Dickinson  and  Perez  Graves  were 
chosen  representatives  from  Hatfield  to  the  Provincial 
Congress  to  meet  at  Cambridge,  only  one  to  attend  at  a 
time.  A  committee  was  appointed  to  receive  donations 
for  ''the  poor  in  Boston  suffering  in  the  common  cause." 
A  Committee  of  Inspection,  "agreeable  to  the  Continental 
and  Provincial  Congress,"  was  appointed,  consisting  of 
John  Dickinson,  Elijah  Morton,  Elihu  White,  John  Hast- 
ings, Jonathan  Allis,  Phineas  Frary,  Benjamin  Wells,  Silas 
Graves,  and  Seth  Murray.  This  committee  was  later 
merged  with  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  and  after 
1776  a  Committee  of  Correspondence,  Inspection,  and  Safety 
was  regularly  elected  each  year  at  the  time  the  other 
officers  were  chosen.     At  this  January  meeting  it  was — 

"Voted  that  the  company  called  the  minute  men  in  Hatfield  be  allowed  one 
shilling  each  for  three  half  days  that  they  have  already  spent  in  Learning 
the  military  Art  and  the  like  sum  for  three  half  days  more  and  after  that 
nine  pence  for  each  half  day  in  a  week  till  the  first  of  May  next  and  Aat 
their  captain  and  lieutenant  have  one  shilling  and  six  pence  for  each  half 
day,  one  Sergeant,  one  Drummer  and  one  Fifer  have  one  shilling  each  half 
day  during  the  time  the  soldiers  have  nine  pence  per  day. 

"Voted  that  the  sum  of  forty  pounds  be  raised  in  the  next  town  rate  to  be 
employed  for  the  use  of  the  minute  men  and  others  as  the  selectmen  judge 
necessary." 

Reference  to  the  list  of  selectmen  in  the  Appendix  will 
show  that  there  liad  not  been  a  great  change  among  the 
holders  of  oflfice  during  the  eventful  years  preceding 
the  outbreak  of  the  war.  The  change  was  rather  in  the 
attitude  of  the  office  holders  and  citizens  generally.  Col. 
Oliver  Partridge,  at  first  very  pronounced  in  his  Tory 
views,  was  won  over  to  the  cause  of  the  majority  and  con- 
tinued to  hold  the  office  of  town  clerk  and  treasurer.     He 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD.  187 

was  also  elected  to  the  board  of  selectmen  nearly  every 
year.  A  few  of  the  more  wealthy  citizens  continued  to 
hold  out  till  visited  by  the  Committee  of  Safety.  In  1775 
Col.  Israel  Williams,  Mr.  William  Williams,  Esq.,  Capt. 
Elisha  Allis,  Lieut.  David  Billings,  Lieut.  Samuel  Par- 
tridge, Ens.  Elijah  Dickinson,  and  Reuben  Belden,  with 
others  whom  the  Committee  of  Safety  might  consider  un- 
friendly to  the  cause  of  liberty,  but  not  mentioned  by  name, 
were  asked  to  sign  the  following  declaration: — 

"We  do  hereby  freely  and  Voluntarily  make  the  following  declaration, 
viz.  that  we  do  wholly  and  entirely  renounce  Gen.  Gage  as  a  Governor  of  this 
province  &  will  pay  no  regard  to  his  proclamations  or  any  other  of  his, acts 
or  doings,  but  on  the  other  hand  he  ought  to  be  considered  and  guarded 
against  as  an  Unnatural  and  inveterate  enemy  to  the  country  by  every  person 
that  is  a  true  friend  to  his  Country  and  Also  we  do  hereby  engage  that  we 
will  join  our  Countrymen  upon  all  Occasions  in  defense  of  the  rights  and 
Liberties  of  America.  Especially  we  will  use  our  influence  in  order  to  pre- 
vent the  late  Acts  of  Parliament  with  regard  to  this  province  being  put  into 
execution  and  will  bear  our  full  proportion  of  men  &  money  for  the  purposes 
aforesaid  as  occasion  may  call  for  the  same." 

Whatever  may  have  been  their  private  opinions  the  men 
called  upon  yielded  to  the  will  of  the  majority.  The  situa- 
tion was  tense  and  critical,  but  law  and  order  prevailed. 
Even  Colonel  Williams,  so  bitterly  hated  by  many  of  the 
Whigs,  was  not  subjected  to  indignities  by  his  fellow-towns- 
men. He  suffered,  however,  at  the  hands  of  some  who 
were  not  so  considerate  and  who  were  anxious  to  humble 
him.  He  was  known  to  be  in  correspondence  with  Gov- 
ernor Gage  and  was  suspected  of  secretly  enlisting  men  for 
the  royal  army. 

On  the  2d  of  February  a  mob  of  150  gathered  from  all 
the  country  round  as  far  as  Pittsfield  appeared  at  Colonel 
Williams's  house  and  took  him  and  his  son  Israel  to 
Hadley,  where  they  set  over  them  an  armed  guard  of 
seventeen  men  through  the  night.  The  top  of  the  chimney 
was  blocked  and  the  two  prisoners  were  given  a  smoking 
out.  The  attempt  to  **smoke  old  Williams  to  a  Whig" 
was  unsuccessful,  but  in  the  morning  both  the  men  signed 
an  obligation  not  to  do  anything  to  oppose  Congress,  or 
to  correspond  with  Gage,  promising  also  to  oppose  acts  of 
Parliament  that  were  against  the  interests  of  the  colonies. 
Colonel  Stoddard  of  Northampton  was  also  captured  that 
day  and  made  to  sign  the  same  articles. 

Colonel    Williams,    who    had    before    this,    to    placate    "^ 


Igg  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

threatening  mob  in  Berkshire  County,  signed  an  agreement 
which  he  felt  under  no  obligations  to  keep,  since  it  was 
extorted  by,  force  in  an  illegal  manner,  violated  his  pledge 
and  continued  his  correspondence  with  Gage.  Expecting 
that  the  revolting  colonists  would  be  overcome  speedily  he 
ordered  large  stocks  of  British  goods  to  be  sent  as  soon 
as  the  non-importation  acts  became  null  and  void.  This 
order  to  a  London  firm,  with  letters  to  Tories  who  had  fled 
to  England,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Whigs.  The  packet 
was  thrown  away  by  a  messenger,  who  feared  detection. 
Word  of  the  discovery  was  sent  to  the  Hatfield  Committee 
of  Safety  in  December,  1776.  Colonel  Williams  and  his 
son  Israel  were  put  under  bonds  of  £500  to  live  up  to  their 
pledges  and  about  the  first  of  April  they  were  arrested 
and  taken  to  Boston  for  trial  before  the  governor  and 
Council.  Testimony  against  them  was  easy  to  secure  and 
the  packet  of  letters  was  very  damaging.  This  verdict  was 
pronounced  April  14: — 

"It  appeared  to  this  court  that  in  violation  of  National  Law,  and  solemn 
written  engagements,  entered  into  by  said  Israel  Williams  and  son,  to  the 
People  in  Feb.  1775,  they  did  in  Dec.  1776,  in  order  to  obtain  Large  Quantities 
of  Goods  upon  credit  from  our  enemies,  write  to  Joseph  Green  and  Harry 
Laughton,  Persons  who  did  belong  to  this  State,  but  who  have  now  joined 
our  enemies,  and  who  were  at  the  time  of  writing  said  Letters  supposed  to  be 
there  in  England,  and  said  Israel  Williams,  the  father,  did  on  the  same  Day 
and  Place,  write  to  Thomas  Hutchinson,  Esq.,  respecting  the  same  matter, 
and  did  therein  represent  to  said  Hutchinson,  his  certain  Hope  &  Expecta- 
tion, that  our  Enemies  would  very  soon  entirely  defeat  &  fully  subdue  the 
Americans. 

"It  also  appeared  that  the  General  Conduct  of  said  Israel  Williams  and 
son,  ever  since  April,  1775,  has  been  unfriendly  to  the  American  cause  of 
Liberty,  and  no  one  Instance  of  Friendship  in  their  Conduct  since  that  time 
was  produced,  and  it  also  appeared  that  the  said  Israel  Williams,  the  father, 
by  letters  to  said  Hutchinson  in  1770-71,  fully  expressed  his  approbation  of 
that  British  System  of  Despotism,  which  has  since  plunged  us  into  this 
unnatural  war,  in  which  we  are  now  struggling  for  the  Defence  and 
Preservation  of  the  Common  Rights  and  Liberties  of  Man. 

'Therefore,  Resolved  that  the  Sheriff  of  Hampshire  County  be  directed 
to  Commit  the  said  Israel  Williams  and  Son  to  the  common  goal  in  North- 
ampton, and  keep  them  in  close  custody  until  further  orders  of  this  Court." 

They  were  kept  in  close  confinement  in  the  jail  at 
Northampton  until  December,  when  the  Council  at  Boston, 
after  acting  on  a  petition  from  the  colonel's  son  William, 
ordered  their  release  under  bonds  of  £3,000  each  with  the 
stipulation  that  the  father  was  not  to  leave  his  home  lot 
except  to  go  to  meeting  on  Sunday  and  that  the  son  was 
not   to   leave    town.     Thev   were    not    allowed    to    exercise 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  189 

the  rights  of  citizenship.  During  the  time  of  their  confine- 
ment in  jail  the  colonel's  daughter  Lucretia  visited  them 
in  prison  every  day,  taking  food  and  dainties  that  she  had 
prepared.  She  made  the  daily  trip  alone  on  horseback, 
having  to  face  the  jeers  of  the  unsympathetic  Whigs  along 
the  way. 

Colonel  Williams  w^as  killed  in  1789  at  the  age  of  eighty 
by  falling  downstairs.  Israel,  Jr.,  remained  a  bachelor 
and  lived  on  his  father's  estate  till  his  death  in  1823.  He 
never  held  public  office  on  account  of  his  actions  during  the 
war.  His  brother  William  became  a  prominent  citizen  of 
Dalton.  In  1780  the  town  of  Hatfield  petitioned  the  Gen- 
eral Court  that  Colonel  Williams  and  Israel,  Jr.,  be  again 
allowed  the  rights  of  citizenship  provided  they  took  the 
oath  of  allegiance,  which  they  were  then  ready  to  do,  and 
they  were  restored  to  their  civil  rights. 

The  excitement  over  the  Williamses  was  only  one 
episode  of  the  stirring  scenes  that  were  being  enacted. 
The  minute-men  were  drilling  through  the  winter  and 
spring  of  1775  in  preparation  for  the  inevitable  conflict. 
News  of  the  fighting  at  Concord  and  Lexington  was  re- 
ceived in  Hatfield,  April  20,  about  noon.  Those  who  had 
not  heard  the  cry  of  the  galloping  courier,  **Gage  has  fired 
upon  the  people;  minute-men  to  the  rescue/'  were  warned 
by  the  ringing  of  the  bell  that  something  unusual  had 
happened  and  they  quickly  gathered  at  the  meetinghouse. 
The  unknown  bearer  of  the  tidings  stopped  not  for  ex- 
planations. "The  crash  of  resounding  arms"  had  come 
and  as  fast  as  steeds  could  be  urged  other  messengers  like 
Paul  Revere  were  bearing  the  news  to  every  scattered 
hamlet. 

"A  hurry  of  hoofs  in  a  village  street, 
A  shape  in  the  moonlight,  a  bulk  in  the  dark, 
And  beneath,  from  the  pebbles,  in  passing,  a  spark 
Struck  out  by  a  steed  flying  fearless  and  fleet : 
That  was  all !     And  yet,  through  the  gloom  and  the  light. 
The  fate  of  a  nation  was  riding  that  night ; 
And  the  spark  struck  out  by  that  steed,  in  his  flight, 
Kindled  the  land  into  flame  with  its  heat." 

Before  the  afternoon  was  half  spent  Capt.  Israel  Chapin 
and  his  minute-men  were  on  the  march  to  Boston.  Parson 
Lyman   with   fervent  prayers  bade   them  God-s.^ee^,  \n\v\^ 


190 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


mothers  and  wives  and  sweethearts  and  sisters  tearfully 
watched  their  departure  to  the  strains  of  the  fife  and  drum. 
Arriving  at  Boston  they  were  assigned  to  the  regiment 
commanded  by  Colonel  Fellows  of  Great  Barrington  and 
took  part  in  the  siege  of  Boston  and  the  battle  of  Bunker 
Hill.  The  archives  of  the  state  of  Massachusetts  show  that 
the  following  Hatfield  men  were  entitled  to  draw  an  overcoat 
in  the  fall,  having  served  at  least  six  months  after  April, 
1775:— 


Moses  Allis 
Timothy  Alvord 
Thomas  Banks 
James  Barker 
Sergt.  Abraham  Billings 
Ebenezer  Burris 
Capt.  Israel  Chapin 
Justin  Cole 
Richard  Cook 
Andrew  Crawford 
John  Curtis 
Jonathan  Dickinson 
Zenas  Field 
Hermon  Finney 


"COAT   ROLL." 

Phineas  Frary  (drum'r) 
Lucius  Graves 
Elihu  Hastings 
Jotham  Hitchcock 
John  Hixson  (drummer) 
John  Lewis 
David  Morton 
Joseph  Morton 
Elihu  Murray 
Elijah  Murray 
Capt.  Seth  Murray 
Corp.  James  Peck 
Asa  Perkins 
Robert  Perkins 


Elijah  Smith 
Joel  Smith 

Sergt.  Nath'l  Sylvester 
Asa  Thayer 
Elihu  Trowbridge 
Joseph  Waite 
Jacob  Walker 
William  Watson 
Sergt.  Robert  Weir 
Benjamin  Wells 
Moses  Whitney 
Ebenezer  Wood 
Asahel  Wood 
Joshua  L.  Woodbridgc 


The  day  after  the  departure  of  Captain  Chapin's  com- 
pany another  under  Capt.  Perez  Graves,  including  many 
Whately  citizens,  started  for  the  front.  They  marched 
as  far  as  Ware,  v^here  word  was  received  that  the  British 
had  retreated  and  that  their  services  were  no  longer 
needed.  They  then  returned,  with  the  Whately  company 
under  Capt.  Henry  Stiles,  reaching  home  the  23d.  April 
29  a  third  company  of  49  under  Capt.  Seth  Murray,  re- 
cruited from  the  towns  near  Hatfield,  set  out.  In  addition 
to  the  names  given  on  the  coat  roll  the  following  Hatfield 
men  enlisted  the  first  year  of  the  war,  probably  most  of 
them  taking  part  in  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill: — 


In  Captain  Chapin*s  company : — 
Joseph  Brown 
James  Cutter 
Lemuel  Dickinson 
Nathaniel  Dickinson 
Esca  Fair 
Noah  Field 
Ebenezer  Fitch 
Eleazer  Frary  (fifcr) 
John  Holley 
Sergt.  Nathaniel  SartweW 


Sylvanus  Sartwell 
Joel  Scott 
Elijah  Smith 
Corp.  Samuel  Wells 
Abel  Waite 
Jacob  Waite 


In  Captain  Murray's  company 
Caleb  Austin 
?tT?^s  Peck 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 


191 


In  Captain  Graves's  company : — 
John  Ballard 
Samuel  Bodman 
William  Bodman 
Gains  Crafts 
Daniel  Dickinson 
Joseph  Graves 
Silas  Graves 
William  Howard 
John  Meekins 
Levi  Meekins 


Elihu  Morton 

William  Norwood 

Josiah  Otis 

Thomas  Potter 

Amasa  Skinner 

Elisha  Smith 

John  Smith 

Seth  Tubbs 

Nehemiah  Waite  (drummer) 

Moses  Warner 

William  Whitemore 


The  Hatfield  soldier  who  saw  the  most  service  was 
Joseph  Guild,  whose  grave  is  in  the  cemetery  at  Bradstreet. 
He  took  part  in  the  battles  of  Saratoga  and  Stillwater, 
was  overcome  by  the  heat  at  Monmouth,  passed  the  terri- 
ble winter  at  Valley  Forge  in  General  Washington's  army, 
served  under  General  Greene  in  his  southern  campaign, 
and  saw  Lord  Cornwallis  give  up  his  sword  at  Yorktown. 
He  used  to  delight  in  telling  the  story  of  how  he  shook 
hands  with  General  Washington  when  the  army  was  dis- 
banded at  New  York. 

The  list  given  below  contains  the  names  of  all  the  Hat- 
field soldiers,  so  far  as  known,  who  served  in  the  Revolution- 
ary war,  with  the  rank  and  date  of  first  enlistment.  Many 
served  in  other  campaigns  after  the  expiration  of  their 
first  term  of  service.  There  may  be  some  Whately  names 
among  the  others,  though  a  careful  comparison  of  the 
Whately  lists  has  also  been  made  and  the  list  on  the  bronze 
tablet  in  the  Dickinson  Memorial  Hall  revised  somewhat. 
Some  of  the  Whately  men  are  credited  in  the  state  archives 
as  belonging  to  Hatfield  because  they  went  out  with  the 
Hatfield  companies  and  also  because  the  towns  had  been 
separated  only  a  few  years  and  the  place  of  residence  was 
not  in  all  cases  known  with  certainty.  Whately  was  incor- 
porated April  24,  1771,  and  at  the  same  time  Williamsburg 
was  set  off  from  Hatfield  as  a  district  and  was  incorporated 
in  1776.  The  population  of  Hatfield  was  thereby  reduced 
more  than  half,  probably  nearly  two  thirds.  According  to 
an  enumeration  of  the  people  taken  by  the  provincial 
authorities  in  1765,  Hatfield  then  had  803  inhabitants.  In 
1776  it  had  582,  Williamsburg  had  534,  and  Whately  had 
410.  From  a  population  of  less  than  600  Hatfield  fur- 
nished 127  patriots  who  bore  arms  during  l\\e  ^eNoX^xixoTv, 


192 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


or  about  one  to  each  family,  including  the  numerous  Tory 
households. 

Gains  Crafts  bought  land  in  Whately,  but  never  resided 
there.  The  Fields,  Noah  and  Zenas,  were  probably  living 
in  Hatfield  at  the  time  of  their  enlistment.  There  may 
have  been  some  with  the  same  names  in  Whately.  The 
Frarys,  Eleazer  and  Phineas,  belonged  in  Hatfield,  living 
in  a  house  that  was  burned,  which  stood  opposite  the  house 
of  Cornelius  Murphy  at  West  Brook.  Joseph  Scott  lived 
in  the  Straits  south  of  the  Whately  line.  Joel  Scott  was 
his  son.  Jacob  Walker  was  buried  in  Hatfield.  These 
men  and  a  few  others  are  all  claimed  by  Whately,  but  it 
is  very  doubtful  if  they  enlisted  from  there,  and,  as  shown, 
some  were  never  numbered  among  its  citizens.  The  Ben- 
jamin and  Elijah  Smith  on  the  list  were  sons  of  Lieut. 
Samuel  of  Hatfield.  There  were  also  men  from  Whately 
bearing  the  same  surnames. 


HATFIELD    SOLDIERS    IN   THE   REVOLUTIONARY    WAR. 

Col.  Israel  Chapin. 
Lieut.  Col.  John  Dickinson. 
Capt.  Elihu  Hastings. 
Capt.  Perez  Graves. 
Capt.  Seth  Murray. 


Allen,  John, 
Allis,  Aaron, 
Allis,  Moses, 
Alvord,  Timothy, 
Atsetts,  John. 
Atsetts,  Joseph, 
Austin,  Caleb, 
Ballard,  John, 
Banks,  Thomas, 
Barker,  James, 
Bass,  Abraham, 
Bates,  Peter, 
Beman,  Phineas, 
Benjamin,  Roger, 
Billings,  Abraham, 
Bodman,  Samuel, 
Bodman,  William, 
Brown,  Joseph, 
Burgess,  Edward, 
Burris,  Ebcnezcr, 
Chapman.  George. 
Chamberlin,  William, 
Cole,  Justin, 
Coleman,  Niles, 
Cook,  Richard, 
CoYcU,  John, 
Crafts,  Gains, 


Rank. 

Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 

Sergeant, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 

Corporal, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 


Capt.  Joshua  L.  Woodbridgc 

Lieut.  Samuel  Smith. 

Lieut.  Elijah  Coleman. 

Lieut.  Daniel  White. 

Date  of 

Company  of 

First  Enlistment 

Captain  Fellows, 

1775. 

Captain  Watson, 

1777. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

6  month  s^ 

.  1788. 

6  months,  1788. 

Captain  Murray, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Milton, 

1777. 
1781. 

Captain  Banister, 

1781. 

Captain  Banister, 

1781. 

Captain  Murray, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Parker, 

178a 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 
1781. 

Captain  Watson, 

1777. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Watson, 

1777. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1778. 

Cxvvkl^m  Graves, 

1775. 

HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 


193 


m,  Asa, 
9rd,  Andrew, 

John, 
,  James, 
son,  Daniel, 
son,  Francis, 
son,  Jonathan, 
son,  Lemuel, 
son,  Nathaniel, 
I,  John, 
£sca. 
Noah. 
Zenas, 
'.  Herman, 
Ebenezer, 

Elcazer, 

Phincas. 
,  Zebulon, 

Nathan. 
5,  Lucius, 
5,  Silas, 

Joseph, 
•ock.  Jotham, 
n,  John, 
',  John, 
rd,  William,  . 
Ezra, 
Iton.  Jonathan, 

John, 
ns.  John, 
ns.  Levi. 
i,  Ezekiel, 
,  Isaac, 
n,  Benjamin, 
n,  David, 
n,  Ebenezer, 
n,  Elihu, 
n,  Joseph, 
n,  Solomon, 
.y,  Elihu. 
y,  Elijah, 
n,  Josiah. 
X)d,  William, 
t,  Stephen, 
Josiah, 
James, 
Peras, 
Joseph, 
IS,  Asa, 
is,  Robert, 
5,  Elijah, 
-,  Silas, 
\  Thomas, 
rs,  Ephraim, 
)n.  Wilson, 
Hezekiah, 
s,  Ebenezer, 
ell,  Nathaniel, 
ell,  Sylvahus, 
Joel, 
Joseph, 


Rank. 

Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Fifer, 

Drummer, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Sergeant, 
Private, 

Drummer, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private. 
Private, 
•Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Corporal, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private. 
Private, 
Private, 
Private. 
Private, 
Sergeant, 
Private, 
Private, 
Private, 


Date  of 

Company  of                  First  Enlistment. 

,                Captain  Greenleaf, 

1780. 

,                Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Murray, 

1775, 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,                Artiller>', 

1780. 

Captain  Chapin, 

. 1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

1781. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

.  1775. 

.     1781. 

,                Captain  Parker, 

1780. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Watson, 

1777. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Murray, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,               Captain  Greenleaf, 

1781. 

,                Captain  Woodbridge, 

1781. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

,               Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

,                Captain  Qiapin, 

1776. 

,                Captain  Chapin, 

1776. 

,                Captain  Woodbridge, 

1780. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Parker. 

1780. 

Captain  Graves. 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1780. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

6  months.  1780. 

,                Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

1781. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Murray. 

1775. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

Captain  Murray, 

1775. 

Captain  Murray, 

1775. 

1781. 

Captain  Parker, 

1780. 

Captain  Graves, 

1775. 

1778. 

1781. 

Captain  Edes, 

1778. 

Captain  Parker, 

1780. 

Captain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Chapin. 

1775. 

Cantain  Chapin, 

1775. 

Captain  Woodbridge, 

\Tn 

194 


HISTORY   OF   HATFIELD. 


Date  of 

Rank. 

Company  of                  First  Enlistment 

Skinner,  Amasa, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Smith,  Andrew  (deserted),  Private, 

Captain 

Hastings, 

1778. 

Smith,  Benjamin, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Smith,  Elijah, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Smith,  Joel, 

Private, 

Captain 

Murray, 

1775. 

Smith,  John, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Sylvester,  Nathaniel, 

Sergeant, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Taylor,  John, 

Private, 

1779. 

Thayer,  Asa, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Trowbridge,  Elihu, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Tubs,  Seth, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Waite,  Abel, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Waite,  Jacob, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Waite,  Joseph, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Waite,  Nehemiah, 

Drummer, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Walker,  Jacob, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Ward,  Josiah, 

Private, 

Captain 

Woodbridgc, 

1780. 

Warner,  Moses, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Watson,  William, 

Ensign, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Weir,  Robert, 

Sergeant, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Wells,  Benjamin, 

Private, 

Captain 

Graves, 

1775. 

Wells,  David, 

Private, 

1781. 

Wells,  Samuel, 

Corporal, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

White,  Levi, 

Private, 

Captain 

Storer, 

1778. 

Whitemore,  William, 

Private, 

Captam 

Graves^ 

1775. 

Whitney,  Moses, 

Private, 

Captain 

Chapin, 

1775. 

Wood,  Asahel, 

Private, 

Captain 

Dickinson, 

1775. 

Wood,  Ebenezer, 

Private, 

Captain 

Dickinson, 

177i 

Wright,  Jeremiah, 

Private, 

Captain 

Murray, 

1778. 

Young,  William, 

Private, 

1781. 

During  the  summer  of  1776  the  inhabitants  were  follow- 
ing with  eagerness  the  progress  of  the  war  and  the  deliber- 
ations of  the  Continental  Congress.  June  24  this  vote  was 
passed : — 

"Voted  by  the  Town  to  Instruct  &  direct  their  represent- 
ative at  the  present  General  Assembly  to  use  his  endeavors 
that  the  delegates  of  this  Colony  at  the  Congress  be 
advised  that  in  case  the  Congress  should  think  it  necessary 
for  the  Safety  of  the  American  United  Colonies  to  declare 
them  Independent  of  Great  Britain  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
town  of  Hatfield  with  their  Lives  and  Fortunes  will  Sol- 
emnly engage  to  support  them  in  the   Measure." 

The  town  was  liberal  in  its  contributions  for  the  support 
of  the  war.  In  July,  1776,  £85,  10s.  was  appropriated  to 
be  paid  to  **fifteen  effective  men  who  may  appear  in  behalf 
of  the  Town  of  Hatfield  to  go  to  join  the  northern  army." 
This  was  to  fill  a  quota  called  for  from  Hampshire  County 
for  a  march  against  Canada.    The  w\eu  received  a  bounty 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  I95 

of  £7  from  the  state.  After  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence was  signed  every  twenty-fifth  man  was  ordered  to 
enlist  to  reinforce  the  northern  army.  In  that  year  Hat- 
field furnished  eleven  blankets  of  the  three  hundred  pro- 
portioned in  the  county.  In  1779  the  town  voted  £500  for 
shirts  and  shoes  and  stockings  for  the  men  in  the  Con- 
tinental army.  A  bounty  of  £100  was  allowed  to  fill  up 
the  town's  quota. 

The  first  vote  for  officers  under  the  new  state  constitution 
was  held  Sept.  4,  1780,  and  resulted  as  follows:  for  gover- 
nor, John  Hancock,  28;  James  Bowdoin,  2;  for  lieutenant 
governor,  James  Bowdoin,  26;  James  Warren,  2;  for  senator, 
Joseph  Hawley,  24;  Caleb  Strong,  20;  John  Hastings,  19; 
John  Bliss,  21;  Samuel  Mather,  11;  Moses  Bliss,  2;  Eleazer 
Porter,   1;  Timothy  Danielson,   1. 

Hatfield  supplied  large  quantities  of  beef  for  feeding 
the  troops  during  the  war  and  because  of  its  reputation  as 
a  leading  town  in  the  cattle  industry  Washington  stationed 
one  of  his  commissary  officers.  Gen.  Epaphroditus  Cham- 
pion, in  the  town  during  a  large  part  of  the  seven  years' 
struggle.  A  party  of  French  officers  belonging  to  the  staff 
of  Count  Rochambeau  was  quartered  at  the  Hubbard  tavern 
one  winter.  They  left  epigrams  and  mottoes  scratched 
with  a  diamond  on  the  panes  of  some  of  the  windows, 
which  remained  for  nearly  a  century.  The  glass  was  all 
broken  and  thrown  away  when  repairs  were  made  on  the 
house. 

The  Hubbard  tavern  was  a  famous  hostelry  in  those  days, 
established  about  1760.  Lucy  Hubbard  continued  to  enter- 
tain travelers  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  Elisha  Hub- 
bard, in  1768.  She  was  highly  successful,  so  much  so  that 
the  town  laid  upon  her  a  faculty  tax.  The  faculty  tax, 
something  in  the  nature  of  an  income  tax,  was  imposed 
for  many  years  during  the  colonial  period,  and  some  had 
a  very  high  valuation  assessed  upon  their  business  abil- 
ity,— in  1772,  William  Williams,  £60;  Joseph  Smith,  50; 
Israel  Williams,  Jr.,  35;  Lieut.  Samuel  Partridge,  35; 
Lucy  Hubbard,  30;  Reuben  Belden,  30;  Jesse  Billings,  26; 
Seth  Murray,  25;  Isaac  Graves,  25. 

There  were  several  other  taverns  in  Hatfield  besides  the 
Hubbard  tavern  in  the  stage  coach  days.     C^ipt.  Si^\}cv  '^>\'^- 


196 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIEXD. 


ray  was  an  iniiholder  in  the  old  house  on  the  S.  F,  Billings 
place.  Ebenezer  White  kept  tavern  for  many  years  in  the 
old  house  now  a  part  of  tlie  tobacco  warehouse  of  C.  L. 
Warner  and  his  father  had  been  a  tavernkeeper  before  him. 
Landlord  AUis  was  the  proprietor  of  a  popular  house 
standing  north  of  the  W.  H.  Dickinson  place.  There  is 
a  story  to  the  effect  that  one  day  a  cousin  of  the  landlord 
came  in  pretty  full  of  New  England  rum  and  hearing  oi 
a  rather  pleasant  room  being  given  to  a  negro  was  so  dis- 
gusted at  this  practical  evidence  of  equality  that  he  led 
his    horse    upstairs    to    see    the    room.     The    horse    easily 


climbed  the  stairs,  but  could  not  get  down,  and  it  reqatrti 
the  services  of  many  men  to  drag  him  to  the  ground- 
Landlord  Allis  was  the  first  one  in  town  to  use  carpets 
on   the  floors. 

Slavery  was  abolished  in  Massachusetts  in  1781.  but 
even  before  that  many  had  liberated  their  slaves.  It  was 
maintained  in  the  colonies  by  the  crown  and  so.  although 
the  institution  was  held  in  abhorrence  by  many  of  the  north- 
ern colonists,  it  could  not  be  abolished  till  the  success  of 
the  Revolution  was  assured.  As  already  alluded  to  several 
Hatfield  men  possessed  negro  slaves.  Lieut.  David  Billings 
liberated  his  before  the  close  oi  ihe  war,  reiving  them  a  small 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIKLD. 


197 


farm  on  Grass  Hill,  On  one  of  his  frequent  visits  to  see 
how  they  were  prospering  he  was  invited  to  take  dinner 
and  accepted.  The  head  of  the  hiniible  household.  Hustered 
by  the  presence  of  so  great  a  dignitary,  but  wishing  to  pre- 
side in  the  manner  in  which  his  former  master  was  wont, 
bowed  his  head  to  say  grace  and  fervently  repeated,  "Oh, 
Lawdy,  Gawdy,  blin'  lead  de  blin'  dey  hofe  fall  in  de  ditch. 
Amen." 

Lieutenant  Billings  was  highly  respected  by  his  fellow 
townsmen,  even  though  he  was  visited  by  the  Committee  of 
Safety  at  the  beginning  of  the  war.     He  remained  neutral 


during  its  progress.  Soon  after  peace  was  declared  he 
began  to  take  a  very  active  ptace  in  town  politics  and  held 
the  office  of  selectman  from  177.^  almost  every  year  until 
1800.  He  was  a  man  of  firm  character  and  lofty  aspirations. 
a  stanch  adherent  of  the  church.  The  portraits  of  him 
and  his  wife  here  shown  are  from  oil  paint inj^s  in  the 
possession  of  Mrs.  E.  B.  Dickinson.  Their  tombstones 
in  the  old  burying  ground  bear  the  followinf^  in.scriptions: — 

"This  monument  is  ercctcil  in  memnrv  of  Ll.   David  Rillitigs,  who  e\\AcA 
a  useful  aiid  exemplary  life  on  itio  27th  of  August  A.  T),  WSi ,  aRs4  1%  -jiiM^. 


198  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  esteem  and  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens  was  manifested  in  his 
repeated  election  to  offices  of  honor  and  trust,  but  his  death  has  closed  the 
scene  and  vailed  those  virtues  which  were  produced  by  that  Holy  Religion 
which  he  professed  and  practiced." 

"Here  lies  the  remains  of  Mrs  Mabell  Billings,  relict  of  Lieut  David 
Billings.  She  eminently  possessed  the  gentler  virtues  of  her  sex  in  the 
exercise  of  which  she  endeared  herself  to  her  friends.  The  principals  and 
precepts  of  Jesus  governed  her  conduct  and  relying  solely  on  the  efficacy  of 
the  atonement  which  our  Lord  and  Savior  has  made  for  sinners  she  fell 
asleep  October  4,  A.  D.  1815,  aged  71  years." 

The    Revolutionary   war   brought   on    the   hardest   times 
the  colonists  had  ever  known.    The  bills  of  credit  issued  by 
the  Continental  Congress  became  almost  worthless  and  the 
state   of   Massachusetts   refused   to    issue   paper    money  in 
spite  of  popular  clamor.     By  the  Legal  Tender  Act,  passed 
in  1782,  live  stock  was  made  legal  tender  in  payment  of  pri- 
vate  debts.     Taxes  were   higher  than  they  had   ever  been 
before.     Relations  between  debtors  and  creditors  were  the 
cause  of  costly  suits  and  lawyers  were  bitterly  hated.     For 
the  relief  of  debtors  the  Confession  Act  had  been  passed 
by   the   Massachusetts   General   Court   whereby  justices  of 
the  peace  were  authorized  to  take  acknowledgment  of  debts 
and  if  they  were  not  paid  within  a  year  to  issue  executions. 
Such  was  the  universal  discontent  that  a  meeting  was  held 
at  Hatfield  on   the  first  Tuesday  in  April,   1782,   at  which 
for  several  days  various  grievances  were  discussed  and  a 
committee  was  appointed  to  suggest  changes  to  the  General 
Court.     It  was  the  sense  of  the  meeting  that  there  should 
be  no  County  Court  of  General  Sessions  and  that  the  con- 
stables  in   towns   should   receive   authority  to   serve    writs, 
the  same  as  deputy  sheriffs.     On  a  motion  "to  request  the 
Inferior  Court  to  forbear  giving  judgment  in  civil  causes, 
except  the  condition  make  it  appear  that  he  is  in  danger  of 
losing  his  debt,  or  when  the  parties  are  agreed,"  the  dele- 
gates from  the  towns  represented  voted  as  follows:  Yea — 
(iranville,     Xorwich.    Granby,    Whately,    Montague,     Shel- 
burne,  Charlemont,  Greenwich,  Conway,  Westfield,  Palmer, 
Pelham,  Leverett,  Ludlow,  Ashfield;  Xay — Springfield,  Wil- 
braliam,      Deerfield.      Monson,      Rlandford,      Northampton, 
Southampton,     Hadley.     Westham])ton,     Hatfield,     Goshen. 
Cummington,  Williamsburg,   South   Hadley,  Amherst,  Sun- 
derland, Shutesbury,  Worthington,  Chesterfield,  Greenfield, 
Belchertown. 
Though  the  delegates  lhv\s  voted  to  uphold  the  process  of 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  I99 

the  law  and  wait  for  time  to  bring  relief  to  the  trying 
conditions,  one  reckless  demagog  incited  a  mob  to  disturb 
the  holding  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court  and  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas  at  Northampton,  April  12.  This  man 
was  Samuel  Ely,  an  itinerant  preacher,  who  had  been  sent 
away  from  Somers,  Conn.,  by  a  council  of  ministers.  For 
his  connection  with  the  riot  at  Northampton  he  was  put 
in  jail  at  Spring^eld  and  was  rescued  by  a  mob  of  sympa- 
thizers on  June  12.  The  three  men  suspected  as  ring- 
leaders in  the  breaking  open  of  the  jail  and  the  release  of 
Ely,  Capt.  Abel  Dinsmore  of  Conway,  Lieut.  Paul  King  of 
Northampton,  and  Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell  of  Deerfield,  were 
confined  in  the  jail  at  Northampton  as  hostages  for  the 
return  of  Ely.  A  mob  of  600  collected  at  Hatfield  on 
June  15  under  Capt.  Reuben  Dickinson  of  Amherst  for  an 
attack  on  the  Northampton  jail.  The  militia  to  the  num- 
ber of  1,200  were  called  out  to  protect  the  jail.  Gen.  Elihu 
Porter  of  Hadley,  high  sheriff,  was  in  command.  After 
several  days  of  negotiations  the  hostages  were  released 
on  their  promise  to  produce  Ely,  and  the  mob  dispersed-. 

Another  convention  was  held  at  Hatfield,  August  7-10. 
habeas  corpus  act  in  Hampshire  County  for  six  months 
and  appointed  a  committee,  Samuel  Adams,  Artemas  Ward, 
and  Nathaniel  Gorham,  speaker  of  the  House,  to  proceed 
to   Hampshire  County  to  investigate  the  disturbances. 

Another  convention  was  held  at  Hatfield  August  7-10. 
This  convention  under  the  guidance  of  the  committee  from 
the  General  Court  declared  its  lovaltv  to  the  state  and  to 
Congress.  The  riotous  acts  of  the  mobs  had  not  com- 
mended themselves  to  sober-minded  citizens,  though  the 
grievances  of  which  they  complained  were  not  righted.  A 
set  of  resolutions  adopted  at  the  convention  recommended 
relief  from  taxation  by  a  more  equal  distribution,  economy 
in  administration,  and  indemnity  for  all  those  guilty  of 
lawless  acts  except  Samuel  Ely. 

Ely  was  given  up  to  the  authorities  and  taken  to  Boston. 
His  reckless  agitation  had  almost  produced  civil  war  in  the 
county,  and  fighting  between  the  insurgent  forces,  who 
were  well  armed  and  well  led,  and  the  local  militia,  was 
narrowly  averted.  Ely  was  thus  characterized  by  Pres. 
Timothy  Dwight : — 


200  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"Ely  was  an  unlicensed  and  disorderly  preacher  and  could  not  obtain  an 
ordination.  *  *  *  He  possessed  the  spirit,  and  so  far  as  his  slender  abili- 
ties would  permit,  the  arts  of  a  demagogue  to  an  unusual  degree.  He  was 
voluble,  vehement  in  address,  bold,  persevering,  active,  brazen  faced  in 
wickedness.  ♦  *  *  The  Association  of  New  London  County,  some  years 
before,  when  his  character  was  very  imperfectly  known  or  suspected,  licensed 
him  to  preach,  and  he  was  employed  by  the  people  of  Somers,  Ct.  Afterward 
he  was  brought  before  a  council  and  pronounced  wholly  unqualified  to  preadi. 
He  left  Somers  and  drifted  into  Hampshire  County,  taking  up  his  residence 
in  Conway." 

Many  conventions  were  held  in  various  towns  in  the 
county  during  the  years  1782  and  1783.  They  served  as 
safety  valves  for  the  expression  of  views  which  if  checked 
might  have  proved  the  cause  of  acts  of  violence  and  an- 
archy. This  period  at  the  close  of  the  w-ar  was  a  period  of 
the  same  distress  and  agitation  in  most  of  the  other  colo- 
nies and  has  been  called  by  that  able  historian,  John  Fiske, 
the  Critical  Period  of  American  History. 

At  a  convention  in  Hatfield,  March  19  and  20,  17B3. 
thirteen  towns  were  represented.  After  a  harmonious 
meeting  it  was  voted  to  pay  no  taxes  to  the  state  and 
adjournment  was  taken  to  meet  at  Hadley  the  15th  of 
April.  Jonathan  Judd  of  Southampton  recorded  in  his 
diary  that  at  Hadley  the  delegates  "felt  feeble  and  fearful. 
They  begin  to  know  the  County  are  not  with  them  and  they 
must  try  to  pay  Taxes."  (Trinnbuirs  "History  of  North- 
ampton.") 

In  1784  a  petition  was  brought  before  the  General  Court 
for  a  separation  of  Hampshire  County  on  account  of  the 
difficulty  of  getting  to  the  courts  at  Springfield  and  North- 
ampton from  some  of  the  more  remote  towns.  The  divi- 
sion was  vigorously  opi)osed  by  Hatfield.  The  matter  was 
referred  to  the  towns  themselves  for  settlement  and  at  a 
convention  held  at  Hatfield  in  Mav.  1786,  twentv-two  towns 
voted    against    a    division    and    nineteen    in    favor    of    it. 

I'he  discontent  of  the  people  in  Massachusetts  culminated 
in  the  uprising  known  as  Shays's  rebellion.  A  convention 
in  Worcester.  Aug.  15,  1786,  at  which  representatives  from 
37  towns  in  Worcester  County  aired  their  grievances,  was 
followed  by  a  convention  in  Hatfield  on  August  22,  at  which 
?0  towns  were  represented.  A  three  days'  session  was  held  in 
which  the  delegates,  after  declaring  themselves  a  constitu- 
tional body,  adopted  a  list  of  seventeen  grievances.  An 
i^sue  of  paper  currency  was  called  for  at  once  and  it  was 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  201 

voted  that  no  funds  should  be  granted  to  Congress.  One 
of  the  chief  effects  of  the  gathering  was  to  arouse  the  mob 
spirit  to  an  attack  on  the  courts.  Rioting  at  the  court- 
houses followed  at  Northampton,  Great  Barrington,  Worces- 
ter, and  Concord.  Instigated  by  Daniel  Shays  of  Pelham 
and  Luke  Day  of  West  Springfield  the  discontented  debtors 
went  to  the  extreme  of  actual  rebellion  against  the  state 
authority  and  attempted  to  capture  the  federal  arsenal  at 
Springfield.  The  rebellion  was  not  wholly  crushed  till  Sep- 
tember, 1788.  The  chief  result  was  to  show  the  country 
the  danger  of  anarchy  unless  there  was  a  strong  central 
authority  and  to  hasten  the  adoption  of  the  federal  con- 
stitution. 

At  a  convention  held  at  the  house  of  Samuel  Dickinson 
in  Hatfield,  Jan.  2,  1787,  an  address  was  framed  to  send  to  the 
insurgents  in  the  field  to  lay  down  their  arms  and  seek 
redress  through  the  General  Court.  The  people  of  the  town 
stood  on  the  side  of  law  and  order  and  deplored  the 
acts  of  Shays  and  his  associates.  One  citizen  of  the 
town,  Jacob  Walker,  a  Revolutionary  soldier,  lost  his  life 
in  an  expedition  sent  to  capture  one  of  the  rebel  leaders, 
Capt.  Jason  Parmenter,  at  Bernardston.  He  was  buried 
with  military  honors.  The  inscription  on  his  headstone  on 
the  old  burying  ground  on  "the  HilK'  is: — 

**To  the  memory  of  Mr.  Jacob  Walker  who  respected  by  the  brave,  beloved 
by  his  country*s  friends,  dear  to  his  relations,  while  manfully  defending  the 
laws  of  the  commonwealth  nobly  fell  by  the  impious  hand  of  treason  and 
rebellion  upon  the  17  day  of  February  A.  D.  1787  in  the  32  year  of  his  age. 


'Citizen  passing  drop  a  tear 
And  dare  to  imitate  the  brave.' 


CHAPTER  XV. 

LIFE    IN    HATFIELD    AT    THE    CLOSE    OF    THE    EIGHTEENTH 

CENTURY. 

"Along  the  cool  sequestered  vale  of  life 
They  kept  the  noiseless  tenor  of  their  ways." 

Political  Strife. — Description  by  President  Dwight  of  Hatfield  in  1797.— 
Growth  in  population. — Highways  as  shown  by  old  map. — Hon.  John  Hastings. 
— "Aunt  Beck"  and  her  diary. — Mary  Morton  Smith. — Schools  for  girls.— 
Manners  and  customs  of  the  period. — Mode  of  travel  to  Boston. — Introduction 
of  sleighs. 

Hatfield  was  not  long  in  recovering  from  the  effects  of  the 
war.  After  the  adoption  of  the  federal  constitution  and  the 
establishment  of  the  coinage  of  the  country  on  a  firm  basis, 
prosperity  came  again  and  business  was  resumed  in  a  normal 
manner.  Political  discussions  were  rife  for  many  years. 
Dr.  Lyman  was  an  ardent  Federalist  and  many  of  his  pulpit 
discourses  were  on  political  matters.  In  this  he  differed 
from  many  of  his  parishioners,  who  maintained  views  of  local 
independence  and  were  followers  of  Jefferson.  The  town 
was  about  equally  divided  between  the  Federalists  and  Anti- 
federalists. 

The  martial  spirit  aroused  by  the  struggle  for  independence 
lingered.  A  large  militia  force  was  maintained  and  training 
days  were  frequent  and  always  observed  as  holidays. 

A  most  interesting  picture  of  the  conditions  in  the  town 
in  the  year  1797  is  given  by  Pres.  Timothy  Dwight  in  his 
^'Travels  in  New  England  and  New  York.**  One  of  his 
letters  contains  this  description: — 

"Hatfield  lies  opposite  the  north  end  of  Hadlcy  at  the  distance  of  a  mile 
and  a  half.  It  is  built  chiefly  on  two  streets:  the  principal  running  North  and 
South  near  a  mile,  the  other  about  as  far  East  and  West.  The  houses  arc 
generally  decent ;  and  a  number  in  a  better  style.  Hatfield  contains  9.000 
acres.  2,000  of  them,  however,  are  in  the  bounds  of  Williamsburg;  which. 
together  with  Whately.  was  formerly  a  parish  of  Hatfield ;  and  all  these  were 
originally  included  within  the  bounds  of  Hadlcy.  [This  is  not  true  of  the 
whole  of  Williamsburg.)  A  part  of  this  township  is  a  pine  plain;  a  part 
intervals  of  first  quality:  and  the  remaining  part  valuable  upland. 

"The  inhabitants  have  been  for  a  long  period  conspicuous  for  uniformity 
of  ch',ir[ictvr.     They  have  less  intercourse  with  their  neighbors  than  those  of 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  203 

most  other  places.  An  air  of  silence  and  retirement  appears  everywhere. 
I^'xcept  travellers,  few  persons  are  seen  abroad,  besides  those  who  are 
employed  about  their  daily  business.  This  seclusion  renders  them  less  agree- 
able to  strangers;  but  certainly  contributes  to  their  prosperity.  Accordingly, 
few  farming  towns  are  equally  distinguished  either  for  their  property  or  their 
thrift.  Men  who  devote  themselves  to  their  own  concerns  usually  manage 
them  well.  The  people  of  Hatfield  are  good  farmers.  Their  fields  arc 
cultivated  and  their  cattle  fattened  in  a  superior  manner." 

The  first  United  States  census  was  taken  in  1790.  Hat- 
field then  contained  103  houses  and  703  people,  and  in  1800, 
123  houses  and  809  people.  A  provincial  census  taken  in 
1776  showed  a  population  of  582.  For  the  census  figures  of 
other  years,  see  Appendix,  Note  9. 

The  growth  under  the  newly-established  government  was 
thus  steady,  as  it  had  been  in  colonial  times,  and  apparently 
there  w^as  not  much  change  in  the  character  of  the  popula- 
tion, though  the  old  restrictions  against  undesirable  inhab- 
itants had  fallen  into  disuse.  One  of  Burgoyne's  Hessian 
soldiers,  Henry  Wilkie,  settled  in  town  when  the  general  and 
his  army  were  marched  across  the  country  to  Boston,  and 
became  the  town  maltster.  There  were  a  few  Irish  inhab- 
itants at  this  time,  but  they  did  not  acquire  property  or 
remain  in  town  long.  While  freedom  to  all  religious  sects, 
including  Roman  Catholics,  was  decreed  by  the  state  consti- 
tution adopted  in  1780,  the  bitter  struggles  9f  the  colonial 
w^ars  were  too  fresh  in  the  minds  of  men  for  them  to 
entertain  kindly  feelings  for  any  Catholics.  Still  the  old 
Puritan  intolerance  was  dying  out  and  there  is  no  evidence 
of  any  overt  acts  of  hostility  toward  any  prospective  settlers 
of  Hatfield. 

In  1790  about  ISO  people  were  warned  out  of  town.  Under 
date  of  October  25  their  names  were  placed  upon  the  town 
records  and  the  constables  were  directed  to  warn  "the  above 
enumerated  persons  resident  in  the  town  of  Hatfield  in  the 
county  of  Hampshire  who  have  lately  come  into  this  Town 
for  the  purpose  of  abiding  therein,  not  having  obtained  the 
Town's  consent,  therefore,  that  they  depart  the  limits  forth- 
with, their  children  and  others  under  their  care  within  fifteen 
days."  The  state  the  year  before  had  revived  the  old  law 
regarding  who  should  have  the  rights  of  citizenship  in  the 
towns,  and  Hatfield  probably  took  this  action  in  order  to 
establish  a  precedent  in  case  any  newcomers  were  not  de- 
sired. There  is  no  evidence  that  the  persons  so  warned  were 
driven    from    town,   but    they   probably   com\V\ed  \\\\\\  V\v^ 


204 


HISTORY    OF    H.Vri'JliLD. 


requirements  of  the  lau'.  The  list  of  names  contains  those 
of  many  well-known  fainihes.  This  wholesale  warning  wai 
the  only  one,  with  one  exception,  a  man  an<l  his  wife  who 
had  conic  from  ililfonl  receiving  notice  to  leave  Jan.  25. 
1792. 

The  map  of  ITaltiehl  in  1795  here  presented  was  drawn  to 
scale  by  Oliver  Partridge  from  a  survey  hy  Ehcnezer  Fitch, 
who  surveyed  land  in  twenty  towns  in  the  vicinity  from 
17(")5   to    1825.      'I'he  original,  presented  by  Benjamin   M. 


Warner,  is  iu  the  Dickinson  .Memorial  Hall.  This  map 
shows  nil  the  roads  that  were  then  CMunty  highways.  It  will 
he  seen  thai  there  was  at  that  lime  no  county  highway 
through  the  Xnrili  Ak-adow  to  "ilie  l-'arins"  and  that  the 
Tantry  road  was  not  then  built,  l-lbene/er  Clapp  built  before 
IS.^o  ilu-  Imu-e  now  occupied  by  I'eier  .'^atTer,  and  be  was 
in-iruiuitila!  in  bavins:  the  IViiitry  roinl  accepted  hy  the  town. 
If}~  'l;(Jr;,'hter  married  Oliver  tiravc^  .if  Wbatelv,  who  built 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  205 

the  house  occupied  by  George  Bitner.  Thomas  Frary  was 
another  early  resident  in  the  west  part  of  the  town.  He 
built  the  old  house  that  stood  till  after  1900  north  of  the 
residence  of  J.  S.  Newman.  The  map  shows  that  in  1795  a 
part  of  the  town  of  Williamsburg  was  included  in  the  Hat- 
field boundaries.  The  line  is  now  along  Horse  mountain. 
The  residents  of  Mountain  Street  and  Haydenville  voted  and 
were  taxed  in  Hatfield  till  after  1800.  The  Baker's  Ferry 
road  appears  on  the  map  as  the  highway  to  Hadley,  and  the 
ferrv  at  the  north  of  the  street  is  indicated. 

The  leading  man  of  the  town  during  the  closing  years  of 
the  eighteenth  century  was  Hon.  John  Hastings.  He  had 
been  an  ardent  patriot  during  the  struggle  against  Great 
Britain  and,  as  already  noted,  was  the  first  representative  to 
the  provincial  congress  of  Massachusetts.  He  continued  to 
represent  the  town  in  the  state  legislature  almost  continu- 
ously till  1807  and  was  also  chairman  of  the  board  of  select- 
men during  most  of  the  time,  acting  as  moderator  in  town 
meeting  whenever  he  was  present.  There  is  in  the  town 
records  an  expression  of  the  confidence  of  his  townspeople 
in  his  ability  and  public  spirit.  At  the  time  the  state  consti- 
tution was  under  discussion,  Hatfield  voted  instructions  for 
their  representative  to  be  guided  by  in  regard  to  some  points 
the  people  felt  should  receive  particular  attention  in  the 
constitution.  They  laid  special  stress  on  a  bill  of  rights 
and  popular  election  of  the  governor  and  legislators  and  ex- 
pressed their  entire  confidence  in  the  judgment  of  their 
representative,  John  Hastings.  Squire  Hastings  was  a  gen^ 
tleman  of  the  old  school,  punctilious  in  dress  and  manner, 
discreet  in  utterance,  dignified  in  bearing.  He  was  the  last 
wearer  of  a  cocked  hat  in  Hatfield. 

An  interesting  character  was  Miss  Rebecca  Dickinson  or, 
as  she  was  familiarly  called,  "Aunt  Beck,*'  a  seamstress.  As 
she  traveled  from  house  to  house  about  her  work,  she  ac- 
quired a  fund  of  information  concerning  her  neighbors  that 
was  unequaled  by  any  other  person.  A  gift  of  making  pithy, 
epigrammatic  remarks  caused  her  to  be  regarded  as  some- 
thing of  an  oracle.  In  a  diary  she  kept  from  1787  to  1802 
are  recorded  notes  of  events  that  came  under  her  observa- 
tion, mingled  with  comments  of  her  own  on  a  wide  range  of 
subjects,  a  few  extracts  from  which  are  here  given.  The 
diary  is  in  the  possession  of  Mrs.  Mary  A..  "B.  I>\c\saw^ow, 


206  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  earlier  part,  referring  to  Revolutionary  times,   "Aunt 
Beck'*  herself  destroyed.    Her  notes  begin  with  July  22,  1787. 

" — thunder  never  terrifies  me — how  many  would  fly  away  from  this  house 
alone — God  knows  his  saints  and  guards  the  place  where  they  dwell. 

"July  25,  1787,  makes  me  forty-nine  years  of  age — ^therc  is  malis  Enuff 
round  me  to  have  taken  it  from  me. 

"This  is  the  12  of  August  a  Satterday  morning  yesterday  was  att  brother 
bilings  there  was  mr  Carson — Patte  Church  who  boards  there  in  the  evening 
came  home  to  this  house  alone.  I  lited  no  candel  for  the  Darkness  of  my 
mind  was  far  beyond  the  Darkest  Dun j on  there  was  no  hope  for  me  in  the 
things  of  time  jesse  billings  was  there  which  Put  those  bad  thoughts  into 
my  mind."  [After  lamenting  the  fact  that  no  one  desires  her  company  and 
that  she  has  outlived  all  her  connections,  she  concludes  the  day's  meditations 
by  saying,]  "the  more  need  of  sending  all  my  hopes  to  the  heavenly  world.  I 
do  wonder  at  myself  that  I  should  be  so  earthly-minded  and  look  after  the 
things  of  the  world  as  though  I  should  be  the  better  for  any  of  them  or 
think  those  any  more  happy  who  have  them." 

[On  Sunday,  Aug.  13,  she  reflects  upon  her  lonesomeness  and  says  that] 
"God  only  knows  there  is  no  person  in  the  world  who  loves  Company  more 
than  me"  [and  fearing  that  she  will  be  sick  in  bed  within  a  week]  "no  one  to 
do  the  least  kind  offis  for  me — it  is  God's  will." 

[August  20,  she  spent  part  of  the  night  wondering]  "how  it  come  about 
that  others  and  all  the  world  was  in  Possession  of  Children  and  friends  and 
a  hous  and  homes  while  I  was  so  od  as  to  sit  here  alone." 

[On  August  25  she  tells  of  a  wedding  reception  for  Oliver  Hastings  and 
his  bride.]  "No  doubt  there  was  forty  Couple  who  was  invited  in,  some 
singel,  some  marryed  Peopel  a  very  fine  Collection  all  brought  out  to  give 
them  joy  in  their  begining.  I  drinked  tea  with  brother  and  sister  billing. — 
with  a  great  many  fine  Peopel  who  was  a  crouding  in  the  ladies  with  there 
Silks  the  men  the  happiest  who  Could  get  the  neerest  to  them." 

"this  is  the  2  Day  of  September  1787  yesterday  was  at  Sister  Billings 
with  mrs  wells  and  mrs  jud  of  South  Hadley  there  was  two  ladies  Salle 
Hubbard  and  Betsie  Chappill,  my  couzon  who  Drinked  tea  with  us  in  the 
evening  Come  to  this  house  about  half  after  seven  and  found  it  dark  and 
lonesome  here  j  walked  the  rooms  and  cryed  myself  Sick  and  found  ray 
heart  very  stubborn  against  the  govefnment  of  God  who  has  set  me  here  for 
to  try  my  fidelity  to  my  lord  who  knows  the  best  way" 

"this  is  monday  the  4  of  September  1787  this  Day  is  beautiful  like  the 
month  it  is  this  Day  have  been  preparing  for  to  be  sick  it  is  near  the 
Season  when  the  Collick  used  to  visit  me." 

"This  holy  Sabbath  is  22  of  September  this  day  Sister  Mather  is  here 
with  her  two  children  and  is  very  soon  to  goe  to  her  own  home.  This  day 
there  Preached  here  one  mr  jud  of  Ware  he  was  Dismised  about  three  yean 
agow  was  Settled  or  instaled  at  ware  about  too  years  agow  he  gave  us  two 
good  Sermons  on  the  Sad  Efects  of  Sin  from  those  words  of  Ezekel  j  hare 
Purged  thee  and  thee  are  Purged — the  Day  was  warm  like  Summer  ray 
Collick  has  began  this  Day  I  feel  Sick  but  have  great  Cause  of  thankfulness 
that  my  health  has  been  given  me  so  long." 

[Some  time  later  "Aunt  Beck"  had  a  call  from]  "Patte  Graves  of  Pitts- 
field  who  began  the  world  with  me  we  went  together  to  learn  the  trade  of 
goun  making  which  has  been  of  unspeakable  adventage  to  me  but  of  no 
Servis  to  her  She  married  a  man  seven  and  thirty  years  older  than  her  Self 
has  Six  Children  living" 

"there  is  sick  at  the  hous  of  Zack  field  nathaniel  day  of  Northampton 
who  was  taken  Sick  on  thursday  last  and — is  supposed  to  be  this  day  a  going 
the  way  of  all  the  earth." 

[The  next  day  came  the  news  of  his  death,  which  caused  her  to  say,]  "may 
not  Satan  gain  no  adventage  over  me" 

[One  (lay  on  a  call  to  Sister  Billings  she  found  acquaintances  of  earlier 
days  and]  "quit  that  company  because  \  found  my  Company  to  be  a  burden." 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  207 

[On  Sept.  29  she  went  to  the  minister's  house  and  there]  "see  an  old 
acquaintance — was  in  Company  with  him  ten  years  agoe  he  has  sense  very 
well  married"  [She  was  overcome  to  have  him  ask  her  if  her  name  was 
changed  and  went  home  once  more  to  meditate,  rebel  at  her  fate,  and  finally 
repent  of  her  willfulness.] 

[The  entry  of  Oct  5  tells  of  a  visit  to  Whately  with  Sister  Billings,  in 
which  they  called  on  several  acquaintances,  lastly  at]  "Captain  White's  staid 
there  to  refresh  ourSelves  Set  out  for  home  about  the  going  down  of  the 
Sun.  Arrived  at  Sister  bilings  about  Dusk,  there  found  the  woman  who  I 
doe  not  love  nor  can  j  like" 

"About  the  14  of  October  there  was  gathered  at  north — Conel  murry's 
regiment,  about  seven  hundred  men,  brother  bilings  was  Captain  from  this 
town  Captin  Chapin  from  Whately  they  made  a  ^rand  appeerence  as  they 
lined  up  there  was  at  there  head  general  Chapm  of  this  town  general 
Shepard  of  Westfield  major  allis  Conel  lymen  of  northampton  it  was  a  beau- 
tifull  day  for  October    the  bois  all  went  from  this  town" 

[On  the  26th  of  October  her  mother  came  home  after  an  absence  of  some 
months  and  they  set  up  housekeeping]  "one  time  more  how  we  are  to  live  j 
cant  see" 

[She  writes  on  Nov.  15  of  going  to  visit  an  old  friend,  Mrs.  Trowbridge, 
where  she  took  a  sudden  cold  which]  "has  confined  me  for  a  week  with  a 
most  distressing  Collick  j  thought  my  life  to  be  a  ^oing — the  day  of  my 
jllness  sent  for  doctor  wiliams  who  opened  a  vein  which  has  given  me  ease 
it  was  like  a  Pleurisy  in  the  Distress  and  gained  ease  the  same  way  as  tho  it 
was  the  same  disorder  how  sad  to  be  sick  no  one  to  doe  the  least  kind  offis 
my  mother  seventy-nine  years  of  age  not  able  to  take  the  care  of  herself  in  a 
puzzling  fit  broke  my  specticles  a  great  loss  to  me  for  they  suted  me  so  well 
that  a — should  not  have  brought  them  out  of  my  hand." 

[In  1789  she  says,]  "this  is  a  most  Distressing  time  with  the  inhabitence  of 
these  towns  the  want  of  bread  and  the  want  of  money  to  gain  that  same 
article  how  far  God  is  to  try  the  inhabitence  of  this  land  by  famine  god  only 
knows  j  have  never  in  fifty  years  heerd  so  great  a  cry  for  bread  it  looks 
dark  on  the  Peopel  it  is  cold  like  winter  there  is  no  hope  of  the  grain  how 
every  one  should  be  Crying  to  god  to  Power  out  his  spirit  upon  this  Peopel 

"this  is  may  a  Sunday  after  meeting  about  the  30  of  may  the  last  week  a 
bridge,  was  raised  in  this  town  there  is  alwais  Danger  when  briges  are 
raised  my  soul  cryed  to  god  for  presevation  the  lord  heard  my  poor  request 
and  Preserved  this  Peopel  Except  my  brother  who  was  saved  from  death 
when  he  fell  twenty  feet  he  put  out  three  bones  in  his  hand  but  god  in  a 
wonderful  manner  preserved  his  life  and  my  soul  hopes  it  may  be  for  his 
benifit  and  the  good  of  others." 

" — ^Day  Ends  my  book  the  8  day  of  August  1802  Days  are  prolonged 
i  have  begun  my  Sixty  fifth  year  little  did  i  think  to  see  this  time  which  i 
now  behold    never  did  the  goodness  of  god  appeare  more  and  brighter." 

Another  of  the  women  of  the  period  worthy  of  note  was 
Mary  Morton  Smith,  wife  of  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith.  At  her 
death  in  1807  she  left  a  reputation  for  energy,  thrift,  and 
piety  that  had  seldom  been  equaled.  Her  husband  died  in 
1767,  leaving  her  with  a  family  of  six  boys,  and  she  was 
appointed  their  guardian  and  brought  up  the  family.  The 
oldest  boy,  Samuel,  was  only  fifteen  and  the  youngest,  Oliver, 
the  founder  of  the  Smith  Charities  and  Smith's  Agricultural 
School,  only  a  year  and  a  half.  They  all  became  worthy 
citizens.  Samuel  and  two  others,  Benjamin  and  Elijah, 
served  in  the  Revolution.     The  other  sons  were  Rufus  atvd 


208  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Joseph,  who  was  the  father  of  Sophia  Smith,  founder  of 
Smith  College.  Mary  Smith  took  great  interest  in  her  little 
granddaughter  Sophia.  Dr.  J.  M.  Greene  said  in  an  address 
at  Smith  College  in  1896  at  the  centennial  of  Sophia  Smith's 
birth  that  she  told  him  she  remembered  her  grandmother 
well  and  used  to  say,  "I  looked  up  to  my  grandmother  with 
great  love  and  reverence.  She  more  than  once  put  her  hand 
on  my  head  and  said,  *I  want  you  should  grow  up  and  be  a 
good  woman  and  try  to  make  the  world  better.*  **  Mary 
Smith  was  a  w^oman  who  had  keen  interest  in  education, 
which  she  transmitted  to  her  descendants. 

Hatfield  opened  schools  for  girls  in  1796.  There  is  a  tradi- 
tion that  before  the  education  of  girls  was  thought  necessary, 
Roger  Dickinson,  who  had  a  large  family  of  girls  he  wished 
to  have  taught,  went  to  Elijah  Dickinson  for  advice  and 
assistance  in  bringing  up  the  matter  for  public  consideration. 
The  latter  agreed  with  his  relative  on  general  principles,  but 
he  seemed  to  doubt  whether  the  innovation  was  practical. 
His  advice  w-as,  "Roger,  it  is  all  right,  but  do  you  suppose  they 
will  vote  any  money  to  teach  the  shees?'*  But  the  town  did 
vote  to  set  up  tw-o  schools  for  the  training  of  girls  four 
months  in  the  year.  Before  this  the  few  girls  who  had 
attended  school  recited  their  lessons  after  the  boys  had 
finished.  The  boys  went  to  school  about  six  months  in  the 
year  at  this  period.  The  appropriation  for  schools  was  about 
$200  annually.  The  brick  schoolhouse  that  stood  in  the  road 
south  of  the  meetinghouse  and  is  fully  described  by  Mr. 
Partridge  in  his  reminiscences  in  Part  II.  was  built  in  1783. 
The  girls'  schools  were  apparently  "dame  schools,"  kept  in 
private  houses.  Mr.  Partridge  seemed  to  think  that  in  his 
boyhood  they  were  private  schools,  but  probably  they  re- 
ceived support  from  the  public  treasury.  The  younger  boys 
were  also  sent  to  the  **dame  schools"  during  the  earlier  part 
of  the  nineteenth  century. 

Isaac  Curson,  born  in  Dumfries,  England,  who  landed  in 
Philadelphia  in  1784  and  who  was  a  teacher  in  a  private 
school  in  Northampton  for  several  years,  also  opened  a 
school  in  Hatfield  shortly  after  the  Revolution,  where  the 
classics  and  French  were  taught.  For  attempting  to  marry 
Abigail  Barnard  of  Deerfield  while  his  wife  was  still  living  in 
England,  he  was  obliged  to  leave  for  the  west. 

Dr.  Lyman  was  an  ardent  e\\?LW\\)\ow  o(  education  for  both 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  209 

sexes.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Dickinson  Academy  in  Deer- 
field.  In  his  sermon  at  the  opening  of  that  institution  Jan.  1, 
1799,  he  said: — 

"As  knowledge  is  essential  to  wisdom,  and  the  arts  and  sciences  are 
bandtnaids  to  virtue,  and  give  energy  and  success  to  the  feelings  of  benevo- 
lence, so  we  cannot  be  too  assiduous  in  acquiring  knowledge  for  ourselves,  or 
in  promoting  it  among  those  with  whom  we  are  connected  in  society,  espe- 
cially among  the  youth,  the  rising  hope  of  our  country.  Is  he  to  be  com- 
mended who  drinks  deep  at  the  fountain  of  knowledge?  How  much  more 
worthy  of  our  admiration  and  gratitude  is  he  who  liberally  devises  the  ways 
and  means  of  disseminating  science  and  wisdom  among  our  numerous  youth 
of  both  sexes!  He  makes  provision  not  only  that  the  fathers,  but  that  the 
future  mothers  of  the  race  may  be  richly  furnished  to  train  up  their  children 
to    learning  and  virtue." 

The  people  of  the  eighteenth  century  had  more  time  to 
devote  to  culture  than  the  struggling  pioneers  of  the  sev- 
enteenth. Nev^^spapers  and  political  tracts  had  begun  to 
circulate  freely  and  were  eagerly  read.  Books  were  more 
numerous,  though  still  confined  very  largely  to  religious 
works.  A  few  copies  of  Dryden's  and  Pope's  poems  were 
owned  in  town.  The  favorite  books  were  the  Bible,  Watts's 
"Psalms  and  Hymns,"  "The  New  England  Primer,"  contain- 
ing the  Catechism,  "Pilgrim's  Progress,"  Baxter's  "Saint's 
Rest,"  Fox's  "Book  of  Martyrs,"  and  "The  Farmer's  Al- 
manac." 

Many  of  the  customs  of  the  early  colonial  times  lingered 
till  long  after  the  Revolution.  There  was  great  formality 
in  speech  and  manner.  Men  of  rank  wore  ruffled  shirts, 
knee  breeches  and  buckled  shoes,  cocked  hats  and  queues, 
and  powdered  their  hair.  The  ordinary  clothing  was  of 
homespun.  Every  woman  had  a  Scotch  plaid  cloak,  called 
a  camlet,  and  handed  down  from  mother  to  daughter  as  an 
heirloom.  The  dower  given  to  every  girl  by  her  father  on 
her  wedding  day  was  a  brass  kettle  and  a  cow.  Many  of  the 
brass  kettles  were  cherished  family  possessions  with  which 
tales  of  savage  warfare  were  connected.  It  was  the  custom 
of  the  people  to  bury  in  the  ground  the  treasured  brass  kettle 
whenever  the  danger  of  an  Indian  attack  seemed  imminent. 
For  much  of  the  cooking  heavy  iron  pots  were  used.  For 
the  table  service  there  was  shining  pewter  ware.  Gourds 
were  used  for  dippers,  and  for  receptacles  for  milk  there  were 
earthen  pans  like  tile,  glazed  on  the  inside.  A  few  families 
had  furniture  of  English  workmanship  acquired  in  the  palmy 
days  of  colonial  times,  but  much  of  the  furniture  was  of  the 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


plain,  homemade  type.  There  was  no  covering  for  most  o 
the  floors,  which  were  kept  clean  and  shining  by  frequen 
polishings.     The  sand  bank  in  the  highway  opposite  the  Ian< 


of  E.  S.  Warner  near  the  Hill  bridge  was  reserved  for  public 
use  because  it  contained  a  de])osit  of  sand  of  especial  merit 
for  scouring  piiqioscs.  Near  the  river  was  an  abundance  of 
rusbcs  jirized  for  scouriui^  ])e\\*ter, 

'I'hc  baking  was  ilonc  in  huge  brick  ovens.     There  was  not 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  211 

ove  of  any  description  in  Hatfield  before  1800.  On  bak- 
days  the  fire  was  built  early  in  the  morning  on  the  floor 
he  oven  and  kept  replenished  till  all  the  surrounding  walls 
e  heated.     Then  the  embers  were  removed  and  the  floor 

carefully  swept  to  receive  the  loads  of  bread  and  pies 
:  the  housewife  and  her  daughters  had  prepared.  A 
:able  tin  oven  was  used  for  warming  up  food  when  com- 
y  came  unexpectedly.  This  could  be  set  upon  the  hearth 
ront  of  the  fireplace  and  put  away  when  not  in  use.     It 

the  custom  to  keep  a  batch  of  dough  in  the  cellar  under 
imp  cloth  to  be  ready  for  emergencies,  and  when  guests 
ved  the  hostess  would  prepare  biscuits  to  be  baked  in  the 
11  oven  before  the  fire  while  she  chatted  with  her  callers, 
ers  in  those  days  always  came  to  spend  the  whole  after- 
n  and  expected  to  be  invited  to  tea. 

hanksgiving  was  always  a  time  when  large  quantities  of 
visions  were  cooked  for  family  use  for  weeks  to  come, 

preparations  were  begun  a  week  before  Thanksgiving 
,  such  as  paring  apples  and  making  mince  meat.  Some- 
ts  as  many  as  fifty  pies  were  baked  and  set  aside  in  the 
st  room  for  future  use.  Plenty  of  good  New  England 
I  entered  into  their  composition,  so  that  they  were  in  no 
ger  of  freezing.  Large  quantities  of  rich  pound  cake 
e  also  prepared,  which  would  keep  in  good  condition  for 
ng  time.  During  the  fall  each  family  made  a  barrel  of 
e  sauce  as  soon  as  cool  weather  came.  It  was  allowed 
reeze  and  when  wanted  for  use  had  to  be  cut  out  with  a 
:het.  It  was  made  of  sweet  and  sour  apples  cooked 
5ther  in  a  brass  kettle  out  of  doors,  sweetened  with  the 
ip  of  boiled  cider. 

he  fall  was  a  busy  time  in  the  preparation  of  other  house- 
l  supplies.  It  was  the  season  for  hog  killing,  when  the 
:  was  salted,  hams  and  shoulders  cured  and  smoked,  and 
lages  made  in  great  strings  to  hang  from  the  rafters  in 
attic.  Some  sausages  were  always  put  in  earthen  jars 
lelted  lard  and  in  this  way  would  keep  till  the  next  sum- 
.  Some  of  the  fresh  pork,  and  beef  and  mutton  as  well, 
stored  in  the  grain  bins  at  the  barn.  Buried  deep  in  oats 
ye  the  meat  was  protected  from  changes  of  temperature 
r  being  thoroughly  frozen  before  storing, 
he  fall  was  also  the  time  for  carding  and  spinning  the 

and  wool.     Two   pairs   of  woolen   stockings   for   each 
iber  of  the  family  had  to  be  made  beiore  T\\^tvVls^\nvcv^> 


212  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

no  small  task  in  some  families.  Long  woolen  leggings  were 
worn  by  the  men  and  boys  as  a  protection  when  going 
through  deep  snow.  These  were  manufactured  at  home. 
The  winter's  supply  of  candles  had  to  be  prepared  and 
pumpkins  must  be  cut  in  strips  and  dried.  The  pumpkins 
were  used  not  only  for  sauce,  but  also  to  sweeten  the  home- 
brewed  beer.  This  beer  was  the  common  drink  in  everv 
household.  In  summer  it  was  brewed  as  often  as  once  a 
week.     A  hop  pole  stood  in  every  garden. 

Large  quantities  of  cider  also  were  made  and  consumed. 
There  were  several  cider  distilleries  in  town  where  cider 
brandy  was  made.  It  was  an  age  of  hard  drinking.  The 
toddy  glass  and  flip  iron  occupied  a  conspicuous  position  over 
every  fireplace,  and  along  the  sideboards  were  arranged 
decanters  of  rum  flavored  with  native  fruits.  The  most 
common  flavors  were  w^ld  cherry,  raspberry,  and  elderberry. 
These  were  called  cherry  brandy,  raspberry  brandy,  etc.,  and 
were  used  for  flavoring  the  toddy  that  w^as  passed  around 
on  everv  social  occasion. 

Rum  was  brought  from  Hartford  by  boat  and  of  course  a 
supply  for  the  winter  had  to  be  secured  before  navigation  was 
stopped  by  the  ice.  A  story  is  current  of  one  merchant  who 
w^as  obliged  to  send  teams  to  Hartford  in  March  of  one 
year.  He  said  he  had  seven  hogsheads  of  rum  before  winter 
set  in,  but  it  had  all  gone. 

Spring  was  the  season  for  making  a  leach  of  hardwood 
ashes  for  lye  for  soap  making  and  for  the  making  of  maple 
syrup  and  sugar. 

Summer  was  the  time  for  cheese  making.  Before  "dog 
days''  the  garden  herbs  had  to  be  cut  and  cured, — sage,  sum- 
mer savory,  mint,  rue,  and  rosemary.  Dill  and  carawav 
grew  wild  in  the  yards.  The  latter  furnished  the  flavoring 
for  savory  seed  cakes  that  the  younger  members  of  the 
household  clamored  for.  Rushes  for  scouring  the  pewter 
were  ahvays  gathered  in  August.  The  warmer  months  of 
the  year  were  those  in  which  the  weaving  was  done,  for  the 
cumbersome  looms  took  up  too  much  space  in  the  living 
rooms  and  so  were  usually  placed  in  a  shed  or  an  upstairs 
chamber  which  was  unheated.  Almost  all  clothing  and  bed- 
ding was  made  at  home.  Each  girl  was  ambitious  to  have 
her  "setting  out''  completed  before  her  twentieth  birthday. 
Her  outfit  often  included  a  b\^  bedsvread  worked  in  blue  and 
white,  brown  and  white,  or  ^te^w  ?^w<\  \\\v\\.^.    T\v^  N^c^xuen, 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  213 

when  not  otherwise  employed,  were  busy  with  their  knitting, 
and  so  constant  was  their  employment  that  they  did  not  need 
illumination,  but  could  knit  by  the  dim  light  of  the  fireplace. 

The  work  of  the  men  in  the  fields  was  all  performed  by 
hand  as  it  had  been  since  the  first  settlement  of  the  town. 
The  same  staple  crops  were  raised  as  had  been  a  hundred 
vears  before,  and  the  chief  source  of  revenue  was  from  the 
sale  of  fat  cattle  and  hogs.  In  the  winter  every  farmer  made 
a  trip  to  Boston  with  a  load  of  produce.  TheVe  were  no 
carriages  or  sleighs  in  Hatfield  before  1800,  but  almost  every 
farmer  had  a  pung,  a  long,  low  sled  with  a  pine  box  body. 
He  would  fill  this  with  hogs  he  had  butchered,  and  perhaps 
a  few  extra  cheeses,  and  set  out  early  Monday  morning. 
The  trip  to  Boston  took  three  days  each  way,  so  he  could 
arrive  home  before  Sunday  if  not  delayed  by  storms.  The 
first  stop  was  in  Brookfield,  where  he  would  put  up  at  the 
tavern,  eating  his  own  lunch,  which  he  carried  with  him,  in 
the  public  bar-room  and  paying  only  for  his  rum  and  his  lodg- 
ing and  the  stabling  of  his  horse.  Fodder  for  the  horse  was 
also  carried  on  the  load.  The  second  day's  trip  was  usually 
as  far  as  Framingham.  In  Boston  the  load  was  exchanged 
for  a  quintal  of  codfish,  some  New  England  rum,  a  supply  of 
tea  for  the  year,  some  nutmeg  as  a  flavoring  for  toddy,  the 
year's  supply  of  loaf  sugar,  and  silks  and  ribbons  for  the 
women  of  the  family. 

Sleighs  were  introduced  early  in  the  nineteenth  century, 
and  it  was  required  by  law  that  bells  should  be  attached  to 
the  harness  when  sleighs  or  sleds  were  in  use.  The  story  is 
told  of  how  one  independent  Hatfield  citizen  showed  his 
resentment  at  this  regulation,  for  failure  to  comply  with 
which  offenders  were  liable  to  arrest.  Solomon  Graves  was 
a  man  with  a  keen  sense  of  humor  and  ever  ready  for  a 
practical  joke.  He  attached  some  bells  to  the  end  of  his  reins 
and  put  them  in  the  box  of  his  new  sleigh,  spreading  over 
the  seat  a  large  buffalo  robe.  Then  he  drove  to  Northamp- 
ton, where  he  was  promptly  espied  and  halted  by  a  vigilant 
constable,  who  proceeded  to  inform  him  he  was  under  arrest. 
A  crowd  quickly  gathered.  The  constable  was  growing 
angry.  Mr.  Graves  after  some  delay,  appearing  not  to 
understand  why  he  was  stopped  by  the  officer,  pulled  the 
reins  from  under  the  seat  and  showed  his  bells  attached  to 
the  harness  as  the  law  required.  The  constable  beat  a  re- 
treat in  the  face  of  the  jeers  of  the  bystanders. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

A  LONG  PERIOD  OF  PEACE  AND  PROSPERITY,  1800-1861.    INDUS- 
TRIAL CHANGES.    IMMIGRATION. 

'*  What's  new  to  speak,  what  now  to  register." 

The  bridge  across  the  Connecticut. — The  war  of  1812. — Cattle  and  sheep 
industries. — Broom  corn. — Tobacco. — Manufacturing. — Growth  of  the  outlying 
villages. 

After  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war  the  town  of 
Hatfield  enjoyed  a  long  period  of  peace  and  prosperity,  the 
events  of  part  of  which  were  narrated  in  the  last  chapter. 
The  war  of  1812  created  little  disturbance  and  the  Mexican 
war  none  at  all.  The  first  half  of  the  century  brought  many 
important  industrial  changes  and  saw  the  beginning  of  the 
immigration  movement  that  has  so  changed  the  character  of 
the  population  of  the  town.  The  agricultural  indttstlies 
reached  a  higher  stage  of  development  than  they  everlttd 
before. 

At  the  very  beginning  of  the  century  plans  were  laid  for 
the  building  of  a  bridge  across  the  Connecticut  riven  Tht 
act  of  incorporation  was  passed  by  the  state  legislature 
March  8,  1803.  The  bridge  was  formally  opened  Oct.  20, 
1807,  with  a  great  public  demonstration,  the  following  ac- 
count of  which  appeared  in  the  Hampshire  Gazette  of  October 
28:— 

"On  Tuesday  the  20th  inst.,  this  elegant  and  costly  edifice  was  compleatcd 
and  opened  for  public  use. 

"After  struggling  with  uncommon  resolution  and  fortitude,  for  four 
years,  against  every  species  of  difficulty  and  misfortune,  this  was  truly,  a 
proud  and  joyful  event  to  the  proprietors.  To  the  public  at  large  it  was  a 
cause  of   sincere  gratification. 

"A  very  large  concourse  of  people  from  the  adjacent  towns,  together  with 
Iladley  and  Hatfield  bands  of  music,  and  Capt.  Breck's  company  of  artillcrx' 
under  command  of  Lieut.  Dwight,  joined  with  the  proprietors  in  the  cere- 
monies and  festivities  of  the  day.  At  11  o'clock  A.  M.  the  corporation  with 
the  artillery  and  music,  proceeded  from  Roberts'  Inn  to  the  meetinghouse, 
where  an  appropriate  sermon  was  delivered  by  Rev.  Dr.  Lyman,  to  a  ver}* 
crowded  audience.  After  the  services  were  concluded  the  artillery  and 
music,  gentlemen  spectators,  the  architect,  the  president,  directors  and  cor- 
poration, and  the  Rev.  clergy  were  formed  in  procession  by  the  Marshall  of 
the  (Inv,  ^nd  marched  to  the  bridge. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  215 

"Afler  passing  and  repassing  the  bridge  in  Inverted  order,  under  an 
ahernale  discharge  of  artillery  from  the  opposite  banks  of  the  river,  the 
procession  returned  to  While's  Inn,  and  partook  of  a  handsome  entertain- 
ment. A  few  appropriate  toasts  with  a  discharge  of  artillery,  concluded  the 
ceremonies  of  the  day." 

An  apocryphal  account  states  that  a  prayer  was  offered 
by  "Priest"  Wells  of  Whately, — presumably  at  the  bridge, — 
in  which  he  prayed  for  everybody  up  and  down  the  street 


The  Db.  Dan 


and  across  the  bridge.  As  be  was  hemming  and  hawing, 
about  to  begin  all  over  again,  he  was  interrupted  by  Roger 
Dickinson,  who  shouted,  "Jump  ashore,  parson,  jump 
ashore." 

Dr.  Lyman's  sermon  was  printed.  He  was  enthusiastic 
over  the  possibilities  in  store  from  the  improved  means  of 
communication,  believing  it  foreshadowed  tlie  coming  of  the 
millennium. 

The  funds  for  building  the  bridge  were  raised  jiartlv  by  the 
sale  of  lottery  tickets,  a  common  method  for  raising  money 
at  that  time.  The  first  bridge  lottery  was  anthorizei!  in 
1803.     The  drawings  were  held  at  the  tavevu  Ve\»\.  \^n  \^^. 


216  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Daniel  White  in  the  house  now  the  residence  of  D.  W. 
Wells.  Dr.  White  was  the  most  noted  inn  keeper  of  the 
period  and  his  tavern  was  a  popular  resort.  He  studied 
medicine  in  his  youth  and  went  to  Whitestown,  N.  Y.,  to 
practice.  Losing  one  of  his  first  cases,  in  which  the  opera- 
tion of  bleeding  the  patient,  then  in  general  use  by  physicians, 
had  fatal  results,  he  packed  his  baggage  and  returned  home 
at  once,  never  again  attempting  to  practice  his  profession. 
He  was  the  first  postmaster  in  Hatfield,  being  appointed  in 
1806  and  serving  till  1831. 

One   hundred  and   fifty-nine  shares   of  the  stock   of  the 
bridge  corporation  were  taken  by  subscribers.     The  par  value 
of  the  stock  was  not  recorded  in  the  corporation  book,  which 
has  been  preserved,  but  it  is  thought  to  have  been  $100.     The 
first  dividend,  of  $238.50,  was  declared  on  Jan.  1,  1812,  and 
was  followed  by  twenty-one  others,  the  last  on  Nov.  6,  1820. 
They  were   declared  at  irregular  intervals,  about   three  a 
year,  and  varied  from  50  cents  to  $1.50  per  share,  averaging 
not  over  $2.00  per  year.     The  first  officers  were  Jonathan  H. 
Lyman  of  Northampton,   president;   Nathaniel    Smith  and 
Samuel  Partridge,  2d,  directors;  Joseph  Billings,  treasurer; 
Samuel  Partridge,  2d,  clerk;  the  last  all  of  Hatfield.     A  toll 
house  was  erected  on  the  Hatfield  side  of  the  bridge.     The 
rates  were  as  follows,  established  by  the  act  of  incorpora- 
tion : — 

Foot  passengers    $0.03 

Horse  and  rider 07 

Horse  and  chaise,  or  sulky 16 

Coach,  chariot,  phaeton,  or  other  four-wheeled  car- 
riage  for  passengers 33 

For  each  curricle ^5 

One  horse   sleigh .10 

Sleigh  drawn  by  more  than  one  horse 12j4 

Cart,  sled,  or  other  carriage  of  burden : 

Drawn  by  one  beast 16 

Drawn  by  more  than  one  beast 20 

Horses,  without  rider,  and  neat  cattle 03 

Sheep  and  swine 01 

Only  one  person  to  each  team  was  allowed  to  pass  free  of 
toll.  Persons  crossing  the  bridge  in  the  performance  of 
military  duty  or  ministers  on  an  exchange  of  pulpits  were 
not  required  to  pay  for  passage.  A  few  tickets  for  passage 
for  a  year  or  a  shorter  period  were  issued. 

The  bridge  was  built  of  arches  resting  on  abutments  and 
piers,  the  remains  of  which  are  still  seen  in  the  river  opposite 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  217 

"the  old  bridge  place."     The  planking  followed  the  curves  of 
the  arches  so  that  driving  across  was  a  series  of  rises  and 

descents. 

The  bridge  did  not  prove  a  profitable  investment  for  the 
shareholders.  In  1821  the  question  of  rebuilding  was  agi- 
tated, but  the  proprietors  had  lost  their  interest.  The  bridge 
had  become  unsafe  for  use.  July  7,  1823,  sale  of  the  toll 
house  and  the  land  on  which  it  stood  was  made  to  Peter 
Ingram  of  Amherst,  the  highest  bidder,  for  $375.  The  old 
iron  and  bolts  were  also  sold  at  auction.  The  bridge  by  that 
time  had  been  pulled  down.  In  1824  the  directors  voted  to 
rebuild,  but  the  vote  was  not  carried  into  effect,  and,  June  15, 
1826,  the  piers  and  abutments  were  sold  to  Capt.  Isaac 
Damon  of  Northampton  for  the  payment  of  $4.50  per  share, 
"that  being  the  highest  value  thereof."  He  removed  all  the 
stone  which  could  easily  be  secured.  A  bridge  between  Had- 
ley  and  Northampton  was  built  in  1808,  which,  with  a 
greater  volume  of  travel,  proved  profitable. 

The  original  proprietors  of  the  Hatfield  bridge  were  mostly 
residents  of  Northampton,  Hadley,  Amherst,  and  Hatfield. 
A  few  shares  were  transferred  before  the  final  settlement  of 
the  affairs  of  the  company.  The  original  owners  of  the 
shares  as  recorded  in  the  corporation  book  were  Nathaniel 
Smith,  12;  Isaac  Abercrombie,  15;  J.  H.  Lyman,  1;  Rev. 
Joseph  Lyman,  1 ;  Nehemiah  Waite,  2;  C.  &  S.  Partridge,  24 
Jonathan  Clark,  14;  Josiah  Morton,  2;  Calvin  Merrill,  2 
Evan  Johns,  26;  Elijah  Boltwood,  10;  Elijah  Dickinson,  5 
Samuel  Smith,  9;  Medad  Dickinson,  5;  Caleb  Strong,  3;  Wil- 
liam Porter,  15;  Joseph  Billings,  3;  Samuel  Porter,  2;  Enos 
Baker,  2;  Ebenezer  Ingraham,  2;  John  Russell,  1;  Robert 
Cutter,  1 ;  Jason  Mixter,  2. 

The  war  of  1812  was  not  popular  in  Massachusetts,  where 
Madison's  policy  was  considered  detrimental  to  the  best 
interests  of  the  country.  Hatfield  adopted  the  following 
resolutions  at  a  town  meeting  held  Feb.  8,  1809: — 

"Whereas,  the  people  have  a  right  in  a  peaceable  manner  to  request  the 
Legislature,  by  way  of  addresses  and  petitions  or  remonstrances,  for  a 
redress  of  gfnevances  they  suffer;  and  whereas,  the  aspect  of  our  public 
affairs  is  alarming  almost  beyond  a  precedent,— our  citizens  suffering  (as  we 
think)  needless  and  most  extraordinary  privations,  public  confidence  tottering 
to  its  base,  and  the  government  endeavoring  to  palm  upon  us  laws  in  our 
judgment  unconstitutional,  arbitrary,  and  oppressive ;  and  whereas,  during 
the  administration  of  Washington  and  Adams,  when  our  country  was  emerg- 
ing from  the  horrors  of  a  cruel  and  relentless  war,  when  a  forttv  oi.  ^^on^xyv.- 
nient  was  to  be  established  embracing  the  union  oi  lV\es<i  Sx^i^ts,  vaV^xv  ^^ 


218  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

« 

hatchet  of  war  with  the  savages  upon  our  frontiers  was  to  be  buried,  when 
ways  and  means  were  to  be  devised  to  cancel  our  national  debt,  when  com- 
mercial treaties  with  European  nations  were  to  be  established,  our  country 
rose  to  wealth  and  greatness  unparalleled  in  the  history  of  the  world;  there- 
fore, ^ 

"Resolved,  That  it  is  a  departure  from  their  policy  and  measures  that  has 
produced  these  evils  and  brought  the  nation  to  the  brink  of  wretchedness 
and  ruin. 

"Resolved,  That  the  embargo  is  unnecessary  and  oppressive. 

"Resolved,  That  we  view  the  late  law  for  enforcing  the  embargo  as  a 
death  blow  to  our  civil  liberties;  as  by  it  the  sanctuary  of  our  dwellings  is 
made  liable  to  search  and  our  property  to  seizure  upon  the  suspicion  only  of 
the  mere  creatures  of  the  President;  as  by  it  the  breath  of  the  Executive 
may  constitute  the  law  of  the  land;  and,  above  all,  that  the  civil  is  made 
subservient  to  the  military  power. 

"Resolved,  That  we  view  with  anxiety  and  concern  the  late  extraordinary 
augmentation  of  military  power,  without  so  much  as  an  intimation  from  our 
government  of  their  object  and  design. 

"Resolved,  That  the  President  ought  to  distrust,  and  that  we  hold  in 
contempt  the  opinion  of,  those  who  would  treat  us  as  rebels  and  term  us  the 
most  worthless  part  of  community,  because  we  do  not  hold  out  our  hands  to 
the  chains  and  tamely  submit  to  arbitrary  power. 

"Resolved,  That  we  have  ever  viewed  the  returning  of  the  British  treaty 
by  the  President  without  submitting  it  to  the  Senate  as  an  impolitic  measure, 
and  in  our  opinion  it  is  through  the  means  and  measures  of  our  Administra- 
tion that  all  essential  differences  with  Great  Britain  have  not  long  since  been 
amicably  and  honorably  adjusted. 

"Resolved.  That  we  esteem  our  national  Constitution  as  an  invaluable 
legacy  from  our  political  fathers,  and  if  necessary  will  yield  our  lives  and 
fortunes  a  cheerful  sacrifice  to  defend  it,  and  we  do  hereby  exhort  our 
fellow-citizens  to  rally  around  it  as  the  standard  of  political  safety,  and  to 
esteem  no  sacrifices  too  great  to  preserve  it.  And  as  we  have  heretofore 
petitioned  the  President  and  Congress  in  vain,  therefore, 

"Resolved,  That  the  selectmen  be  a  committee  to  prepare  a  respectful 
petition  to  our  Legislature,  praying  that  honorable  body  to  use  all  constitu- 
tional means  in  their  power  to  procure  our  enlargement,  that  so  agriculture 
and  commerce  may  again  receive  the  rewards  of  industry  and  enterprise." 

Brig.  Gen.  Isaac  Maltby  of  Hatfield  was  in  command  of  the 
Hampshire  militia  during  the  war.  They  were  called  out  by 
Gov.  Caleb  Strong  for  the  defense  of  Boston  in  1814.  Hat- 
field's quota  in  the  expedition  was  14,  but  the  names  of  the 
men  have  not  all  been  ascertained.  Mr.  Partridge  in  his 
reminiscences  in  Part  H.  speaks  of  Murray  Maltby,  Israel 
Billings,  and  Moses  Morton,  and  one  other  is  mentioned  in 
the  sketch  of  Hatfield  in  the  "Historv  of  the  Connecticut 
Valley,^'  in  which  the  following  account  of  the  services  of 
Mr.  Morton  are  related  in  what  proved  to  be  a  picnic  cam- 
paign for  the  soldiers  : — 

''For  tlu-'^o  valiant  services  they  gave  me  two  land  warrants,  and  at  last  a 
pension :  curious  idea  wa'n't  it,  after  seventy  years  to  give  me  a  pension  for 
just  that  nice  little  parade  down  to  Boston?  I  was  quartermaster  under 
Col.  Valentine.  I  was  a  sergeant  in  the  home  company.  They  called  on 
Hatfield  for  a  detail  of  fourteen  men,  among  them  a  captain  and  a  lieutenant; 
hut  they  two  whined  and  took  on  so  dreadfully  the  officers  let  them  off  and 
took  two  sergeants,  Jonathan  Porter  and  me.  That  is  the  way  I  got  into  the 
excursion." 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  219 

Jeremiah  Bardwell,  Horatio  Strong,  and  Henry  Wilkie 
were  also  with  the  squad  that  marched  from  Hatfield  to  the 
defense  of  Boston. 

The  news  of  the  ratification  of  the  treaty  of  peace  was 
received  with  rejoicing.  The  treaty  was  ratified  by  the  Sen- 
ate, Feb.  17,  1815,  and  the  news  was  quickly  sent  about  the 
country  by  post.  It  traveled  from  Washington  to  Philadel- 
phia in  14  hours,  from  there  to  New  York  in  9.  The  time 
for  the  distance  of  240  miles  from  Washington  to  New  York 
in  23  hours  was  considered  remarkable. 

The  fattening  of  cattle  continued  as  one  of  the  principal 
industries  among  the  farmers  of  Hatfield.  Large  quantities 
of  corn  were  raised  in  the  fertile  meadows,  and  in  the  fall 
each  farmer  bought  as  many  pairs  of  oxen  as  he  could  find 
room  for  in  his  barns,  12  to  40  head.  By  the  time  of  the 
Civil  war  some  of  the  inhabitants  had  accommodations  for 
even  larger  numbers.  The  Fitch  brothers  usually  kept  100 
head,  J.  D.  Billings  about  80,  and  Henry  S.  Porter  50. 

Many  sheep  were  also  fattened.  Some  farmers  had  both 
sheep  and  cattle,  but  usually  they  specialized  in  one  kind  of 
stock.  Elijah  Bardwell  and  Reuben  H.  Belden  used  to  keep 
as  many  as  1,000  through  the  winter  and  many  had  from 
100  to  500. 

Early  in  the  nineteenth  century  the  cultivation  of  broom 
corn  on  a  commercial  scale  was  begun.  It  had  been  raised 
in  the  Connecticut  valley  to  a  slight  extent  as  early  as  1780. 
The  pioneer  broom  maker  was  Levi  Dickinson  of  Hadley. 
He  commenced  to  raise  large  quantities  of  broom  corn  and 
to  make  and  sell  brooms  about  1797.  The  first  to  raise  broom 
corn  in  Hatfield  was  Simeon  Smith  in  1816  or  1817.  This 
proved  a  very  profitable  undertaking  and  broom  corn  came  to 
be  the  principal  cultivated  crop,  reaching  an  acreage  of  nearly 
1,000  acres.  The  meadow  roads  were  narrow  lanes  through 
the  tall  waving  fields.  The  memorial  poem  of  Edward  C. 
Porter  at  the  Hadley  bicentennial  celebration  in  1859  devoted 
several  stanzas  to  the  praise  of  the  "tall  broom  corn.'* 

"The  Broom  Corn  stands  on  the  meadow  lands, 

Like  an  army  still  and  solemn. 
When  it  holds  its  breath  as  the  leaden  death 

Pours  fast  from  the  foeman's  column ; 
For  the  tall  Broom  Corn  is  a  warrior  born, 

In  the  stern  battalions  growinfs^. 
And  his  green  leaves  wave  like  a  banner  brave, 

When  the  battle  winds  are  blowing. 


220  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

"The  yellow  Maize  in   September  days 

Stands  ripe  on  hill  and  meadow, 
While  brightly  gleam  in  the  slant  sunbeam 

The  ears  'mid  the  green  leaves'  shadow ; 
.  But  the  tall  Broom  Corn  is  a  warrior  born, 

In  the  stern  battalions  growing, 
And  his  green  leaves  wave  like  a  banner  brave. 
When  the  battle  winds  are  blowing. 

''The  golden  grain  on  the  sunny  plain 

Stands  calm  in  the  early  dawning, 
And  it  nods  with  pride  on  the  broad  hillside, 

In  the  gentle  breeze  of  morning; 
But  the  tall  Broom  Corn  is  a  warrior  born. 

In  the  stern  battalions  growing. 
And  his  green  leaves  wave  like  a  banner  brave, 

When  the  battle  winds  are  blowing. 

"His  blood-red  crest  in  the  morning  mist 

He  waves  o'er  the  close  ranks  proudly. 
Like  a  soldier's  plume  in  the  battle  gloom. 

Where  the  cannon  thunder  loudly; 
For  the  tall  Broom  Corn  is  a  warrior  born, 

In  the  stern  battalions  growing, 
And  his  green  leaves  wave  like  a  banner  brave. 

When  the  battle  winds  are  blowing." 

The  cultivation  of  broom  corn  lasted  till  about  1860  and 
there  were  many  flourishing  shops  in  town  for  the  manjafiic- 
ture  of  brooms.  A  device  for  separating  the  seed  {ram^  the 
corn  was  invented  by  Elisha  Wells  about  1850.  This  80- 
called  scraper  took  the  place  of  the  hetchels  which  had  before 
been  used.  The  seed  was  ground  with  corn  for  provender 
for  cattle.  Frost  often  prevented  the  ripening  of  the  seed. 
At  the  height  of  the  industry  some  farmers  harvested  $1,000 
worth  of  broom  seed. 

Those  who  had  the  largest  broom  factories  were  Elijah 
Bardwell,  Lucius  G.  Curtis,  John  D.  Brown,  William  C.  Bliss, 
Josiah  Brown,  and  Otis  C.  Wells,  all  of  them  employing  a 
large  number  of  workmen.  Many  of  the  smaller  farmers 
had  little  shops  on  their  places,  w'here  they  made  brooms 
during  the  w^inter,  and  the  industry  was  kept  up  on  a  small 
scale  till  several  years  after  the  Civil  war.  No  broom  corn 
is  raised  in  tow^n  now,  but  Anthony  Douglas  still  operates  a 
shop. 

Many  French-Canadians  settled  in  town  from  1850  on. 
They  were  expert  broom  tyers  and  this  occupation  was  the 
chief  cause  of  the  French  immigrants  becoming  permanent 
settlers  of  the  town.  They  had  come  in  large  numbers  in 
previous  years  to  work  on  the  farms  in  summer,  but  had 
been  in  the  habit  of  reU\rnmg  to  Canada  in  the  fall  to  work 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD.  221 

in  the  woods  during  the  winter.  Among  the  first  of  the 
French  settlers  in  Hatfield  were  Peter  Balise,  Anthony 
Bolack,  James  Breor,  Anthony  Douglas,  and  Edward  Proulx. 
Tobacco  had  been  raised  in  the  Connecticut  valley  almost 
from  the  beginning  of  the  settlements,  but  only  in  small 
garden  patches.  In  1857  William  H.  Dickinson  and  James 
Morton  commenced  the  cultivation  of  this  crop  for  sale  in 
quantity.     They  were  successful  with'  it  and  their  neighbors 


immediately  followed  their  example.  Broom  corn  had  by 
this  time  become  very  uncertain  and  unprofitable  on  account 
of  competition  of  western  growers  on  low-priced  land  and 
tobacco  took  its  place.  By  1860  the  production  of  tobacco 
had  increased  to  1,780  cases.  In  1909  the  yield  was  over 
7,500  cases. 

For  a  short  time  in  the  '30's  there  was  a  craze  for  raising 
teasels.  Their  sharp  hooks  were  used  for  the  dressing  of 
woolen  cloth.  The  craze  quickly  died  out.  Soon  after  came 
a  craze  for  the  growing  of  silkworms.  Many  mulberry  trees 
were  set  out,  Capt.  Thaddeus  Graves,  Richard  Smith,  and 
Moses  Warner  each  having  several  hundred  and  others 
smaller  plantations.  This  industry,  like  the  growing  of 
teasels,  was  short-lived  and  unprofitable.  Elijah  Dickinson 
and  his  son  Elijah  were  the  most  enthusiastic  over  the  cul- 
ture of  silkworms  and  continued  it  several  yeaTS,  a\\.M  \'&*Si. 


222  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The    lumber    industry   had   become    quite    an    important 
branch  of  the  activities  of  the  town.     Harvey  Moore  oper- 
ated a  savsrmill  on  the  site  of  Shattuck's  gun  shop,  where  the 
Meekins  mill  had  been,  and  did  a  large  business.     Henry 
Wilkie  operated  a  sawmill  where  A.  L.  Strong's  now  is,  and 
Solomon  Mosher  had  one  at  West  Brook.     The  latter  was 
also  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  saleratus.     He  sold  out 
about  1850  to  Kitridge  and  Button,  who  in  addition  to  their 
wood  working  also  made  husk  mattresses.     This  business 
was  continued  by  Andrew  Button  till  after  the  Civil  war. 
He  was  succeeded  by  George  and  Bwight  Bickinson.     The 
manufacture^  of  mattresses  gave  the  farmers  an  opportunity 
to  dispose  of  what  was  otherwise  a  waste  product.     The 
corn  was  picked  in  the  field  and  husked  at  the  barn  and  the 
husks  carefully  saved  and  taken  to  the  mill. 

Buring  the  period  under  consideration  flourishing  settle- 
ments grew  up  at  West  Farms  (now  Bradstreet),  at  West 
Brook  (or  North  Hatfield),  and  at  West  Hatfield.  Good- 
sized  schoolhouses  were  built  in  these  villages  in  1860  and 
1861  to  replace  the  small  ones  that  served  at  first.  Only  the 
one  at  West  Hatfield  remains  in  use.  The  building  of  the 
brick  schoolhouses  is  noted  in  Mr.  Wells's  reminiscences  in 
Part  n.     None  of  them  were  built  till  after  the  Civil  war. 

Hatfield  was  divided  into  school  districts  in  1812  and  was 
organized  under  the  state  law  of  1826  with  a  committee  to 
examine  teachers.  There  were  only  three  districts  at  first, — 
the  Hill,  South  Center,  and  North  Center.  The  North  Cen- 
ter schoolhouse  was  on  the  J.  B.  Brown  lot.  A  "select 
school''  was  established  about  1820  for  teaching  the  higher 
branches  of  learning  to  such  as  had  mastered  the  "three  R's." 
It  was  conducted  in  a  schoolhouse  built  on  the  Silas  Porter 
lot  and  taught  by  college  students  during  their  long  winter 
vacations.  Among  those  who  taught  in  this  school  were 
Walter  M.  Rowland,  former  treasurer  of  Amherst  College; 
Rev.  Judson  Titsworth  of  Milwaukee,  Wis.;  and  Rev.  Joseph 
Leach  of  Keene,  N.  H.  The  old  brick  schoolhouse  on  Main 
Street  was  taken  down  in  1846  and  replaced  by  a  wooden  one, 
which  was  located  on  the  so-called  "proprietors  lot."  It 
stood  where  the  row  of  hitching  posts  is,  back  of  the  Congre- 
gational church,  and  was  afterward  moved  to  the  Morton 
lot,  where  it  remained  till  torn  down  bv  A.  W.  Morton  in 
1908. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  223 

The  "proprietors  lot"  was  the  Israel  Williams  lot,  bought 
by  public-spirited  citizens  to  be  reserved  for  public  use.  The 
cemetery  was  sold  to  the  town  in  1846,  the  church  was  built 
in  1849  on  the  front  part  of  the  lot  and  the  town  hall  and 
parsonage  in  1852.  The  first  town  hall  was  built  in  1830  on 
the  Squire  Benjamin  Smith  lot.  Its  site  was  where  the 
driveway  leading  to  the  cemetery  is,  one  part  being  on  the 
corner  of  the  Memorial  Hall  lot.  Dr.  Lyman's  lot  was 
the  next  to  the  south. 

From  1830  to  1860  the  lyceum  system  was  at  the  height 
of  its  popularity.  The  meetings  furnished  the  chief  social 
diversion  of  the  people  as  well  as  giving  valuable  training  in 
parliamentary  practice.  There  was  a  lyceum  in  each  school 
district  in  the  town,  that  in  West  Farms  being  kept  up  the 
longest.  Whol^  families  attended  the  gatherings,  which 
were  held  in  the  schoolhouses,  and  the  debates  on  public 
questions  excited  great  interest.  The  participants  were  for 
the  most  part  citizens  of  the  town,  though  outside  speakers 
sometimes  were  secured.  Leaders  were  appointed  in  ad- 
vance, but  all  who  wished  took  part  in  the  discussions. 
Popular  vote  decided  the  argfument. 

At  about  the  same  time  the  singing  schools  were  a  popular 
feature  of  the  social  life  during  the  winter  season.  A  course 
of  twelve  or  fourteen  lessons  was  g^ven  and  the  season  was 
closed  with  a  grand  concert.  In  1852  Jenny  Lind,  who  was 
then  spending  her  honeymoon  on  Round  Hill  in  Northamp- 
ton, sang  in  Hatfield  under  the  large  elm  tree  in  front  of 
S.  F.  Billings's  house,  which  has  since  been  known  as  the 
"Jenny  Lind  elm." 

The  church  history  of  the  period  is  given  in  Part  II.  The 
town  and  parish  were  divided  in  1829.  Some  change  from 
the  earlier  established  order  of  a  union  of  church  and  town 
affairs  had  begun  as  early  as  1741,  for  when  Mr.  Woodbridge 
was  called  as  colleague  of  Mr.  Williams,  he  was  chosen  by  a 
church  committee  and  the  choice  was  ratified  by  vote  of  the 
town.  The  same  was  the  proceeding  when  Dr.  Lyman  was 
settled.  He  had  his  salary  paid  from  the  town  treasury 
throughout  his  pastorate,  as  did  his  successor,  Rev.  Jared 
B.  Waterbury,  who  was  installed  as  colleague  Jan.  10,  1827. 
Dr.  Lyman  died  March  27,  1828.  Rev.  Levi  Pratt,  ordained 
in  1830,  was  not  hired  by  the  town,  but  by  the  church  and 


^%.^  «•«  «« l« 


224  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

About  1845  began  the  immigration  of  numbers  of  Irish  and 
German  settlers.  The  Irish  exodus  from  "the  old  sod"  was 
caused  primarily  by  the  failure  of  the  potato  crop  in  Ireland, 
and  between  1845  and  1847  its  inhabitants  came  in  great 
numbers  to  the  shores  of  America.  Some  of  them  found 
employment  in  building  the  Connecticut  river  railway,  which 
was  finished  as  far  as  Northampton  in  1845.  Betw-een  1845 
and  1848  the  line  between  Northampton  and  Greenfield  was 
under  construction.  The  Irish,  who  were  at  home  farm 
laborers,  settled  as  permanent  residents  in  all  the  Connecti- 
cut valley  towns,  where  many  of  them  soon  acquired  farms  of 
their  own.  The  Irish  residents  of  Hatfield  who  settled  in 
town  between  1845  and  1860  were  William,  Patrick,  and 
Thomas  Boyle,  Joseph  and  Michael  Clancy,  Michael  Day, 
John  and  Maurice  Fitzgibbons,  Michael  Hade,  James  Leary, 
John  McHugh,  Matthew  Nolan,  Nicholas  and  Edmund  Pow- 
ers, John  and  James  Ryan,  John  B.  Ryan,  and  Daniel  and 
Michael  Whalen. 

The  chief  cause  of  the  Germans  leaving  their  fatherland 
was  the  failure  of  the  revolution  in  Germany  in  1848.  The 
first  settlers  of  German  birth  in  Hatfield  were  Christian  Carl, 
with  his  grown  sons,  Philip,  Frederick,  and  Jacob,  Peter 
SafTer,  Adam  Doppman.  George  Vollinger,  Frank  Newman, 
George  Chandler,  Gottlieb  Decker,  Joseph  Stoddard,  Peter 
Stoddard,  and  Frank  Steele.  Many  of  the  German  families 
settled  in  West  Hatfield  along  the  Pantry  road,  which  had 
not  before  been  built  upon  to  a  very  large  extent. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

THE  CIVIL  WAR. 

'*  When  a  deed  is  done  for  Freedom,  through  the  broad  earth's  aching  breast, 
Runs  a  thrill  of  joy  prophetic,  trembling  on  from  east  to  west." 

Hatfield's  Civil  war  pastor. — The  selectmen. — ^The  first  enlistments. — 
Rallies  of  the  year  1662.— Work  of  the  women. — Farewell  to  the  members  of 
the  52d.— The  roll  of  honor.— The  drafts  of  1663. 

As  was  the  case  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  so  when  the 
struggle  between  the  North  and  the  South  came  on,  Hatfield 
had  an  eloquent,  ardent,  and  patriotic  minister.  Rev.  John 
M.  Greene  was  ordained  as  pastor  of  the  church  Oct.*  20, 
1857.  His  able  sermons  roused  the  people  to  the  full  per- 
formance of  their  duty  and  his  services  were  in  demand 
at  rallies.  Filled  with  ardor  for  the  cause  of  the  Union  he 
desired  to  serve  as  chaplain  of  a  regiment,  but  did  not  receive 
an  appointment. 

The  selectmen,  who  served  as  recruiting  officers,  were 
strong  and  able  men.  William  H.  Dickinson,  Reuben  H. 
Belden,  and  John  T.  Fitch  were  the  selectmen  from  1862  to 
1868,  put  in  as  young  men  to  replace  the  former  board  of 
older  citizens.  In  addition  to  caring  for  the  interests  of  the 
town  they  were  tireless  in  the  work  of  filling  the  town's 
quota  at  each  call  for  more  men  and  in  looking  after  any 
families  who  needed  aid  while  the  men  were  at  the  front. 

The  news  of  the  firing  on  Fort  Sumter  aroused  great 
excitement  in  the  town.  A  high  flagstaff  was  raised  in  front 
of  the  Hill  schoolhouse  and  a  new  flag  spread  to  the  breeze 
from  its  top  in  a  great  public  demonstration.  By  an  unfor- 
tunate accident  Erastus  F.  Billings  lost  a  leg.  A  cannon 
burst  from  being  charged  too  heavily  and  one  of  the  frag- 
ments  struck  him. 

It  was  not  long  before  troops  were  being  hurried  south. 
The  Hatfield  volunteers  in  the  10th  Massachusetts  regi- 
ment, that  followed  close  on  the  heels  of  the  famous  6th  in 
1861,  were  James  H.  Abbott,  Charles  L.  Bardwell,  Charles  W. 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 


I^^^V^^VH 

i 

^            WILLIAM  ti  auHNBJ^ 

HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  227 

Evans,  Judson  W.  Harris, Dwight  Morton,  George  Warner, 
and  Jonathan  D.  Warner.  The  names  of  the  other  soldiers 
with  the  commands  in  which  they  served  are  given  in  the 
table  at  the  end  of  the  chapter.  The  21st,  24th,  25th,  27th, 
30th,  and  31st  Massachusetts  regiments  each  took  Hatfield 
men. 

By  1862  it  was  seen  that  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion 
was  not  to  be  the  easy  task  supposed  at  first  and  there  was 
talk  of  the  necessity  of  a  draft.  The  Massachusetts  towns 
were  loyally  filling  the  quotas  of  new  men  called  for,  how- 
ever. Hatfield's  quota  for  the  37th  regiment  was  16  men. 
A  rousing  public  meeting  was  held  in  the  town  hall  July 
14,  1862,  at  which  nearly  all  the  voters  were  present.  It 
was  unanimously  voted  to  raise  a  bounty  fund  of  $100 
for.  each  volunteer  called  for  from  the  town.  Eight  men 
came  forward  and  pledged  themselves  to  be  responsible  for 
$100  each  in  case  the  town  should  decide  not  to  raise  the 
whole  amount  by  taxation.  They  were  Elijah  Bardwell, 
Joseph  D.  Billings,  David  Billings,  Charles  M.  Billings,  Dex- 
ter Allis,  William  H.  Dickinson,  George  W.  Hubbard,  and 
Marshall  N.  Hubbard.  Spirited  addresses  were  made  by 
Rev.  J.  M.  Greene,  Rev.  J.  L.  Morton,  George  W.  Hubbard, 
and  Edwin  Graves. 

Another  meeting  was  called  for  the  18th.  The  Hamp- 
shire Gasette  of  July  22,  gives  this  account  of  it: — 

"The  greatest  event  that  transpired  during  the  past  week  was  the  great 
mass  meeting  which  occurred  at  the  town  hall  Friday  evening.  *  *  * 
Rev.  Mr.  Greene  ♦  ♦  *  came  forward,  filled  to  overflowing  with  patri- 
otism, and  offered  his  services  as  chaplain,  and  said  he  would  shoulder  a 
musket  if  necessary.  Mr.  Greene  spoke  for  about  an  hour  and  was  fre- 
quently applauded.  He  showed  himself  a  patriot,  a  true  American.  Mr. 
Edwin  Graves  was  called  for,  and  after  making  a  few  remarks  presented  a 
United  States  enlistment  roll  and  amid  the  most  deafening  applause  signed 
his  name  thereto.  He  then  called  upon  others  to  follow  his  example,  and 
before  12  o'clock  the  call  was  responded  to  by  sixteen  good  men  and  true — 
the  town's  entire  quota.  *  *  ♦  Three  cheers  were  given  each  man  as  they 
si^ed  the  roll,  and  hearty  cheers  they  were.  too.  Thus  did  old  Hatfield 
raise  her  quota,  and  noble  men  they  arc,  and  God  bless  them,  is  all  we  can 
utter.  The  music  for  this  occasion  was  furnished  by  the  Hatfield  cornet 
band." 

From  the  Gazette  of  July  29: — 

"Hatfield. — You  have  doubtloss  !>coii  informed  of  tlie  result  of  the  meet- 
ing of  last  Friday  eveninj?  for  enlisting  the  quota  of  sixteen  men,  which 
were  rapidly  obtained,  and  twelve  more  were  ready  to  go  had  the  quota 
required.  The  Sabbath  nif)rnin^  following  Rov.  Mr.  Greene  announced  that 
he   would  preach  in  the  afternoon,  with  particular  reference  to  those.  ^Vv^ 


228 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


had  enlisted,  and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  weather  prevented  man; 
from  being  there.  The  appropriate  hymn  for  such  an  occasion,  'America.' 
was  sung  by  the  congregation,  followed  by  a  most  earnest  prayer  in  behalf 
of  our  rulers,  our  officers  and  men  in  the  army,  and  particularly  for  those 
about  to  leave  their  homes  and  its  influence  for  camp  life  with  its  trials, 
hardships  and  dangers ;  the  earnestness  and  feeling  with  which  they  were 
borne  to  the  throne  of  grace  caused  many  a  moist  eye  in  the  house.  The 
sermon  was   from  the  tcxi,  'Be  strong  and  of  good  courage,  and   I  will  be 


with  thee.'  •  •  •  Slavery  was  briefly  but  pointedly  alluded  to  as  being 
the  prime  cause  of  the  rebellion,  which  has  been  undermining  the  verj 
foundation  of  our  governnicui,  suffering  the  best  interests  of  the  nation, 
and  tending  to  destroy  public  institutions  of  learning,  and  to  do  away  wift 
civil  liberty  and  freedom,  and  those  who  go  to  do  battle  for  our  countrj, 
right  and  libcrt}',  should  have  in  mind  that  their  work  is  hut  partly  finished 
unless  this  blighting  curse  of  our  nation  is  crushed  and  destroyed.  •  •  * 
His  closing  remarks  to  those  who  had  enlisted  were  earnest  and  touching. 
Seldom  do  we  listen  to  a  sermon  of  such  deep  earnestness,  combined  with 
such  tender  feeling." 

Hatfield    had    otiier    citizens    of    pronounced    anti-slavery 
views,   one   of   the   most   prominent   of   whom   was   Charles 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  229 

Morris  Billings.  His  house  was  one  of  the  stations  of  the 
"underground  railway"  before  the  war,  and  fugitive  slaves 
were  harbored  by  him  till  they  could  be  sent  on  to  their 
destinations. 

A  letter  in  another  part  of  the  Gasette  of  July  29,  1862, 
says : — 

"The  patriotic  ladies  of  Hatfield  have  sent  the  following  articles  to 
Washington :  128  sheets,  82  shirts,  24  burial  sheets,  153  pillowcases,  154 
tow^els,  20  handkerchiefs,  15  bedticks,  43  pillows,  1  bed  quilt,  2  pairs  socks 
and  bundles  of  cotton  and  linen  pieces." 

Within  a  month  came  a  call  for  the  enlistment  of  another 
regiment  for  service  for  nine  months,  in  addition  to  the 
volunteers  who  had  previously  gone  singing,  **We  are  com- 
ing, Father  Abraham,  with  three  hundred  thousand  more." 
For  this  regiment,  the  52d,  Hatfield  furnished  twenty-four 
men. 

A  letter  signed  by  "Rally''  in  the  Gazette  of  August  26,  tells 
of  the  enlistment  of  men  for  the  52d  regiment : — 

"Hatfield. — At  a  mass  meeting  held  in  the  Town  Hall  last  Thursday 
evening  old  Hatfield  once  more  showed  her  patriotism  by  filling  her  last 
quota  of  men  before  any  other  town  in  old  Hampshire,  and  she  stands 
ready  to  do  it  again.    The  following  resolutions  were  passed: — 

"  'Resolved,  that  in  the  opinion  of  this  meeting  it  is  the  duty  of  our 
government  and  the  army  to  faithfully  carry  out  the  spirit  and  letters  of  the 
confiscation  and  emancipation  acts. 

"  'Resolved,  that  we  appreciate  the  kindness  of  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Greene,  our 
pastor,  in  offering  his  services  as  Chaplain  and  that  we  as  citizens  and 
volunteers  of  Hatfield  will  use  our  influence  in  procuring  his  appointment 
as  Chaplain  in  whatever  regiment  our  volunteers  shall  be  assigned  to.' 

"Short  speeches  were  made  by  Geo.  W.  Hubbard,  Geo.  W.  Waite  and 
Wm.  B.  Coleman.  Mr.  C.  in  closing  his  remarks  invited  all  who  would 
respond  to  the  next  call  to  take  a  position  upon  the  stage.  In  response  to 
this  challenge  twenty  men  stepped  beside  Mr.  Coleman  and  pledged  them- 
selves to  go  at  the  next  call.  Hatfield  sees  no  draft,  and  she  never  will, 
until  the  militia  roll  is  entirely  exhausted." 

On  the  22d  of  September  about  200  of  the  townspeople 
gathered  to  give  these  volunteers  a  farewell  supper.  Fol- 
lowing the  supper  was  a  presentation  of  a  sword,  sash,  belt, 
and  pistol  to  Lieut.  H.  P.  Billings  by  Rev.  J.  L.  Morton,  in 
the  following  words: — 

"Lieutenant  Billings,  I  am  detailed  by  a  few  of  your  friends  to  perform 
a  most  pleasing  military  duty.  I  have  for  an  hour  to-night,  laid  aside  the 
inky  implement  of  my  profession,  for  it  is  only  in  'piping  times  of  peace' 
tfiat  'the  pen  is  mightier  than  the  sword,'  and  this  is  the  day  of  the  sword's 
supremacy. 

"You  and  your  twenty-two  compatriots,  the  prime  and  pride  of  t\\^ 
manhood  of  our  town,  have  enrolled  yourselves  among  iVve  *\XvTet  \v\xcv^^^^ 


230  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

thousand  more'  whom  your  blended  voices  have  just  now — as  often  before, 
in  the  still  evening  air  of  our  quiet  village — told  Tather  Abraham'  he  might 
soon  expect  along. 

"Your  comrades  in  arms  have  chosen  that  you  should  bear  before  them 
this  symbol  of  honor  and  authority.  A  few  of  your  friends  desire— ere  you 
depart  from  scenes  made  delightful  by  a  thousand  associations — to  express 
their  confidence  in  your  valor  and  their  appreciation  of  your  worth,  beg 
you  to  accept  as  a  slight  token  of  the  same  this  sword  and  the  equipment 
pertaining  to  it. 

"They  believe  you  as  true  as  this  blade,  and  that  like  it  your  heart  is 
steel  against  the  cries  of  the  traitors  you  go  to  fight;  that  like  it,  too,  your 
sympathies  will  bend  to  the  sufferings  of  the  noble  boys  who  go  with  you. 

"Take  the  sword,  Lieutenant,  and  never  let  it  be  dishonored;  bear  it 
always  in  the  front  rank  of  danger,  and  tarnish  its  brightness  only  with 
rebel  blood.  If  you  ever  come  home,  be  sure  and  bring  it  with  you,  that 
you  may  transmit  it,  an  honored  relic  of  some  well  fought  field,  to  pos- 
terity.   ♦    *    * 

"May  God  bless  you,  Lieutenant,  and  the  brave  fellows  who  go  with  you. 
*  *  *  Be  mindful  of  the  prayers — aye,  fervent  and  tearful  prayers,  which 
every  morning  and  evening  will  ascend  for  you  from  these  fireside  altars, 
and  from  many  lonely  and  loving  hearts." 

The  regiment  was  in  camp  at  Camp  Miller  at  Greenfield 
about  two  months  and  was  visited  frequently  by  the  friends 
and  relatives  from  the  near-by  towns.  A  letter  from  the 
camp  to  the  Gazette  says: — 

"The  Hatfield  boys  still  abound  in  good  things.  *  *  ♦  They  have  a 
large  table  which  they  set  at  meal  time  in  front  of  their  tent  and  it  is  daily 
loaded  with  articles  which  plainly  indicate  the  quality  of  their  good  mothers 
at  home,  while  the  many  elegant  bouquets  which  adorn  the  interior  of  their 
tent,  attest  the  still  glowing  affection  of  'the  girl  I  left  behind  me.' " 

Under  date  of  Oct.  28,  1862,  tha  Gazette  said: — 

"Old  Hatfield  is  bound  to  be  ahead  in  whatever  she  undertakes,  whether 
it  be  fattening  cattle  or  raising  men  for  the  purpose  of  crushing  out  the 
rebellion.  Her  first  men  are  in  the  gallant  10th,  whose  name  will  forever 
shine  upon  the  pages  of  history.  She  has  also  sons  in  many  of  the  regi- 
ments formed  in  the  eastern  as  well  as  in  every  regiment  raised  in  west 
part  of  state.  The  number  of  3  years  men  raised  is  54;  the  number  of  9 
months  men  is  24;  making  a  grand  total  of  78  men  sent  from  a  little  village 
whose  enrolled  militia  numbers  but  150  including  exempts.  She  has  also 
raised  about  $8,000  for  their  support,  $5,000  of  which  was  paid  as  a  bounty 
to  the  volunteers,  and  the  remainder  was  for  the  relief  of  the  sick  and 
wounded." 

The  first  Hatfield  man  to  lay  down  his  life  for  the  cause 
was  Elbridge  D.  Clifford,  a  member  of  Co.  I,  21st  Regiment, 
who  was  wounded  in  the  neck  at  the  time  of  Pope's  defeat 
in  Virginia,  in  August,  1862.  He  walked  fifteen  miles  to 
overtake  his  regiment,  but  became  exhausted  and  was  placed 
in  a  hospital,  where  he  died. 

It  is  no  part  of  the  scope  of  this  history  to  give  details 
of  the  four  years'  conflict.  The  campaigns  in  which  the 
Hat  field  soldiers  took  part  are  (viUy  described  in  the  "Regi- 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  231 

mental"  and  "Corps"  histories,  of  which  several  excellent 
ones  have  been  published,  and  in  other  books  upon  the  war. 
In  spite  of  the  prediction  of  the  letter  given  above,  the 
dreaded  drafts  did  come.  In  the  summer  of  1863  two  were 
made,  in  June  and  July.  The  drafts  were  extremely  unpop- 
ular, especially  among  the  foreign  born  population  and,  after 
the  New  York  and  Boston  riots,  an  outbreak  was  feared  in 
Hatfield.  No  demonstration  was  made,  however,  but  it  was 
an  anxious  time  for  the  town  officials.  A  large  number  of 
si>ecial  deputies  were  sworn  in  who  patrolled  portions  of  the 
town.  Several  men  who  were  drafted  secured  substitutes 
and  the  town  offered  high  bounties,  in  some  cases  as  much 
as  $1,000,  for  soldiers  to  take  the  places  of  those  who  were 
drafted  for  service. 

HATFIELD'S  MILITARY  QUOTA  SERVING  IN  THE  CIVIL  WAR, 

1861-1865. 

Killed  in  Battle. 

Abbott,  Tames  H.,  Sergeant,     Co.  C,  10th  Mass.  Inf.,  Spottsylvania. 

Waite,  William  R.,  Co.  B.  30tji  Mass.  Inf.,  Petersburg. 

Field,  John  W.,  Sergeant,         Co.  F,  37th  Mass.  Inf.,  Battle  of  the  Wilderness. 

Died  of  Wounds. 

Harris,  Judson  W.,  Corporal,  Co.  G,  10th  Mass.  Inf.,  Alexandria,  Va. 

Clifford,  Elbridge  G.,  Co.  I,   21st  Mass.  Inf.,  2d  Battle  of  Bull  Run. 

Richards,  John,  Co.  G,  27th  Mass.  Inf..  Cold  Harbor. 

Clark,  Wells,.  Co.  G,  31  st  Mass.  Inf.,  New  Orleans. 

Graves,  Edwin,  Sergeant,  Co.  F,  37th  Mass.  Inf.,  Battle  of  the  Wilderness. 

Covell,  Elihu,  Co.  F,  37th  Mass.  Inf.,  Gettysburg. 

Vining,  John  H.,  Co.  F.  37th  Mass.  Inf.,  Cold  Harbor. 
Bennett,  Fernando  B.,  Sergeant.Co.  K,  52d  Mass.  Inf.,  Port  Hudson. 

Hoare,  James,  Co.  D,  22d  Mass.  Inf.,  Alexandria,  Va. 

McCue,  James,  Co.  H,  22d  Mass.  Inf.,  Battle  of  the  Wilderness. 

Hawkins,  Lorenzo  D.,  Co.  B,  21st  Mass.  Inf.,  Fredericksburg. 

Died  in  Prison. 

Kleastner,  Frederick,  Co.  A,  27th  Mass.  Inf.,  Andersonville. 

Richards,  Joseph,  Co.  G,  27th  Mass.  Inf.,  Andersonville. 

Died  of  Disease. 

Bolack,  Anthony,  Co.  B,  31st  Mass.  Inf.,  Brashe  City,  La. 

Dennis,  Alonzo,  Co.  B,  31st  Mass.  Inf.,  Fort  Jackson,  La. 

Anderson,  Ebenezer,  Co.  K,  S2d  Mass.  Inf.,  Baton  Rouge,  La. 

Dickinson,  Henry  A.,  Co.  K,  S2d  Mass.  Inf.,  Baton  Rouge,  La. 

Frary,  Thomas,  Jr.,  Co.  D,  27th  Mass.  Inf.,  Morehead  City,  N.  C. 

Hathaway,  Alpheus  H.,  Co.  C.  31st  Mass.  Inf.,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Waite,  Charles  P.,  Co.  F,  37th  Mass.  Inf.,  White  Oak  Church,  Va. 

Hennessy,  Michael,  Co.  K,  21st  Mass.  Inf., 

Survivors  at  the  Close  of  the  War. 

Warner,  Jonathan  D.,  Company  D,  10th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Warner,  George,  Company  A,  10th  Mass.  Infantry. 


232 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 


Bardwell.  Charles  L., 

Evans.  Charles  W., 

Morton,  Dwight. 

T'liffer,  Thomaft, 

Babcock,  Charles  t.,  Sergeant, 

Marrisscw.  Patrick, 

Billings,  Jo;eph.  Sergeant, 

Bard  well.  Henry  F.,  Sergeant, 

Cowles,  Edward  C, 

Abbott,  Richard  B., 

Abbott.  Lyman  B., 

Schaeffer,  Simon, 

Hitchcock,  Henry  M., 

Strong,  Dwight  S,,  Musician, 

Sweet,  Cordan, 

Morse,  Alden  F., 

Eaton,  William  H.,  Corporal, 

Smith,  Obadiah, 

Graves.  Dwight  M.,  2d  Lieutenant, 

Covell,  Emerson  L.,  Sergeant, 

Covell.  Calvin  N., 

Curtis.  David  B., 

Hubbard.  Charles  E., 

King,  Jerome  E., 

Seitz.  Lorenie, 

Vining  Oliver  S., 

Warner,  Oliver, 

Field,  Henry  H..  Corporal, 

Chaffin,  Lysandcr, 

Champney.  William  A., 

Billings.  Henry  P..  2d  Lieutenant, 

Abels.  Dwight  G.. 

Anderson,  Henrv  F., 

Bardwell,  Caleb  D.,  Sergeant, 

Beck.  John. 

Bristol,  Lambert  J., 

Brown,  Jeremiah, 

Chandler,  George, 

Cooley,  Myron  D.. 

Cooley,  Whitney  F., 

Cowles,  Augustus  D., 

Doane,  John  E„  Sergeant, 

DiiBmOre,  .Aiviii  D., 

Field.  Ludiis, 

tblle     Alonzo. 

Ktngsley.  Selh  W., 

Marsh,  George  L., 

Morion,  Josiah  L., 

Morton,  Charles  K.,  Corporal, 

Strong.  Alvin  L., 

Waite.  John  E.. 

Wi'lls.  Daniel  W„ 

Rutgers,  Lewis, 

Slica,  James. 

Itidrsv    <">5r.ir 

Hniis^vini.  J^>hn  H., 

Rli;.s.  George  W., 

Avcrill.  Phik-lus, 

Whito.  I-:hcn.' 

Svkts.  Li-wis. 

Carter,  Telcr, 

Lynch.  James. 

0'Sii»iv.iri,  Jeremiah." 


Company  C,  10th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  C,  10th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  G,  10th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  B,  21st  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company    I,  21st  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  24lh  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K.  25th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  25th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  2Sth  Mass,  Infantry. 

Company  A,  27th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  A,  27th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  A,  27th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  A,  27th  Mass.  Infantry. 
27th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  A,  27th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  A.  27th  Mass.  Infantiy. 

Company  D,  30th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  G.  31st   Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  B,  32d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37^1  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company   F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  F,  37th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  C,  37th  Mass.  Infantry- 
Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass,  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  !nfantr>-. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  52d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K.  S2d    Mass.   Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.   Infantry. 

Company  K,  S2d    Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  C,  57th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  E,  S7th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Company  C,  S8th  Mass.  Infantry. 

Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 

R«[ular  .Army. 

Berden's  Sharp^ihoowrv 

Berden's  Sharpshrxiiers. 

1st  Conn.  Artiller>-. 

2d  Mas*.  Infantry. 

Company  H,  2d  Mass.  Infantry. 

2d  Heavy  Artillery. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  233 

Evans,  Frederick,*  2d  Heavy  Artillery 

Stutton,  Alva  A.,*  Company  E,  4th  Cavalry 

Jebo,  Luke,*  Company  E,  4th  Cavalry 

Wemit,  Francis,*  Company  E,  4th  Cavalry 

Hooker,  Christopher  D.,*  Company  G,  4th  Cavalry 

Hooker,  William  H.,*  Company  G,  4th  Cavalry 

Rogers,  E.  Raymond,*  2d  Cavalry 

Baldwin,  William,*  2d  Cavalry 

Burke,  Michael,*  30th  Mass.  Infantry 

Halligan,  James,*  27th  Mass.  Infantry 

Those  marked  thus  *  were  non-residents,  hired  to  take  the  places  of  those 
drafted  or  to  fill  required  quotas. 

HATFIELD'S    NAVAL    QUOTA    SERVING    IN    THE    CIVIL    WAR, 

1861-1865. 

(All  of  these  were  non-residents,  hired  to  fill  quotas.) 

Chipman,  George  C,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1863,  Ship  Maratanso. 

Canon,  William  E.,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1863,  Ship  Princess  Royal. 

Chase,  S.  Warren,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1863,  Ship  Tuscarora  and   Po- 
tomac Flotilla. 

Crosby,  James  E.,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1863,  Ship  Honduras. 

Laighton,  Mathew,  ^      Seaman,              1864,  Ship  Circassian. 

Ludienbauch,  Francis,        '      Seaman,  1864. 

Long,  William,  Seaman,              1864. 

Murphy,  Jeremiah,  Seaman,              1861,  Ship  Minnesota. 

Messer,  James,  Seaman,              1861,  Ship  Minnesota. 

Murphy,  Thomas,  Seaman,              1861,  Ship  Minnesota. 

Pease,  William  R.,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1862,  Ship  C.  W.  Blout. 

Pease,  John  N.,  Acting  Master's  Mate,  1862,  Ship  Canandaigua. 

Shea,  James,  1864. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

A   PERIOD   OF  CHANGES,   1865-1910. 

"  Whate'er  of  good  the  old  time  had 
Remains  to  make  our  own  time  glad." 

Changes  in  the  population. — The  tobacco  and  onion  industries. — Livestock. 
— The  creamery. — Horses. — Manufactures. — Caleb  Cooley  Dickinson. — Samuel 
H.  Dickinson. — Memorial  Hall. — The  Public  Library. — ^The  Village  Improve- 
ment Society. — Highway  improvement. — Street  lighting. — Water  supply. — 
Sewers. — The  trolley  road. — The  growth  of  250  years. — Rev.  Robert  M. 
Woods,  D.  D. 

The  period  since  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  has  seen  more 
changes  than  any  other  period  of  Hatfield's  history.  The  pop- 
ulation, which  was  1,600  in  1875,  steadily  declined  from  that 
time  till  1900  and  since  the  beginning  of  the  present  century 
has  steadily  risen.  Most  of  the  increase  has  been  due  to 
the  influx  of  people  from  southern  Europe,  chiefly  Poles 
from  Austria  and  Russia,  till  the  old  town  has  become 
exceedingly  cosmopolitan  for  a  quiet  farming  community. 
Bohemians,  Slovaks,  and  Lithuanians  are  also  numbered 
among  the  inhabitants  and  English  is  the  native  tongue 
of  scarcely  two  thirds  of  the  people.  Though  entirely  unac- 
quainted with  free  institutions  of  government  and  differing 
far  more  from  the  native  stock  in  social  customs  than  other 
immigrants,  these  new  arrivals  are  possessed  of  the  same 
industry  and  thrift  that  have  characterized  Hatfield  settlers 
of  every  generation,  of  whatever  race  or  creed.  For  the 
most  part  they  have  been  peaceful  and  law-abiding.  None 
have  as  yet  taken  upon  themselves  the  duties  of  citizenship, 
though  many  have  acquired  property  and  become  permanent 
residents. 

Great  changes  have  also  come  over  the  industrial  life. 
The  use  of  machinery  has  revolutionized  farm  operations. 
Mowing  machines  were  not  used  till  about  1857.  The  to- 
bacco industry  has  grown  till  over  1,500  acres  are  devoted 
to  thnt  crop  and  large  packing  houses  give  employment  in 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  235 

winter  to  all  the  men  who  work  on  the  farms  in  the  summer 
time.  Among  the  larger  growers  of  tobacco,  having  from 
20  to  30  acres  each,  are  F.  H.  Bardwell.  \V.  H.  Belden,  L.  A. 
and  S.  F.  Billings,  P.  T.  Boyle,  A.  H.  Graves,  Thaddeus 
Graves,  F,  P.  Jones,  G.  E.  Morton,  B.  M.  Warner,  and  the 
Whalen  brothers.  Tobacco  warehouses  and  assorting  shops 
are  operated  by  Oscar  Belden  &  Sons,  R.  L.  Belden,  G.  A. 
Billings,  Roswell  Billings,  M.  W.  Boyle,  P.  T.  Boyle,  Jacob 
Carl,  J.  L.  Day,  A.  H.  Graves,  Thaddeus  Graves,  F.  P. 
Jones,  J.  W.  Kiley,  John  McHugh.  Jr.,  H.  \V.  Marsh,  G.  E. 
Morton,  L.  L.  Pease,  L.  R.  Swift,  and  C.  L.  Warner. 

Onions  have  become  an  important  crop,  to  which  a  con- 
stantly increasing  acreage  is  devoted  and  between  five  and 
six    hundred    carloads    are    shipped    annually.     Two    large 


Ax  Onion  Storags  Waiehouse. 


storage  warehouses  have  been  built,  one  at  the  station  at 
North  Hatfield,  owned  by  the  Sunderland  Onion  and  Fer- 
tilizer Company,  the  other  on  the  farm  of  Oscar  Belden  & 
Sons  at  Bradstreet,  This  building  is  of  hollow  concrete 
blocks  with  a  five-inch  dead  air  space  through  the  entire 
wall  and  double  shutters,  inside  and  out,  at  the  ventilating 
windows.  It  is  120  feet  long  and  60  feet  wide,  with  a  shed 
extension  on  the  east  side,  and  has  a  capacity  of  35.000 
bushels  of  onions.  It  was  built  in  1909  at  a  cost  of  $10,000, 
the  first  structure  of  the  kind  in  New  England  for  storage 
purposes.     The   firm,  which   is   composed  of   Oscav   Ss.l'i^'cv, 


236  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

George  S.  Belden,  and  Oscar  E.   Belden,  raises  nearly  70 
acres  of  onions  each  year. 

The  live  stock  industry,  once  so  prominent,  has  declined 
almost  to  the  point  of  passing  away.  Not  many  cattle  are 
fattened  now  and  rarely  are  sheep  kept.  A  few  of  the 
farmers  in  the  north  part  of  the  town  produce  milk  to  supply 
the  Boston  market.  The  cattle  industry,  however,  was  of 
considerable  importance  till  the  '80's.  In  1878  a  creamery 
was  established  which  did  a  prosperous  business  for  about 
eight  years.  It  was  in  the  house  now  owned  and  occupied 
by  George  SaflFer.  The  managers  were  Webster  A.  Pease, 
John  W.  Jackson,  and  Nathaniel  T.  Abels,  in  order.  Jon- 
athan D.  Porter  was  president  of  the  company  and  Joseph 
S.  Wells  secretary. 

The  business  of  breeding  horses  has  occupied  the  atten- 
tion of  some  of  the  Hatfield  farmers  duning  the  last  half 
century.  Alfred  H.  Graves  and  his  son,  Murray  B.  Grnves, 
conducted  a  stock  farm  for  several  years.  William  C 
Dickinson  gave  much  of  his  time  to  this  part  of  his  bttsiness 
and  since  his  decease  the  Connecticut  Valley  Stock  iFkrm 
has  been  operated  by  Barnabas  Fralic.  Electmont,  2^^%, 
was  bought  by  Mr.  Dickinson  from  C.  J.  Hamlin  of  Village 
Farm  in  East  Aurora,  N.  Y.  He  has  sired  Lady  SeiJsldn, 
2.0634,  Doddie  K.,  2.13^^,  Sidney  Carton,  2.10,  Electrine  (3 
year  old),  2.28,  and  Snip,  2.28.  Another  noted  .stallion 
owned  by  this  farm  is  Earl  of  Chatham  by  Bingen. 

During  the  period  under  consideration  important  man- 
ufacturing industries  have  grown  up,  which  are  treated  in 
a    chapter    in    Part    H. 

One  of  the  most  striking  features  of  the  last  half  century 
is  the  number  of  large  fortunes  accumulated  by  Hatfield 
citizens  which  have  been  devoted  to  educational  and  charit- 
able foundations.  The  gifts  of  the  Smith  family  receive 
special  attention  in  Part  H.  Two  of  the  other  public  bene- 
factors have  borne  the  name  of  Dickinson,  both  descendants 
of  the  first  settler,   Nathaniel   Dickinson. 

Caleb   Cooley   Dickinson,    son   of   Aaron   and   Experience 

(Phelps)    Dickinson,   was  born   at   Hatfield,  Nov.  25,   1804, 

and  died  unmarried  Sept.    16,   1882.     He  was  a  prosperous 

farmer,  conducting  the  old  homestead  in  company  w^th  his 

brother,  Aaron.    He  leit  the  bv\\k  o(  his  fortune  of  $97,000  to 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  237 

found  Dickinson  Hospital  in  Northampton  in  the  interests  of 
the  towns  of  Northampton,  Hatfield,  and  Whately. 

Samuel  Huntington  Dickinson  was  born  in  Hatfield,  Jan. 
28,  1816,  the  son  of  Solomon  and  Hannah  (Huntington) 
Dickinson.  He  was  never  married.  He  was  educated  in 
the  public  schools  of  Hatfield  and  in  Greenfield  Academy. 
Then  he  entered  Amherst  College,  but  was  obliged  to  leave 
5n  account  of  delicate  health.  He  inherited  a  large  fortune 
:rom   his   father   and   was   himself  a   successful    farmer   and 


ortunate  in  his  investments.  He  died  April  6.  1897,  and 
lis  estate  inventoried  at  $97,000.  After  legacies  to  friends, 
or  he  survived  all  near  relatives,  the  will  devoted  about 
580,000  to  the  American  Bible  Society,  the  American  Home 
Missionary  Society,  and  the  American  Board  of  Commis- 
iioners  for  Foreign  Missions.  Before  his  death  he  gave 
514,000  for  the  construction  of  a  Memorial  building  in  Hat- 
ield.  in  the  construction  of  which  he  was  greatly  interested. 
The  Dickinson  Memorial  Hall  was  built  in  1892-93  and 
ledicated  on  Memorial  Day  in  1894.  The  exercises  took 
>lace  in  the  Congregational  church  in  the  aUetuoow,  v'^^- 


238  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

sided  over  by  William  H.  Dickinson.  The  building  was 
presented  to  the  town  in  behalf  of  the  donor  by  Samuel  P. 
Billings,  a  lifelong  associate  of  Mr.  Dickinson,  and  the 
response  for  the  town  was  made  by  Daniel  W.  Wells.  On 
the  walls  of  the  entrance  hall  bronze  tablets  contain  the 
names  of  Hatfield  soldiers  who  served  in  the  Revolutionary 
and  Civil  wars.  In  a  room  at  the  north,  where  are  exhibited 
the  historical  collections  and  relics,  is  a  bronze  tablet  with 
the  letter  of  Benjamin  Waite  telling  of  the  success  of  his 
mission  to  Canada  to  ransom  the  captives.  Another  room 
on  the  first  floor  is  the  office  of  town  clerk.  In  this  room 
are  placed  the  town  archives  in  safes  and  the  public  docu- 
ments printed  by  the  state.  The  whole  upper  floor  is 
devoted  to  the  use  of  the  public  library.  The  building  is  of 
fireproof  construction,  of  brick  with  steel  beams  and  tile 
floors. 

The  Hatfield  Public  Library  now  contains  about  7,000 
volumes.  A  social  library  was  started  as  early  as  1806,  the 
funds  being  raised  by  subscription.  It  was  a  circulating 
library  and  the  headquarters  were  for  a  long  time  the  house 
of  Roswell  Billings,  now  the  home  of  David  Billings.  In 
1860  Sophia  Smith  gave  $500  for  the  purchase  of  books. 
The  library  was  then  located  in  a  room  over  the  store  kept 
by  David  F.  Wells,  where  J.  T.  Burke's  residence  is,  and 
was  used  in  connection  with  the  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association.  The  farmers  of  the  town  had  by  cooperation 
secured  quite  an  extensive  agricultural  library.  In  1873  the 
town  made  its  first  appropriation  for  library  purposes  and  a 
room  on  the  lower  floor  of  the  Academy  building  was  set 
aside  for  the  books  of  the  combined  associations,  the  library 
being  made  free.  John  H.  Sanderson  was  for  a  long  time 
librarian.  He  died  in  1904.  The  library  was  then  for  short 
periods  in  charge  of  Miss  Marian  C.  Billings,  Miss  Louise 
Billings,  Miss  Ruby  Bardwell,  and  Miss  Margaret  Allaire. 
The  present  librarian,  Dr.  Chester  M.  Barton,  began  his 
duties  in   1905. 

Other  public  structures  that  have  been  built  since  the 
Civil  war  are  Smith  Academy,  1872;  the  brick  schoolhouses, 
1869-74:  the  West  Hatfield'chapel.  1889;  and  St.  Joseph's 
church,   1892. 

A  Village,  or  Rural,  Improvemeut  Society   was  started  in 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  239 

1885  with  these  objects:  "to  cultivate  public  spirit,  quicken 
the  social  and  intellectual  life  of  the  people,  promote  good 
fellowship,  and  secure  public  health  by  better  hygienic  con- 
ditions in  our  houses  and  surroundings,  improve  our  streets, 
roads  and  public  grounds,  sidewalks,  and  in  general  to  build 
up  and  beautify  the  whole  town,  and  thus  enhance  the 
value  of  its  real  estate  and  render  Hatfield  a  still  more  invit- 
ing place  of  residence/'  One  of  the  moving  spirits  of  this 
organization  was  Eli  A.  Hubbard,  a  member  of  the  state 
Board  of  Education,  who  was  always  interested  in  the  wel- 
fare of  the  town  in  which  he  spent  the  latter  part  of  his  life. 
He  was  a  descendant  of  one  of  Hatfield's  early  settlers.  He 
was  the  first  president  of  the  Society.  Rev.  Robert  M. 
Woods  was  vice-president  till  his  death  in  1909. 

Much  improvement  in  the  appearance  of  the  streets  and 
grounds  has  been  made  under  the  direction  of  the  Village 
Improvement  Society.  Fences  have  been  removed  and  the 
lawns  receive  better  care,  trees  have  been  set  out,  the  ceme- 
teries are  kept  in  good  order,  and  in  every  way  the  resi- 
dents are  encouraged  to  beautify  their  places. 

The  town  has  expended  in  recent  years  large  sums  of 
money  in  improving  the  condition  of  the  highways.  Every 
year  sees  some  permanent  roads  of  stone  or  gravel  con- 
structed, and  gravel  or  concrete  sidewalks  are  being  rapidly 
extended. 

A  beginning  of  street  lighting  was  made  about  1890, 
when  lamp  posts  were  erected  at  intervals  along  several  of 
the  streets  in  the  center  of  the  village  and  the  lamps  were 
lit  and  cared  for  by  property  owners  on  whose  places  they 
were  located.  In  1901  an  acetylene  gas  plant  was  built  for 
lighting  the  Congregational  church.  The  plant  was  re- 
moved to  Prospect  Street  in  1903  and  greatly  enlarged, 
giving  service  to  many  private  houses  and  shops,  and  a  con- 
tract was  entered  into  in  1904  with  the  town  for  lighting 
the  public  streets  where  the  gas  mains  ran.  The  stock  of 
the  Hatfield  Gas  Company  was  subscribed  for  chiefly  by 
Hatfield  capitalists.  The  Massachusetts  Lighting  Com- 
panies secured  control  of  the  company  in  1909.  Electric 
lights  were  made  possible  by  the  extension  of  the  system 
of  the  Amherst  Gas  Company  in  1907  and  the  next  year  they 
began   to   light   the   streets   by   electricity,    ex^l^w^\\\^    >JekfcSx 


240  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

system  farther  than  was  possible  for  the  local  company  to 
carry  the  acetylene  light. 

An  excellent  water  supply  was  secured  by  the  town  in 
1896  from  Running  Gutter  brook,  a  never  failing  source  of 
supply,  situated  within  the  town  limits.  Water  is  carried 
to  all  parts  of  the  town  and  the  pressure  is  sufficient  for 
adequate  fire  protection.  There  are  six  organized  fire  com- 
panies of  volunteers.  The  watershed  around  the  brook  and 
reservoir  is  protected  by  ownership  by  the  town  of  the  forest 
lands  on  both  sides  of  the  brook  to  its  source,  forty  acres 
in  all.  The  system  was  built  and  is  operated  by  the  town. 
Bonds  were  issued  for  construction  to  the  amount  of  $50,- 
000,  to  be  paid  for  from  a  sinking  fund  at  the  end  of  thirty 
years.  The  sinking  fund  in  1910  amounted  to  $14,735. 
The  report  of  the  Water  Commissioners  for  the  year  ending 
March  1,  1910,  showed  that  there  were  then  326  connections 
with  private  property,  90  hydrants,  5  water  tanks,  and  water 
supplied  to  5  schoolhouses  and  to  Memorial  Hall.  It  was 
voted  at  the  March  meeting  in  1910  to  put  the  water  also 
in  the  town  hall.  The  total  cost  of  construction  to  that 
date  was  $56,485;  18,781  feet  of  8-inch  pipe,  46,786  feet  of 
6-inch  pipe,  32,596  feet  of  4-inch  pipe,  and  13,048  of  2-inch 
or  smaller. 

The  trolley  road,  built  by  the  Connecticut  Valley  Street 
Railway  Company,  was  opened  between  Northampton  and 
Hatfield  in  1900  and  to  Greenfield  in  1903.  This  was  a 
great  accommodation  to  the  people  of  the  Center  village  and 
Bradstreet,  who  were  before  two  miles  from  a  railroad. 

The  first  public  sewer  was  built  in  1904,  draining  the 
upper  part  of  Main  Street  and  emptying  into  the  Connecti- 
cut river.  The  main  trunk  line  was  laid  through  Bridge  Lane 
to  the  river  in  1907,  with  branches  on  Main  and  Maple 
streets.     The  sewer  system  is  being  gradually  extended. 

And  so  from  the  little  group  of  a  half  dozen  houses  built 
two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago  the  town  has  grown  till 
340  houses  are  required  to  shelter  its  inhabitants,  who  num- 
ber 2,000.  The  estates  of  all  the  inhabitants  together  the 
year  of  incorporation  were  probably  not  in  excess  of  £30,000. 
while  the  assessors  in  1909  reported  the  total  assessed  val- 
uation at  $1,326,842;  real  estate.  $1,113,203;  personal,  $213.- 
639:    with    $97,860    exempt    (rom    taxation.     The    changes 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  241 

wrought  by  passing  years  have  been  recorded.  One  thing 
remains  the  same.  The  town  meeting  has  stood  the  test  of 
time  and  is  still  the  cherished  institution  of  a  self-reliant, 
self-governing  people.  Varied  as  have  been  the  changes  in 
the  government  of  state  and  nation  the  people  meet  to  order 
their  local  affairs  as  they  have  from  the  beginning  and  each 
man  has  his  say. 

In  this  brief  narration  of  the  happenings  of  the  past  much 
mention  has  been  made  of  the  services  of  the  leading  cit- 
izens. It  cannot  more  fittingly  close  than  with  a  tribute  to 
a  man  whose  influence  has  been  second  to  none  in  securing 
that  harmonious  cooperation  that  at  all  times  has  united 
Hatfield  people.  The  pastorate  of  Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods 
was  among  the  long  ones  that  have  been  a  marked  charac- 
teristic of  the  church  in  Hatfield.  Though  "things  ecclesi- 
astical and  civiT'  had  long  been  separated  when  he  began 
his  ministry  he  looked  upon  the  whole  town  as  his  parish, 
its  interests  in  all  directions  were  his  interests,  his  influence 
was  wide.  In  a  memorial  address  delivered  in  the  Congre- 
gational church,  Nov.  28,  1909,  Pres.  L.  Clarke  Seelye,  D.D., 
of  Smith  College  said  of  him : — 

"In  November,  1876,  he  was  engaged  by  this  church  as  a  stated  supply  for 
one  year.  His  services  were  so  acceptable  that  he  received,  before  the  year 
was  over,  a  unanimous  call  to  become  its  settled  pastor,  and  he  was  installed 
as  pastor  of  the  church  in  November,  1877,  completing  at  his  death  last  June 
a  pastorate  of  nearly  thirty-three  years.  It  was  my  privilege  to  preach  his 
installation  sermon  and  my  text  then — *It  is  not  ye  that  speak  but  the  spirit 
of  your  Father  that  speaketh  in  you' — was  illustrated  in  his  future  ministry. 
In  him  was  realized  the  old-time  ideal  of  the  New  England  minister, — the 
foremost  citizen  in  ecclesiastical  and  civic  affairs.  He  was  truly  the  Bishop 
of  Hatfield  in  the  primal  sense  of  the  word,  so  controlling  and  pervasive  was 
his  oversight,  and  so  respected  and  trusted  was  his  personality.  Men  saw 
reproduced  in  him  the  type  of  country  parson  immortalized  in  the  archaic 
words  of  one  of  our  greatest  English  poets. 

"  *Wyd  was  his  parisch,  and  houses  fer  asondur, 
But  he  ne  lafte  not  for  reyne  ne  thondur, 
In  siknesse  ne  in  meschief  to  visite 
The  ferrest  in  his  parissche,  moche  and  lite, 
Uppon  his  feet,  and  in  his  hond  a  staf. 
This  noble  ensample  unto  his  schcep  he  gaf. 
That  ferst  he  wroughte.  and  after  that  he  taughte. 
Out  of  the  gospel  he  the  wordes  caughte, 
And  this  figure  he  added  yit  therto, 
That  if  gold  ruste,  what  schulde  yrcn  doo?' 

"Your  minister  also  practiced  the  gospel  which  he  preached, — striving 
faithfully  to  follow  the  example  of  his  Master  who  went  about  doing  good. 

**No  inhabitant  of  the  town  was  beyond  the  reach  of  his  friendly  aid  and 
sympathy.     In  his  ministrations  he  recognized  no  distinctions  of  soc\^\  coyv<\\- 


242  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

lions.  The  poor,  the  outcast,  the  victims  of  ignorance  and  intemperance  as 
well  as  the  prosperous  and  the  learned  found  in  him  a  friend  whom  thty 
could  trust  and  a  counselor  whose  advke  was  most  helpful.  The  foreigneri 
who  have  come  in  recent  years  to  Hatfield,  so  that  now  they  form  a  lai^t 
and  important  element  in  its  population,  were  especially  sought  out  by  him 
that  he  might  bring  them  under  Christian  influence  and  help  them  to  become 


good  iiiiz<.-iis.  If  tliej-  were  Protestants,  whatever  may  have  been  their  p't- 
viou^  church  connections,  he  sought  to  interest  them  in  the  church  ^ 
Hatlield  and  to  interest  the  church  in  them.  They  were  persuaded  to  stnd 
their  children  to  the  Sunday  School,  and  to  place  themselves  under  those 
influences  which  would  help  ihem  to  resist  the  temptations  to  evil  which  b«(l 
strangers  in  a  strange  land.  With  the  Catholics  of  the  town  he  was  oa 
friciully  terms.     When  they  were  numerous  enough  lo  form  a  church  of  tlitif 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD.  243 

own  peisuaaion,  he  was  ready  lo  aid  iheni  li)  establish  it,  believing  it  was 
I'ar  beiier  for  them  in  the  present  divergence  between  Catholics  and  Protes- 
tants 10  have  a  church  in  which  they  could  conscientiously  worship  than  lo  be 
wilhoMt  church  fellowship.  Their  priest  he  treated  as  a  brother  minister, 
Jnd  he  rejoiced  to  work  with  him  to  lessen  the  temptations  to  vice  and  to 
elcvMc  the  moral  standards  of  the  community,  confidently  expecting  the  time 
would  come  for  which  every  true  Christian  prays,  when  the  unhappy  divi- 
sions which  have  long  separated  large  bodies  of  Christians  from  each  other 
wouM  be  jtmoved  and  the  unity  of  Christian  believers,  for  which  Christ 
prayed,  lai^t  be  reali»d.  That  unity  his  own  catholic  spirit  did  much  to 
proinote.  Although  preferring  himself  the  Congregational  polity,  he  was  not 
in  31)-  sense  a  sectarian  propagandist  and  was  ready  to  hold  fellowship  with 
men,  whttever  might  be  their  ecclesiastical  preferences.  Those  who  ditlcrcd 
i'om  him  soon  lost  sight  of  their  differences  in  his  presence.  He  was  so 
rotisWerate  and  magnanimous  in  soirii.  so  free  from  intolerant  bigotry  or 
inilii»nt  proKlytism.  thai  he  speedily  brought  into  spiritual  union  moat  of 
those  who  became  acquainted  with  him.  Episcopalians,  Baptists,  Methodists, 
and  the  various  representatives  of  other  ecclesiastical  denominations  gladly 
nccfpl«t  his  ministry  and  were  numbered  among  his  parishioners.  There  was 
noaltcmpt  to  form  another  Protestant  church  of  different  polity  during  his- 
pastorate,  and  few  cared  to  seek  spiritual  aid  and  counsel  elsewhere.  The 
longer  he  lived  here,  the  more  he  was  trusted  and  esteemed.  Men  recog- 
nised in  him  a  man  who  was  sincerely  striving  with  all  his  mind  and  heart 
'!>  promote  righteousness  by  leading  men  lo  love  God  and  keep  His  com- 
mandineiits. 

"His  influence  was  deeply  felt  outside  of  his  professional  work.  Men 
ffspected  and  valued  him  as  a  loyal  citizen,  doing  what  he  could  by  word 
utid  deed  to  improve  the  social  conditions  of  the  community.  Every  move- 
ment for  public  betterment  found  in  him  an  efficient  helper.  In  town 
mectittg*,  in  the  election  of  officials  of  the  town,  state  or  nation,  in  the 
conditiMs  of  the  schools,  of  the  roads,  the  water  supply  and  every  civic 
malice  which  affected  the  condition  of  the  people,  he  was  actively  interested ; 
and  wbi!e_  men  sometimes  differed  from  him  m  opinion,  they  never  doubted 
ni5  sincerity  or  his  personal  integrity  and  uprightness.  There  was  no  trace 
if  nypocrisy  or  double  dealing  about  him.  His  course  was  straightforward 
on  pohlic  miestions  and  actuated  ever  by  righteous  and  praiseworthy  motives. 

'His  public  spirit  was  recognized  bv  his  election  as  one  of  the  presidential 
nrciors  m  the  campaign  of  1904.  The  breadth  of  his  sympathy-  and  the 
fxtent  of  his  influence  may  be  seen  somewhat  in  the  important  offices  which 
"E  wji  called  to  fill.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Smith  College,  an  overseer  of  the 
cnannble  fund  of  Amherst  College,  a  trustee  and  treasurer  of  Smith  Acad- 
™y.  a  inisiee  of  the  Cooley  Dickinson  Hospital  at  Northampton,  and  a 
corpOi^te  member  of  the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign 
•Elisions.  In  all  these  positions  he  won  the  respect  and  esteem  of  his 
associates  by  his  practical  sagacity  and  his  unselfish  efforts  to  advance  the 
"iler«ti  of  the  corporations  which  he  served.  His  Alma  Mater,  Amherst 
'-"'Ifffe.  gave  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinitv.  as  a  deserved  rccogmtion 
"1  m  scholarship  and  his  ministerial  influence." 


PART  II. 

REMINISCENCES  AND  HISTORICAL 

SKETCHES. 


REMINISCENCES  AND  HISTORICAL 

SKETCHES. 


I.— REMINISCENXES  OF  SAMUEL  D.  PARTRIDGE. 

Introductory  Note.  These  sketches  of  Hatfield  in  the 
early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  with  their  interesting 
side  lights  on  manners  and  customs,  were  written  in  1880 
by  Samuel  D.  Partridge,  or  rather  by  his  wife  at  his  dicta- 
tion, for  he  had  then  become  blind.  Few  men  have  been 
better  qualified  for  writing  such  a  description.  As  a  young 
man  Mr.  Partridge  was  elected  to  the  office  of  town  clerk 
and  during  the  year  he  held  office  he  copied  the  records 
of  the  first  one  hundred  years,  a  work  of  great  value  to 
many  who  have  had  occasion  to  consult  the  old  records 
for  historical  or  genealogical  information.  His  interest  in 
his  native  town  was  continued  till  his  death,  though  much 
of  his  active  business  life  was  passed  in  New  York,  and  he 
delighted  in  spending  his  vacations  among  the  scenes  of  his 
boyhood.  Both  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Partridge  died  in  Wisconsin, 
but    are    buried    in    Hatfield. 

It  has  long  been  a  matter  of  regret  with  me,  that  I  did 
not  in  my  earlier  days  improve  the  opportunities  which  I 
had  of  obtaining  information  relative  to  my  native  town 
from  those  who  were  my  ])re(lecessors  by  two  generations. 
This  reflection  has  had  some  influence  in  prompting  me  to 
write  down  what  I  remember  of  Hatfield  as  it  was  soon 
after  the  commencement  of  the  present  century.  The  popu- 
lation was  then,  according  to  my  recollection,  a  little  more 
than  eight  hundred,  and  these,  with  two  exceptions,  were 
descendants  of  the  first  settlers  in  Hadley  and  Hatfield. 
The  exceptions  were  Henry  Wilkie.  who  was  made  prisoner 
at  the  defeat  of  Burgoyne's  army,  and  chose  to  t^vw^m  \^\V^\ 


248  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

than  return  to  Germany;  the  other  was  Michael  Kelly,  an 
Irishman,  who  lived  on  the  Northampton  road  near  the 
line,  and  remained  but  a  few  years  when  he  removed  to  New 
York.  There  were  two  colored  families  living  on  the 
Northampton  road,  and  three  more  living  near  the  junction 
of  the  Williamsburg  and  Deerfield  roads., 

Very  few  new  highways  for  travel  have  been  opened  since 
those  days.  A  county  road  through  the  North  Meadow 
to  West  Farms  and  the  Pantry  road  leading  from  Northamp- 
ton to  Whately  are  all  that  have  been  made  since  my 
memory. 

The  boundaries  of  the  town  are  unchanged  except  that 
when  Williamsburg  was  set  off,  the  line  between  the  two 
towns  was  fixed  with  a  proviso  that  certain  farms  lying 
west  of  the  line  should  still  remain  a  part  of  Hatfield,  and 
the  dwellers  on  those  farms  for  a  long  series  of  years 
voted  and  were  taxed  in  Hatfield,  but,  some  thirty  or 
forty  years  ago,  they  were  annexed  by  an  act  of  Legislature 
to  the  town  of  Williamsburg.  A  considerable  portion  of 
Haydenville  was  situated  on  one  of  these  farms. 

In  my  earliest  recollections  I  can  recall  but  one  school- 
house,  and  that  a  brick  structure  of  about  eighteen  by 
sixteen  feet,  of  one  story  and  a  gambrel  roof,  having  two 
windows  on  the  east  side  and  one  on  the  west  side.  These 
with  one  window  on  the  south  end  lighted  an  upper  room. 
The  lower  room  had  two  windows  on  the  east  side,  two 
at  the  south  end,  and  one  on  the  west  side.  The  ceilings 
in  each  room,  especially  in  the  upper  room,  were  very  low. 
The  building  stood  in  the  middle  of  the  street  about  east 
from  Deacon  Partridge's  house,  the  same  now  occupied  by 
Otis  Wells.  In  the  winter  a  school  for  boys  was  kept  in 
each  of  these  rooms,  the  larger  boys  going  into  the  upper 
room,  which  was  entered  by  a  staircase  on  the  outside  on 
the  north  end  of  the  building.  I  do  not  think  that  at  this 
period  the  town  provided  any  instruction  for  girls,  and  all 
the  boys  in  town  who  attended  school  in  the  winter  were 
taught  in  these  two  rooms.  I  remember  them  as  coming 
from  "the  Hill"  and  from  "West  Farms."  One  from  West 
Farms  is  fixed  in  my  memory,  for,  when  reading  in  the 
"English  Reader'*  how  "Genius  darted  like  an  eagle  up  the 
mountain,"  he  read,  he  "darted  like  a  pickerel  up  the  moun- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  249 

tain."  The  lower  room  was  sufficiently  uncomfortable, 
but  the  upper  was  so  dark,  so  low  and  gloomy,  that  it  is 
difficult  to  conceive  how  it  could  ever  have  been  devoted 
to  educational  purposes;  and  yet  a  goodly  number  of  men 
who  have  made  intelligent  and  respectable  citizens  received 
no  other  schooling  than  this  house  afforded.  Wood  for  the 
use  of  the  schools  was  brought  at  sled  length.  It  was  chopped 
and  split  by  the  larger  boys  and  carried  in  by  the  smaller 
boys.  The  fires  in  the  morning  were  made  by  the  scholars 
in  turn,  though  sometimes  the  job  was  taken  by  some  one 
boy  for  the  ashes.  Prayers  were  offered  morning  and 
evening,  or  dispensed  with,  at  the  option  of  the  master. 
The  first  school  exercise  was  always  reading  in  the  Bible  by 
the  oldest  class. 

There  was  a  girls'  school  kept  in  the  house  belonging  to 
Oliver  Smith,  which  stood  near  the  site  of  the  house  belong- 
ing to  the  late  Mrs.  Joseph  Smith.  (I  suppose  this  was  a 
private  school.)  In  1813  it  was  taught  by  a  Miss  Childs. 
I  recollect  she  had  an  "exhibition*'  in  the  meetinghouse, 
when  one  of  Hannah  More's  sacred  dramas  was  enacted. 
Miss  Almira  Smith  (afterward  Mrs.  S.  F.  Lyman  of  North- 
ampton) having  the  part  of  Pharaoh's  daughter,  and  the 
baby,  Moses,  found  by  her  in  the  bulrushes  was  George  C. 
Partridge.  A  Mr.  Barstow  kept  a  girls'  school  in  the 
same  place,  but  I  am  unable  to  tell  whether  a  little  before, 
or  a  little  after.  Miss  Childs,  as  I  only  remember  him  by  an 
affray  between  some  Democrats  and  Federalists  which 
occurred  in  the  bell  tower  of  the  meetinghouse,  and  in 
which  Mr.  Barstow  participated. 

Party  spirit  ran  very  high  in  those  days,  worse  than  I 
have  ever  known  it  at  any  subsequent  time;  but  this  is  the 
only  occasion  in  which  I  remember  a  resort  to  blows.  For 
many  years  it  was  a  disturber  of  social  life, — men,  women, 
and  children  felt  its  evil  influence.  The  Federalists  would 
have  their  Thanksgiving  ball  in  one  place,  while  the  Demo- 
crats had  theirs  in  another;  and  even  between  near  rela- 
tives of  different  party  affiliations  there  was  very  little 
friendly   intercourse. 

The  town  meetings — always  opened  by  the  minister  by 
prayer — ^were  held  in  the  meetinghouse,  one  party  taking 
the  north  side  of  the  center  aisle,  the  other  the  soutK.     TVv^ 


250  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

contest  was  generally  on  the  choice  of  a  moderator,  it  being 
well  understood  that  the  party  carrying  that  office  would 
carry   all   others. 

The  want  of  school  privileges  was  in  some  degree  supple- 
mented by  the  establishment  of  a  "social  library"  about  the 
year  1806  and  even  here  the  bitterness  of  party  spirit  was 
apparent,  the  original  members  being  all  Federalists. 

There  was  but  one  religious  society,  all  parochial  rights 
being  vested  in  the  town.  The  church  organization  was 
then  just  as  it  is  now,  but  the  legal  voters  of  the  town 
constituted  the  parish.  Rev.  Dr.  Lyman,  who  was  settled 
in  1772,  was  the  minister  when  I  was  born,  and  continued 
so  until  I  was  grown  to  man's  estate.  His  salary,  if  I 
recollect  right,  was  £80,  together  with  his  fuel,  and  the  use 
of  the  parish  lands.  This  money  was  raised  by  a  town  tax, 
and  collected  just  like  any  other  tax.  There  was  a  law  of 
the  state  requiring  every  man  to  attend  divine  service  once 
in  three  months,  though  I  never  heard  of  its  enforcement; 
but  I  recollect  to  have  heard  of  one  person  who  was  said 
to  go  just  enough  to  keep  clear  of  the  law. 

The  meetinghouse  stood  in  the  middle  of  the  street, 
perhaps  twenty-five  rods  north  of  the  brick  schoolhouse. 
The  pulpit  was  on  the  west  side,  and  over  it  was  a  sounding 
board.  It  was  entered  by  a  staircase  on  the  south  side, 
and  at  the  right  of  the  staircase,  in  front  of  the  pulpit,  was 
the  **Deacons'  seat"  and  the  communion  table,  while  the 
galleries  extended  around  the  three  other  sides.  There 
were  two  staircases  leading  to  the  galleries,  one  on  the 
southeast,  and  the  other  on  the  northwest  corners  of  the 
house,  and  over  each  of  the  staircases  was  a  large  square  pew 
elevated  above  the  others,  and  called  the  "high  pews."  The 
house  below  was  divided  into  square  pews  by  what  was 
called  the  **broad  aisle,"  running  east  and  west  through 
the  middle  of  the  building  with  tw^o  narrow  aisles,  one  at 
the  north  and  one  at  the  south  of  it.  In  addition  to  these 
there  was  one  on  each  of  the  four  sides  of  the  house  at  the 
distance  of  the  breadth  of  one  pew  from  the  walls,  con- 
necting with  the  doors  and  with  the  stairs  leading  to 
the  ])u]pit  and  the  galleries.  The  building  was  entered  by 
three  doors,  one  on  each  of  the  north,  south,  and  east  sides. 
At    the    north    end   there   was   a  tower  built   up   from   the 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  251 

ground  to  the  belfry,  surmounted  by  a  tall  spire  on  the  top 
of  which  was  fastened  a  weather  vane  in  the  shape  of  a 
brass  rooster.  The  tower  was  entered  by  two  doors,  one 
on  the  north  and  the  other  on  the  east  side.  I  think  the 
bell  bore  the  date  of  1806.  It  was  cracked  some  years  ago 
and  replaced  by  another.  I  have  heard  a  great  many  other 
bells,  but  never  one  so  sweet  toned  as  that. 

The  town  always  exercised  the  right  of  seating  the 
meetinghouse;  and  when  a  reseating  was  deemed  advisable, 
an  article  for  that  purpose  was  placed  in  the  warrant,  and 
if  the  vote  was  in  the  affirmative  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  attend  to  the  business  and  report  to  an  adjourned  meet- 
ing, when,  if  a  majority  was  satisfied  with  the  report, 
it  was  accepted.  About  three  families  were  allotted  to  each 
pew  as  all  the  children  except  the  smallest  were  expected  to 
sit  in  the  gallery;  the  girls  in  the  north  and  the  boys  in  the 
south,  while  the  east  gallery  was  divided  between  them. 
The  front  seats  were  occupied  by  the  singers, — the  "treble'' 
in  the  north,  the  "counter''  in  the  north  half  of  the  front 
seat  in  the  east  gallery,  the  "tenor"  in  the  south  half  of  the 
same  seat,  while  the  "bass"  occupied  the  front  seat  in  the 
south  gallery.  Behind  the  "singers'  seats"  were  two  rows 
of  seats  raised  by  successive  steps,  one  higher  than  the 
other,  where  the  children  sat,  and  it  was  the  dutv  of  the 
tything  man  to  see  that  they  behaved  with  propriety.  Back 
of  these  seats,  raised  one  step  higher,  was  a  row  of  square 
pews  running  all  around  the  galleries.  These  were  seated 
by  the  committee  and  were  occupied  by  the  young  men  and 
young  women,  the  former  on  the  south  and  the  latter  on  the 
north  side,  while  the  east  side  was  divided  between  them. 
The  maiden  ladies  were  seated  in  the  north  "high  pew" 
before  mentioned,  while  the  bachelors  were  assigned  the 
one  on  the  south  side.  There  was  alwavs  some  dissatis- 
faction  with  the  allotment  of  the  seats,  but  much  less  than 
might  reasonably  l>e  expected  from  the  seating  by  such  a 
method,  as  the  seating  below  was  supposed  to  have  some 
reference  to  wealth  and  social  position.  I  recollect  one 
instance  of  a  man  who  was  seated  bv  the  north  door,  who 
consoled  himself  by  saying  that  it  "was  better  to  be  a  door- 
keeper in  the  house  of  the  Lord,  than  to  dwell  with  the 
wicked."  and  another  young  man  who  was  seale^d  \n\\\v  \>no 


252  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

very  old  men  remarked,  that  he  "supposed  the  committee 
feared  he  would  play  in  meeting."  Theology  and  politics 
formed  the  subjects  of  conversation  whenever  people  met 
at  the  store,  the  tavern,  and  at  social  gatherings. 

About  fifty  years  ago  the  belfry  and  spire  were  taken 
down,  the  bell  was  transferred  to  a  tower  erected  at  the 
south  end  of  the  church,  the  pews  were  taken  out  and  slips 
were  substituted  for  them.  The  old  high  pulpit  was  removed, 
and  a  platform  pulpit  erected.  Until  this  time  no  apparatus 
for  warming  the  meetinghouse'  had  been  used.  In  cold 
weather  every  family  started  out  with  a  foot  stove,  and 
the  minister  stood  up  and  preached  in  a  heavy  overcoat 
and  thick  gloves.  The  majority  of  the  society  now  thought 
best  to  attempt  making  the  room  more  comfortable.  Ac- 
cordingly with  great  caution,  many  being  opposed  to  stoves 
in  the  audience  room,  they  placed  two  stoves  in  the  porch 
at  the  south  end  of  the  building,  running  pipes  through  the 
partition  and  extending  them  to  outlets  at  the  north  end. 
But  the  degree  of  heat  thus  obtained — though  hardly  per- 
ceptible— was  intolerable  to  the  minority,  who  to  the 
number  of  about  forty,  under  the  leadership  of  the  late  Mr. 
Oliver  Smith,  "signed  off"  and  left  the  society. 

In  my  early  days  no  stoves  were  used  in  the  dwelling 
houses  either  for  warming  or  cooking.  The  baking  was 
done  in  large  brick  ovens,  or  in  a  shallow,  covered  iron  dish 
called  a  "bake  kettle."  The  kitchen  fireplace  was  very 
large,  both  broad  and  deep;  and  when  the  fire  was  kindled 
it  consisted  of  a  large  "back  log"  on  which  was  laid  a  smaller 
log  called  a  "back  stick."  In  front  of  these  a  large  quantity 
of  wood  was  placed  resting  on  a  pair  of  heavy  andirons.  In 
the  houses  more  recently  built  the  kitchen  fireplace  was 
furnished  with  a  crane,  but  the  older  houses  had  only  hooks 
and  trammels  hanging  from  a  crossbar  fastened  some  dis- 
tance up  the  chimney.  For  additional  protection  against 
the  cold,  in  many  families  a  "settle"  was  used.  This  was  a 
bench  some  five  or  six  feet  long  with  a  high  back  of  closely 
fitting  boards  to  be  drawn  up  in  front  of  the  fire,  where  one 
could  sit  and  not  have  one's  back  exposed  to  the  cold  air. 
In  those  days  also,  the  clothing  was  not  well  adapted  to 
protect  from  the  cold,  as  neither  men  nor  boys  wore  woolen 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  253 

under-garments,  but  relied  chiefly  upon  heavy  overcoats  and 
camlet  cloaks  lined  with  thick  green  baize. 

In  severe  weather  the  sleeping  rooms  were  intensely  cold, 
but  every  family  had  a  warming  pan  chiefly  used  by  the 
aged  and  females;  but  a  boy  who  should  have  his  bed 
warmed  was  an  object  of  derision  among  his  fellows. 

The  observance  of  the  Sabbath  was  exceedingly  strict; 
all  unnecessary  work  ceasing  at  sunset  on  Saturday,  on 
which  evening,  so  far  as  I  can  recollect,  it  was  the  custom 
to  have  "hasty  pudding'*  and  milk  for  supper.  On  the 
Sabbath  everything  like  levity  or  mirth  was  severely 
frowned  upon.  In  the  afternoon  of  that  day  the  children 
of  the  family  were  collected  and  instructed  in  the  "West- 
minster Catechism.''  Sunday  schools  were  unknown  until 
a  much  later  day.  On  the  whole,  with  the  best  intentions 
on  the  part  of  their  elders,  the  Sabbath  was  made  to  the 
children  about  as  wearisome  as  it  could  be.  But  the 
moment  the  sun  disappeared  in  the  west,  the  Sabbath  was 
over  and  the  mirth  and  jollity  which  had  been  suppressed 
for   twenty-four  hours  broke   forth   with   little   control. 

The  custom  referred  to  above  of  eating  "hasty  pudding'* 
for  the  Saturday  evening  supper,  gave  Northampton  the 
name  of  "Pudding  Town,"  and  the  Northampton  people 
were  called  in  derision  "Puddingers."  Middle  Lane  in  Hat- 
field was  called  "Pudding  Lane,"  but  for  what  reason  I  do  not 
know,  nor  do  I  know  why  the  street  to  the  north  of  it  was 
called  "Canada  Lane."  [It  was  the  road  leading  north  to 
Deerfield  and  thence  to  Canada.] 

It  was  an  old  custom  after  the  crops  had  been  gathered, 
to  open  the  meadows  for  the  use  of  the  inhabitants  gener- 
ally, all  of  whom  were  allowed  to  turn  in  their  animals 
during  the  period  of  fourteen  days.  For  this  reason,  as 
well  as  for  the  fact  that  cows  were  allowed  to  run  at  large 
at  all  times,  it  was  necessary  that  the  meadows  should  be 
fenced  and  gates  kept  up  at  the  entrances.  There  was 
such  a  gate  at  a  point  a  little  south  of  the  site  now  occupied 
by  the  house  of  Erastus  Cowles,  and  I  propose  to  begin  here 
and  going  north  give  what  I  remember  of  each  house  and 
its  inhabitants. 

Close  by  this  gate  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  stood 
the   house  of  Nathan   Gearv.     He   came   from   the  east^xw 


254  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

part  of  the  state  and  was,  I  think,  a  shoemaker.  He  mar- 
ried the  daughter  of  the  elder  Elisha  Wait  and  had  five 
sons  and  four  daughters.  The  sons  all  emigrated, — the 
daughters  all  remained  in  town, — of  whom  Mrs.  Polly 
Graves   is   the   onlv   survivor. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Gen.  Isaac 
Maltby,  who  came  from  Connecticut,  was  a  graduate  of 
Yale  College  in  1786  and  married  a  daughter  of  Seth  Mur- 
ray, who,  I  am  told,  was  the  Murray  alluded  to  in  Trum- 
bulTs  "McFingal.''  .  His  widow  died  since  my  memory.  Mr. 
Maltby  was  a  brigadier  general  of  militia  and  was  in  com- 
mand of  a  brigade  at  Boston  when  Governor  Strong,  in  the 
last  war  with  Great  Britain,  called  out  the  militia  for  the 
defense  of  that  city.  I  remember  when,  on  the  discharge  of 
^\  these  troops.  General  Maltby,  his  son,  Murray,  Israel  Bill- 
/  ings,  and  Moses  Morton  appeared  at  church  on  the  Sabbath 
dressed  in  their  regimentals,  and  offered  a  **note  of  thanks- 
giving to  God  for  their  safe  return."  The  offering  of  a 
*'note  of  thanksgiving"  after  recovery  from  sickness,  or 
deliverance  from  danger,  was  an  old  custom  observed  in 
those  days;  also  the  formal  request  of  those  who  were  suf- 
fering from  recent  bereavement  that  prayer  might  be  offered 
for  the  sanctification  of  the  event  to  the  good  of  their  souls; 
those  who  offered  these  requests  always  rising  and  standing 
in  their  place  during  the  reading  of  the  "note."  General 
Maltby  removed  with  his  family  to  Waterloo,  N.  Y.,  where 
he   died   in    1819. 

The  house  now  occupied  by  Samuel  F.  Billings  is  the 
same  as  that  in  which  the  Murrays  and  Maltbys  lived,  and 
consequently  is  pretty  old.  The  lot  on  which  it  stands  is 
the  same  with  that  which  in  the  early  settlement  of  the 
town  was  allotted  to  Richard  Fellows.  Robert  Holmes, 
who  came  from  Acworth,  N.  H.,  and  succeeded  Simeon 
Smith  as  toll-gather,  also  lived  here  and  manufactured 
fanning  mills.  Lyman  Bennett,  whom  I  remember  as  a 
very  worthy  young  man,  learned  that  trade  of  Holmes, 
but  afterwards  removed  to  Troy,  N.  Y.,  where  he  accumu- 
lated a  large  fortune  in  the  shirt  and  collar  business. 

The  next  is  the  lot  assigned  to  John  Cowles,  one  of  the 
first  settlers  of  the  town,  and  was,  at  my  earliest  recollec- 
t\on,  occupied  by  Dea.  Rufus  Cowles,  his  descendant.     None 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  255 

of  his  children  emigrated.  His  eldest  son,  Augustus,  died 
while  a  member  of  Yale  College.  He  was  one  of  the  best 
young  men  I  ever  knew,  and  was  of  great  promise,  dying 
lamented  by  all  who  knew  him.  This  is  one  of  the  two 
places  in  town  still  owned  by  descendants  of  the  first 
occupant  of  the  same  name.  The  old  house,  which  was 
torn  down  many  years  ago,  faced  the  north  as  does  the  one 
now  standing  on  the  same  site.  It  is  probable  that  the 
first  house  built  on  the  lot  faced  the  east,  about  in  the  line 
of  the  house  of  Richard  Fellows.  These  two.  Fellows  and 
Cowles,  were  probably  the  first  residents  on  the  **west  side,'' 
and  even  then  before  the  Main  Street  was  laid  out.  On  the 
east  side  of  the  lot,  as  I  remember  it,  Cotton  White  had  a 
blacksmith's  shop,  and  a  little  south  of  that  a  carpenter's 
shop. 

Across  the  road  leading  to  **the  Hill,''  was  the  lot 
originally  allotted  to  Zachariah  Field.  At  my  earliest  recol- 
lection Elijah,  Moses,  and  Hannah  Field,  children  of  Medad 
Field,  lived  in  a  two-story  house  standing  where  Alpheus 
Cowles's  house  now  stands.  It  then  had  the  appearance 
of  an  old  house.  These  three  members  of  the  Field  family 
always  lived  in  Hatfield,  and  died  childless. 

The  house  standing  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  same 
lot  was  then  occupied  by  Cotton  White.  I  suppose  that  it 
was  built  by  Jesse  Billings.  I  have  a  dim  recollection  of 
a  blacksmith's  shop  standing  a  little  north  of  the  house. 
I  well  remember  that  in  the  street  at  this  point  was  a  place 
which  had  been  used  for  heating  wagon  tires. 

North  of  this  was  a  one-story  house  which  had  been  occu- 
pied by  Moses  Hitchcock  for  a  store,  but  after  the  death  of 
Capt.  Israel  Parsons  was  occupied  by  his  widow  and  family 
until  they  left  for  Canada.  The  house  was  removed  to  the 
northeast  corner  of  the  Cowles  lot,  and  was  occupied  suc- 
cessively by  James  Bucknani,  David  Chapman,  and  Horace 
Shumway. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Capt.  Israel 
Parsons,  and  after  his  death  came  into  the  possession  of 
Col.  Erastus  Billings.  The  first  two  ministers  of  Hatfield, 
Mr.  Atherton  and  Mr.  Chauncey,  lived  on  this  place  and 
Nathaniel  Chauncey,  the  first  graduate  of  Yale  College,  was 
born  there. 


256  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

In  the  next  house  Mrs.  Miriam  Billings  resided  with  her 
son,  Roswell  Billings,  and  his  family.  Her  sister,  Rebecca 
Dickinson, — familiarly  known  as  "Aunt  Beck,'* — lived  with 
her.  She  was  a  very  intelligent  woman  and  her  sayings 
were  frequently  repeated,  she  being  regarded  as  a  sort  of 
oracle.  A  horse  shed  stood  a  few  rods  from  the  street 
south  of  the  house ;  and  I  think  that  either  Capt.  Silas 
Billings  or  his  father,  Zachary,  kept  a  tavern  on  the  place. 
The  latter  was  connected  with  Col.  Oliver  Partridge's  regi- 
ment, which  was  stationed  near  Lake  George  in  the  year 
1758,  and  was  in  the  battle  of  Ticonderoga  fought  on  July 
6th  of  the  same  year. 

The  next  was  the  house  of  Lieut.  Samuel  Partridge,  my 
grandfather,  who  died  in  1809.  His  wife  was  a  daughter 
of  Capt.  Seth  Dwight,  who  inherited  this  property  from  his 
father,  Henry  Dwight.  My  grandfather  was  a  lieutenant 
in  Col.  William  Williams's  regiment  in  the  French  war,  and 
was  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Ticonderoga  in  1758.  He 
was  also  at  the  taking  of  Quebec  and  saw  General  Wolfe 
brought  in  mortally  wounded.  Seth  Dwight,  my  great- 
grandfather, lived  on  this  place  in  a  house  near  the  north- 
east corner  of  John  A.  Billings's  lot  about  ten  or  twelve  feet 
from  the  street,  and  its  north  side  on  the  line  between  J.  A. 
Billings  and  Otis  Wells.  At  my  earliest  remembrance  there 
was  a  building  on  this  si>ot  used  as  a  currier's  shop,  and  the 
cellar  of  this  building  was  the  same  as  that  under  the  house 
of  Seth  Dwight  and  his  father,  Henry  Dwight.  On  the 
southeast  corner  of  this  lot  there  was  a  building  occupied 
as  a  store, — first,  by  Dwight  &  Partridge  and  afterwards  by 
C.  &  S.  Partridge.  The  house  in  which  ijiy  grandfather  lived, 
(and  in  which  I  was  born),  stood  between  these  two  build- 
ings occupying  the  same  site  as  the  present  house  built 
by  Mr.  Billings;  and  was  probably  when  pulled  down  about 
one  hundred  years  old.  C.  &  S.  Partridge  also  carried  on 
the  tanning  business,  and  their  tan  yard  was  directly  south 
of  the  spot  now  occupied  by  Mr.  J.  A.  Billings's  tobacco 
barn.  The  store  at  this  time  was  the  only  one  in  town, 
and  a  smaller  proportion  of  the  trade  went  abroad  than  in 
later  years. 

They  were  licensed  retailers  of  ardent  spirits,  but  it  must 
be   remembered   that   the   traffic   in   ardent   spirits  was  then 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  257 

considered  honorable ;  indeed,  public  opinion  and  the  laws  of 
the  Commonwealth  required  that  it  should  be  intrusted 
only  to  men  of  established  character  and  integrity.  The 
courts  would  not  entertain  an  application  for  a  license  unless 
the  good  character  and  standing  of  the  applicant  were 
certified  by  the  selectmen.  Ardent  spirits  were  used  in 
every  family  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest, — the  minister 
not  excepted.  A  flip-iron  was  considered  as  necessary  an 
appendage  to  the  chimney  corner  as  the  carving  knife  was 
to  the  table.  Flip  was  a  beverage  which  seems  to  have  be- 
longed to  that  period,  and  that  section  of  the  country.  A 
principal  component  was  the  small  beer  brewed  by  every 
family;  to  this  was  added  rum  and  sugar  with  a  flavoring 
of  nutmeg,  to  which  the  finishing  touch  was  given  by  plung- 
ing in  the  red  hot  iron.  As  I  recall  the  delicious  flavor 
of  this  compound,  I  cannot  wonder  that  it  was  a  general 
favorite  with  our  fathers.  This  drink  was  more  particularly 
used  during  the  winter,  and  w^as  considered  indispensable 
on  high  social  occasions,  and  its  absence  from  a  meeting 
of  an  association  of  ministers  would  have  been  unfavorably 
noticed.  The  first  Monday  in  April  was  known  among  the 
juveniles  as  "Egg  Pop  day,''  and  it  will  scarcely  be  believed 
by  the  present  generation,  that  parents,  and  those,  too, 
of  as  high  moral  standing  as  any  in  the  community,  could 
fit  out  their  boys  of  eight  or  ten  years  with  each  a  teacup 
of  sugar,  a  half  pint  of  rum,  and  six  eggs  to  meet  their  play- 
mates, each  one  provided  in  the  same  manner,  to  spend 
the  day  in  play  and  in  drinking  **Egg  Pop'';  yet,  such  was 
the  custom.  But  it  should  in  justice  be  stated  that  the 
drinking  w-as  under  the  supervision  of  some  elderly  person, 
and  that  luckily  it  only  occurred  once  a  year. 

It  was  the  custom  in  some  families  to  have  liquor  in 
some  form  passed  around  at  eleven  o'clock  every  morning, 
and  a  very  general  custom  that  all  w^ho  were  at  work  in 
the  field  should  be  served  with  drink  at  that  hour.  It  was 
not  uncommon  to  hear  this  lunch  called  a  "bever.''  This 
custom  I  have  no  doubt  is  very  old  and  was  brought  from 
England  by  our  ancestors,  as  the  English  had  a  lunch  called 
by  that  name  consisting  mostly  of  drink,  certainly  as  early 
as  the  time  of  Henry  VII.,  and  probably  earlier,  as  the  word 
indicates   a   Norman   origin. 


25g  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Notwithstanding  the  general  use  of  spirituous  liquors,  I 
think  that  drunkenness  was  no  more  prevalent  then  than 
now.  In  the  first  place  the  population  was  thoroughly  Anglo- 
Saxon, — only  men  of  good  character  could  sell,  and  they 
would  have  forfeited  their  character  by  an  indiscriminate 
or  careless  use  of  their  license.  The  law  authorized  the 
selectmen  to  forbid  the  sale  of  spirits  to  such  individuals 
as  they  might  designate  as  unworthy  the  privilege  of  buying. 
Then,  too,  the  article  drank  had  little  resemblance  to  the 
compound  now  used;  in  fact,  I  do  not  recollect  any  case  of 
"delirium  tremens"  until  a  nuich  later  period  than  that  of 
which  I  am  now  speaking. 

At  this  period  also,  there  was  no  more  suggestion  nor 
suspicion  of  immorality  in  the  sale  of  lottery  tickets  than 
there  was  in  the  sale  of  schoolbooks.  If,  for  instance, 
a  bridge  was  to  be  built  across  the  Connecticut  river,  after 
having  raised  as  much  money  as  possible  by  individual 
subscriptions,  the  Legislature  would  be  petitioned  for  Jeavc 
to  raise  the  balance  by  lottery.  In  those  days  there  were 
few  rich  men,  and  not  all  who  were  rich  were  public-spirUed, 
and  there  seemed  to  be  no  other  way  of  accomplishing 
large  undertakings:  and  it  was  never  difficult  to  obtain  for 
the  managers  of  these  lotteries  men  of  tlie  highest  re- 
spectability. 

I  will  turn  from  this  digression,  I  find  that  in  1753  Lient. 
Samuel  Partridge  bought  of  Capt.  Seth  Dwiglit  the  south- 
ern half  of  his  homestead,  and  about  twenty  years  Eater  he 
bought  the  remaining  half;  and  that  still  later  he  added  to 
the  north  side  two  rods  purchased  of  Isaac  Graves,  while 
to  the  south  side  he  added  one  and  one  half  rods  by  pur- 
chase from  .Aaron  Graves;  thus,  tlie  old  Dwight  homestead 
was  not  so  wide  by  three  and  one  half  rods  as  the  two  lots 
of  John  A.  Billings  and  Otis  Wells.  The  beautiful  elm  tree 
now  stan<iing  in  front  of  this  lot  was  set  out  by  Josiah 
Dwight.  son  of  Seth  Dwight.  about  the  year  1768. 

The  house  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Otis  Wells  was  built  by 
Dea.  Cotton  Partridge,  and  is  now,  I  suppose,  not  far  from 
ninety  years  old.  He  died  in  1846.  His  children  are  scat- 
tered from  the  .\tlantic  to  the  Pacific  ocean,  and  from 
\'crmont  to  Xortli  Carolina,  and  no  descendant  of  Lieut. 
Samuel   Partridge  bearing  his  name   is  now  living  in  Hat- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE. 


259 


field.  When  I  last  saw  the  homestead  the  buildings  were 
the  same,  and  occupied  the  same  place  which  they  did  in 
my   early   childhood. 

The  next  house,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  Mrs  C.  M. 
Billings's  house,  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Amasa 
\VelIs.  the  grandfather  of  Mr.  Otis  Wells.  He  was  a  man 
of  such  irreproachable  life,  and  so  highly  esteemed  and  re- 
spected, that  even  the  bitterest  partisan  never  uttered  a  word 
against  him.  The  house  on  the  homestead  was  very  old, 
and  was  called  the  oldest  in  town.     It  was  two  stories  in 


The  Ji 


height,  with  the  second  story  projecting  in  front  over  the 
first,  for  purposes  of  defense  against  the  Indians.  I  remem- 
ber being  told  while  it  was  in  the  occupancy  of  Mr.  Wells, 
that  is,  before  he  died,  that  it  was  one  hundred  and 
eleven  years  old:  which,  with  the  fact  that  it  was  built  with 
reference  to  attacks  by  the  Indians,  leads  me  to  conclude 
that  it  was  built  early  in  the  eighteenth  century.  Mr.  Wells 
was  killed  by  a  fall  from  the  roof  of  this  house.  He  left 
four  sons,  all  of  whom  but  Elisha  emigrated.  An  only 
daughter,  Hannah,  married  Jo.seph  Smith,  Jr.,  and  lived  and 
died    in    Hatfield. 


250  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  next  was  the  house  of  Capt.  EHjah  Smith,  brother  of 
OHver  Smith,  where  he  lived  with  three  sons  and  one 
daughter,  all  of  whom  died  in  Hatfield.  Another  daughter 
was  married  to  Dea.  Joseph  Billings,  and  one  of  the  sons, 
Charles,  was  afterward  married  and  left  the  homestead. 
The  only  material  change  which  had  taken  place  in  the 
appearance  of  this  homestead  when  I  last  saw^  it,  was  the 
loss  of  the  large  elm  tree  which  stood  in  front  of  the  house. 

The  next  house  was  the  residence  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Lyman. 
This  was  an  old  house  of  two  stories  with  a  gambrel  roof. 
A  few  rods  south  of  the  house  there  stood  a  large  elm  tree, 
which  I  am  told  was  there,  though  quite  small,  at  the  time  of 
his  settlement  in  1772,  and  consequently,  if  still  standing, 
is  more  than  a  hundred  years  old.  Near  this  tree  was  his 
study,  a  small  building  w^hich  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Pliny 
Day  about  the  time  of  his  marriage,  removed  to  the  lot 
where  Mrs.  Silas  Billings  now  lives,  and  became  his  dwell- 
ing house  for  a  number  of  years.  It  w^as  afterward  removed 
to  Mr.  Rufus  Cowles's  lot  and  became  one  of  his  outbuild- 
ings. In  the  northeast  corner  of  the  front  yard,  on  the  line 
of  the  street,  there  was  a  small  building  erected  by  Jonathan 
H.,  son  of  Dr.  Lyman,  for  a  law  office,  and  after  he  left 
town  used  by  his  father  for  a  study.  Some  years  after  the 
death  of  Dr.  Lyman,  this  building  was  removed  up  the 
street  to  a  location  between  the  house  then  occupied  by 
Mr.  Joseph  Smith,  Jr.,  and  the  Bardwell  place;  subsequently 
it  was  purchased  by  Daniel  White  and  removed  to  his  lot 
in  Middle  Lane,  and  finallv  transferred  from  thence  to  the 
"Stone  Pits,"  where  I  believe  it  now  stands,  though  some- 
what changed  in  appearance.  The  house  in  which  Dr. 
Lyman  lived  (before  mentioned)  was  built  and  occupied  by 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Woodbridge,  his  immediate  predecessor.  The 
home  lot,  sixteen  rods  in  width,  was  made  up  of  two  rods 
from  the  Eleazer  Frary  lot,  John  Graves's  lot  of  twelve  rods, 
and  two  rods  of  Isaac  Graves's  lot. 

The  next  object  of  interest  was  the  old  elm  tree  standing 
on  Benjamin  Smith's  place,  immediately  on  the  street  line. 
It  had  a  large  trunk,  measuring,  at  the  top  of  the  fence, 
twenty-seven  feet  in  circumference  and  about  two  feet  from 
the  ground  its  circumference  was  nearly  forty  feet.  It  was 
very  old  and  there  is  a  trad\t\ou  that  it  exhibited  signs  of 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE. 


261 


re  when  seen  by  the  first  settlers  of  the  town.  Mr.  Jon- 
han  Morton,  brother  of  Perez  Morton,  told  me  forty  or 
ty  y^rs  ago,  and  he  was  then  an  old  man,  that  it  seemed 
1  old  tree  as  long  ago  as  he  could  remember.  I  am  told 
at  its  stump  gave  evidence  of  having  stood  there  four 
indred  years. 

A  short  distance  north  of  the  old  elm  tree,  on  the  same 
le,    there    stood   a    small    building   which    was    known    as 


iquire  Smith's  .store."  though  it  never  had  a  stock  of  goods 
ice  my  memory,  and  possibly  may  have  stood  there  when 
r.  Smith  came  into  possession  of  the  property.  The 
veiling   hou.se    of    Mr.   Smith    stood    some   twenty-five    or 


262  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

thirty  feet  back  from  the  street.  It  was  a  two-story  gam- 
brel-roofed  house  handsomely  finished  inside,  and  had  been 
in  earlier  days  the  residence  of  Col.  Israel  Williams  by 
whom  it  was  built.  Colonel  Williams  was  a  son  of  the  Rev. 
William  Williams,  a  former  minister  of  Hatfield,  and  a 
brother  of  Elisha  Williams,  the  third  president  of  Yale  Col- 
lege. Colonel  Williams  previous  to  the  Revolution  was  a 
man  of  large  influence  and  filled  important  offices :  but, 
espousing  the  wrong  side,  he  lost  both  office  and  influence. 
He  is  alluded  to  in  the  couplet  with  Murray  in  TrumbulTs 
**McFingal."  He  was  killed  by  falling  down  his  cellar  stairs 
in  1788.  In  the  rear  was  an  extension  much  older  than  the 
gambrel-roofed  building  in  front,  which  was  built  by  his 
father,  the  Rev.  William  Williams,  the  third  minister  of 
Hatfield.  In  my  childhood  the  house  was  occupied  by  Mr. 
Benjamin  Smith,  his  wife,  and  daughter,  afterwards  Mrs. 
Samuel  F.  Lyman  of  Northampton,  and  his  bachelor 
brother,  Mr.  Oliver  Smith.  The  lot  owned  by  Benjamin 
Smith  was  sixteen  rods  in  width,  twelve  rods  of  which  com- 
prised the  original  allotment  of  Thomas  Meekins,  and  four 
rods  were  the  balance  of  Eleazer  Frarv*s  lot.  The  line 
between  this  and  the  Chapin  Porter  lot  has  never  been 
changed. 

Mr.  Oliver  Smith,  mentioned  alx)ve,  was  even  then  con- 
sidered a  very  rich  man.  When  a  boy  wished  himself  as 
rich  as  Oliver  Smith,  he  w^as  supposed  to  wish  for  boundless 
wealth.  Since  he  will  be  known  to  posterity  as  the  founder 
of  the  *'Smith  Charities,"  it  may  not  be  improper  to  notice 
some  of  his  prominent  characteristics.  He  had  naturally  a 
good  mind  with  plenty  of  hard  common  sense,  and  was  of  u 
rather  taciturn  habit.  He  was  honest  in  his  dealings,  intend- 
ing to  claim  no  more  than  what  rightfully  belonged  to 
him ;  yet  he  managed  to  withhold  the  greater  part  of  his 
property  from  taxation,  thus  adding  to  the  burden  of  his 
townsmen.  He  possessed  an  imcommon  judgment  in  busi- 
ness matters,  so  that  his  investments,  so  far  as  I  know, 
were  invariably  successful.  He  was  ambitious  in  a  certain 
way,  but  his  ani])ition  was  satisfied  with  being  considered 
tlie  richest  man  in  that  rej^^ion,  and  tlie  leader  of  those  with 
whom  he  associated.  Among  these  associates,  I  am  told, 
lie   was    irenial   and   often    evinced   a    sense   of   humor.     Al- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  263 

though  he  had  naturally  a  strong  mind,  yet  his  w-ant  of  edu- 
cation and  the  low  estimate  which  he  put  upon  education  had 
the  eflfect  of  making  him  very  narrow-minded;  so  that  his 
only  standard  of  valuation  was  the  result  in  dollars  and  cents. 
He  always  argued  that  a  liberal  education  was  a  hindrance 
in  a  man's  career,  and  carried  statistics  in  his  pocket  which 
he  would  often  read  to  enforce  his  argument  and  show 
that  learning  seldom  helped  a  man  to  wealth.  He  was 
very  penurious,  spending  little  on  himself  and  imparting 
little,  to  others.  During  the  thirty  years  or  more  of  my 
recollection  of  him,  he  wore  the  same  overgarments;  yet' 
by  reason  of  a  certain  trimness  and  neatness,  he  always 
appeared  respectably  dressed.  It  does  him  no  injustice  to 
say  that  he  was  destitute  of  public  spirit;  and  efforts  to 
improve  society  either  by  a  higher  education  or  by  religious 
teaching  met  with  very  little  encouragement  from  him.  On 
one  occasion  he  gave  fifty  dollars  to  assist  in  building  a 
schoolhouse  at  West  Farms,  and  at  another  time  he  gave 
the  same  sum  for  a  schoolhouse  in  West  Brook;  but  few, 
if  any,  of  his  contemporaries  supposed  that  his  love  for  edu- 
cation prompted  him  to  make  these  gifts.  He  also  made  a 
donation  of  fifty  dollars  to  the  Colonization  Society,  and  for 
some  years  gave  two  dollars  annually  to  the  Bible  Society. 
So  far  from  being  forward  in  raising  money  for  the  support 
of  schools,  if  he  favored  any,  it  was  always  the  smallest 
amount  proposed;  and  he  also  claimed  that  it  was  unjust  to 
tax  him  for  the  support  of  schools  as  he  had  no  children. 

The  next  house  was  owned  by  Israel  Dickinson,  who 
occupied  it  with  his  wife  and  daughter.  He  was  the  son  of 
EHhu  Dickinson,  and  brother  of  William  and  Silas  Dickin- 
son ;  his  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson, 
and  his  daughter  subsequently  became  the  wife  of  Rodol- 
phus  Morton.  Their  son,  George,  was  born  much  later. 
As  Mrs.  Dickinson  was  mv  aunt,  mv  visits  to  the  house 
began  very  early,  so  that  I  think  I  recollect  its  appearance 
seventy  years  ago.  It  had  been  painted  red,  but  the  paint 
was  considerably  worn  off.  It  is  the  same  house  occupied 
by  the  late  Moses  C.  Porter,  by  whom  its  appearance  was 
materially  altered.  The  two  elm  trees  in  front  are  some- 
what larger  than  they  were  seventy  years  ago,  but  their 
appearance  is  not  greatly  changed.      [One  of  these  trees  is 


264  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

a  hackberry.]  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dickinson  removed  to  Lock- 
port,  N.  Y..  many  years  ago,  where  they  both  died.  Their 
son,  George,  returned  to  Hatfield,  where  he  and  his  sister 
died.  The  daughter,  Mrs.  Morton,  was  a  woman  of  uncom- 
mon intellectual  powers  and  of  a  lovely  disposition.  She 
was  a  fine  scholar  and  few  young  women  of  her  day  excelled 
her  in  mental  culture.  She  engaged  in  teaching"  at  one 
time,  and  there  are  those  now  living  who  will  never  forget 
her  gracious  influence  upon  them  in  that  capacity.  She  had 
the  rare  and  happy  faculty  of  calling  out  all  that  was  best  in 
her  scholars,  and  her  resignation  as  a  teacher  was  felt  to  be  a 
public  loss. 

The  house  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Silas  G.  Hubbard  was 
then  occupied  by  Lieut.  Rufus  Smith  and  wife,  and  his  son, 
John,  and  his  family.  Mr.  John  Smith's  wife  was  a  daugh- 
ter of  Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson.  The  house  was  of  com- 
paratively recent  structure.  Mr.  Smith  and  his  wife  and 
son  died  in  Hatfield,  but  his  son's  widow  with  all  the  chil- 
dren who  had  not  previously  removed  from  town,  went  to 
Connecticut.  Previous  to  the  occupancy  of  Lieutenant 
Smith  this  place  was  occupied  by  Col.  William  Allis,  the 
father  of  Dexter  Allis  and  of  Mrs.  Jonathan  Porter.  It 
includes  nearly  the  whole  of  two  lots  granted  by  Hadley  to 
John  Allis  and  Daniel  White,  Jr. 

The  next  house  north  was  that  of  William  Morton,  which 
is  the  same  with  that  now  occupied  by  the  widow  of  his  son, 
Israel,  by  whom  it  was  repaired  and  remodeled.  As  I  re- 
member it,  it  was  quite  an  old  house;  it  might  have  been 
painted,  but  showed  no  trace  of  it.  Mr.  Morton  lived  here 
with  his  wife  and  a  maiden  sister,  familiarly  known  as 
"Aunt  Eunice."  He  had  five  sons  and  five  daughters,  all  of 
whom  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield,  with  the  exception  of  one 
son  and  one  (laughter.  One  of  his  sons,  Pliny,  was  a  sur- 
geon's mate  in  the  United  States  navy,  and  died  while  on  a 
visit  at  home.  The  first  owner  of  this  place  was  Obed 
Dickinson.  It  was  then  six  rods  in  width;  now  it  is  ten 
rods,  three  rods  coming  from  Silas  G.  Hubbard's  and  one 
from   Cliapin   Porter's. 

The  ground  now  occupied  by  Smith  Academy  is  the  same 
as  that  originally  allotted  to  Samuel  Kellogg.  The  house 
which  was  removed  to  make  room  for  the  Academv,  in  earlv 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  265 

days  was  owned  by  the  widow  of  Benjamin  Morton,  who 
was  subject  to  rather  protracted  attacks  of  insanity.  She 
was  a  sister  of  Ebenezer  White.  Her  sister,  Mrs.  Robbins, 
with  two  daughters  kept  the  house.  Mrs.  Morton  had  no 
children.  This  lot  was  originally  six  rods  wide,  but  is  much 
w^ider  now  having  gained  most  of  what  Middle  Lane  has 
lost.  The  line  between  this  and  Israel  Morton's  lot  has 
never  been  changed.  On  the  other  side  of  Middle  Lane,  on 
the  lot  first  owned  by  John  Hawks,  stood  the  house  of 
Daniel  Wait,  occupied  by  himself  and  his  wife,  a  daughter 
of  Hon.  John  Hastings,  who  both  died  in  Hatfield.  They 
had  one  child,  a  daughter,  who  married  Dexter  Allis  and 
removed  to  Springfield.  The  house  seemed  comparatively 
new  and  when  I  first  saw  it  had  never  been  painted.  It 
has  been  considerably  changed  by  additions  and  otherwise, 
but  is  the  same  as  that  now^  occupied  by  Mr.  Baggs. 

Mr.  Perez  Hastings  lived  in  the  next  house  with  his 
wife  and  four  children.  He  was  a  blacksmith  and  the  son  of 
Hopestill  Hastings,  and  his  wife  w^as  a  daughter  of  Salmon 
White  of  Whately.  He  died  in  this  house,  but  his  children 
all  emigrated  to  the  state  of  New  York.  After  the  death 
of  Mr.  Hastings  this  house  came  into  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Joseph  Smith,  Jr.,  who  with  his  wife  lived  in  it  until 
his  death.  I  suppose  this  house  stands  on  the  land  origi- 
nally occupied  by  Richard  Morton,  the  first  settler  in  town 
by  that  name.  The  late  Moses  Morton  told  me  that  an  old 
house  which  stood  a  little  south  of  this  was  an  old  Morton 
house,  was  removed  from  that  place  by  Nehemiah  Wait  and 
is  the  same  in  which  Lewis  Dickinson  and  his  sisters  lived 
during  the  latter  years  of  their  life.  A  few  rods  north  of 
the  house  was  a  blacksmith's  shop,  which  was  afterward 
occupied  by  a  store.  The  town  originally  owned  a  space  of 
sixteen  rods  between  the  John  Hawks  place  and  the  Richard 
Morton  lot,  but  that  ownership  ceased  before  I  was  born. 

The  next  house  north  was  owned  and  occupied  by  the 
widow  of  Mr.  Seth  Bardwell  with  three  sons,  William, 
Jeremy,  and  Salmon  D.  Mr.  Seth  Bardwell  was  killed  by 
lightning.  Mrs.  Seth  Bardwell  was  the  daughter  of  Salmon 
Dickinson,  the  brother  of  Col.  John  Dickinson,  the  father 
of  Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson.  This  was  by  no  means  a  new 
house  as  I  remember  it. 


266  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Next  to  this,  on  the  corner  of  Main  Street  and  Upper 
Lane,  stood  the  house  of  Mr.  Solomon  Dickinson.  It  was 
a  large  square  house  and  apparently  new;  it  has  since  been 
burned.  Mrs.  Dickinson  was  a  Huntington  from  Norwich, 
Conn.  Mr.  Dickinson  was  the  son  of  Daniel  Dickinson,  Sr. 
Their  children,  with  the  exception  of  one  daughter  who 
died,  still  reside  in  Hatfield. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  Upper  Lane,  farther  back  from 
Main  Street,  in  the  house  now  standing  there  lived  Mr. 
Elijah  Dickinson,  his  wife,  and  two  sons.  Mrs.  Dickinson 
died  early  and  he  afterwards  married  a  daughter  of  Mr. 
Daniel  Dickinson.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Dickinson,  Oba- 
diah,  his  eldest  son,  removed  from  town,  and  Norman,  the 
younger  son,  who  had  been  a  cripple  from  his  birth,  died. 
Two  children  by  his  second  marriage  are  still  living,  Nancy, 
the  wife  of  Mr.  Joseph  D.  Billings,  and  the  son,  Elijah, 
whom  I  well  knew  as  a  noble,  generous-hearted  young  man, 
respected  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  him.  He  has  been 
for  many  years  an  inmate  of  the  Hartford  Retreat.  The 
general  appearance  of  this  house  when  I  last  saw  it  was 
much  the  same  as  when  I  first  knew  it. 

In  the  next  house  lived  Mr.  Daniel  Dickinson,  his  wife, 
his  son,  Daniel,  Jr.,  and  his  two  daughters,  Lois  and  Nancy. 
His  two  other  children,  a  son  and  a  daughter,  were  married. 
Mr.  Dickinson  was  the  brother  of  Aaron  and  Roger;  his 
wife  was  the  daughter  of  Gideon  and  the  sister  of  Joseph 
Dickinson.  The  house  in  which-  thev  lived  stood  on  the 
site  of  the  house  now  occupied  by  Mr.  John  Brown,  and 
was  burned  many  years  since. 

Next  was  a  house  consisting  of  one  story  and,  as  I  re- 
member it,  a  pretty  old  house.  It  was  occupied  by  David 
Wait,  one  of  whose  daughters,  Lucinda,  became  the  second 
wife  of  Elijah  Rardwell,  Sr.  Jeremy  Morton  afterwards 
lived  there  and  subsequently  built  the  house  in  which 
his  widow  now  lives.  David  Wait  was  a  descendant  of 
Benjamin  Wait,  and  this  home  lot  was  the  dwelling  place 
of  that  heroic  man  on  the  19th  of  September,  1677. 

The  next  and  the  last  house  on  the  west  side  of  the  street 
was  owned  and  occupied  by  Abijah  Bliss,  his  wife,  and  three 
sons.     Mr.  I>]iss  came  from  Longnieadow.     He  was  a  cloth- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  267 

ier  and  his  shop  stood  near  his  house.  Adjoining  the  place 
was  the  gate  leading  into  the  North  Meadow. 

Directly  east  of  this  gate,  and  very  near  it,  was  a  one- 
story  building  facing  the  south,  which,  as  I  first  remember 
it,  was  not  used  as  a  dwelling  house,  but  afterwards  was 
occupied  by  Roger  Dickinson  and  his  wife.  At  that  time 
Mr.  Dickinson  lived  in  an  old-looking,  one-story  house 
perhaps  twenty  feet  to  the  northeast  of  this  house,  with  his 
wife,  and  son,  and  possibly  a  daughter.  Mr.  Dickinson 
was  a  blacksmith  by  trade  and  in  the  Revolutionary  war 
joined  the  British  army,  and  was  employed  in  shoeing 
horses.  He  named  his  son  Loyal  George,  who  removed  to 
Leicester,  where,  after  burying  five  wives,  he  left  the  sixth 
a  widow. 

The  first  lot  on  the  east  side  of  the  street  was  granted 
to  Hezekiah  Dickinson,  the  son  of  Nathaniel,  Sr.,  and  the 
father  of  Rev.  Jonathan  Dickinson,  the  first  president  of 
New  Jersey  College  (later  called  Princeton).  He  removed 
from  Hatfield  and  died  in  Springfield  in  1706. 

The  first  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  street,  as  I  recol- 
lect, was  the  house  lately  occupied  by  Jeremy  Bardwell. 
It  was  unpainted  and  looked  old.  The  first  occupants 
whom  I  remember  were  Heman  Swift  and  his  wife,  three 
sons,  and  a  daughter.  The  daughter  became  the  wife  of 
William  Bardwell.  The  rest  of  the  family  removed  from 
town   many  years  ago. 

In  the  next  house  which  had  two  stories  and  was  painted 
red,  lived  Mr.  Joseph  Dickinson,  whose  wife  was  a  sister  of 
Mr.  Nehemiah  Wait.  He  was  the  father  of  Mrs.  Roswell 
Billings  and  of  the  first  Mrs.  Elijah  Bardwell.  At  this  time 
the  occupants  were  himself,  his  wife,  an  unmarried  son,  and 
a  daughter.  Martha,  the  daughter,  was  a  woman  of  more 
than  ordinary  mind,  manifesting  a  strong  desire  for  her 
own  improvement  and  for  the  improvement  of  others,  using 
all  her  privileges,  however  circumscribed,  to  the  best  advan- 
tage. It  is  reported  of  her  that  after  finishing  the  tasks  of 
the  day,  she  would  sit  up  far  into  the  night  reading  and 
studying,  and  this  self-denying  application  showed  happy 
results  in  her  superior  culture  and  intelligence.  Though 
she  had  not  a  long  life  her  influence  for  good  was  not 
buried  with  her,  but  still   continues.     Caleb,   the   son,  took 


268  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

down   the   old   house   and   replaced   it  by  a   more    modern 
structure. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Elijah  Bardwell,  the  son  of 
Seth  and  Hannah  Bardwell,  who  lived  here  with  his  wife, 
the  daughter  of  Joseph  Dickinson,  and  two  children.  Han- 
nah, the  daughter,  married  a  Mr.  Wright  and  removed  to 
Deerfield,  where  she  died.  His  son,  Elijah,  Jr.,  is  still  living. 
The  house  in  which  they  lived  has  been  removed  to  the 
Upper  Lane,  where  it  now  stands.  Betw^een  this  and  the 
next  house  there  was,  I  think,  a  barn  standing  even  with 
the  street  and  a  small  red  building  used  as  a  horse  shed. 
The  original  owner  of  the  Bardw'ell  lot  was  Samuel  Marsh, 
and  the  line  between  him  and  Nathaniel  Foote  was  directly 
opposite  the  south  boundary  of  the  Upper  Lane. 

On  the  next  lot  stood  the  house  w^iich  was  occupied  by 
the  widow  of  Elihu  Dickinson  with  two  of  her  sons,  Wil- 
liam and  Silas.  Silas  died  unmarried.  William  married  a 
(laughter  of  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith,  and  his  son,  William  H. 
Dickinson,  with  his  children  are  the  sole  representatives 
now  living  in  Hatfield,  of  the  Smith  family,  which  was  so 
numerous  since  my  memory  as  to  furnish  on  one  occasion 
fourteen  voters  of  that  name.  The  old  house  has  been 
removed  into  the  Upper  Lane  and  replaced  by  a  very  fine 
building.  In  front  of  the  house  there  stood  a  very  old 
buttonball,  with  a  hole  near  the  foot  of  its  trunk  so  large 
that  a  good-sized  boy  could  hide  in  it. 

Lieutenant  Samuel  Smith  lived  in  the  next  house  with  his 
wife,  who  was  the  sister  of  Daniel  and  Elijah  White,  and 
four  daughters,  and  one  son.  These  all  with  the  exception 
of  one  daughter,  who  married  William  Dickinson,  died  in 
Hatfield  unmarried.  Mr.  Smith  was  a  very  worthy  man, 
the  brother  of  Oliver  Smith,  and,  I  think,  the  oldest  of  the 
six  brothers.  The  house  showed  little  signs  of  paint  and 
appeared  to  be  considerably  old.  It  is  still  standing.  The 
original  owner  of  this  lot  w^as  Philip  Russell,  and  it  is  the 
most  northerly  of  the  lots  granted  bv  the  tow^n  of  Hadlev 
in    1661. 

Ebenezer  Morton  lived  in  the  next  house  with  his  wife, 
who  was  an  Ingram  from  Amherst,  and  four  sons  and  three 
daughters,  all  of  whom  with  the  exception  of  one  unmarried 
daughter,  who  died  in  Hatfield,  removed  from  town.     The 


REMINISCENXES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  269 

house,  which  was  an  old  one,  still  stands,  altered  and  re- 
paired. Mr.  Morton  served  a  term  during  the  Revolution- 
ary war,  and  was  present  at  the  execution  of  Major  Andre. 

The  house  which  now  stands  next  to  it  was  owned  and 
occupied  by  Remembrance  Bardwell,  a  blacksmith,  son  of 
Seth  and  Hannah  Bardwell,  with  his  wife,  who  was  the 
daughter  of  John  Allis,  and  their  children,  three  daughters 
and  two  sons.  One  son  and  one  daughter  died  in  Hatfield; 
the  others  removed  from  town.  His  blacksmith  shop  stood 
a  few  rods  south  of  the  dwelling  house.  The  first  pro- 
prietor of  this  lot  was  John  Wells. 

The  next  house  was  Mr.  Silas  Porter's.  He  was  the  son 
of  James  Porter  and  his  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Seth 
Graves,  and  a  granddaughter  of  Col.  John  Dickinson.  He 
was  a  shoemaker  and  a  very  worthy,  industrious  man. 
He  had  three  sons  and  two  daughters,  all  of  whom  but  one, 
Theodore,  removed  from  town.  The  house  was  by  no 
means  new  and  is  now,  I  believe,  occupied  by  his  descend- 
ants. Mr.  Porter  obtained  a  pension  for  his  services  during 
the  Revolutionary  war.  His  shoemaker's  shop  stood  a  little 
south  of  the  house. 

Frederic  Chapin,  who  came  from  Somers,  Conn.,  had 
lived  in  the  next  house,  but  he  died  before  I  was  born.  At 
my  first  recollection  the  house  was  occupied  by  his  widow, 
with  her  two  sons,  Camillus  and  Frederic.  The  house  was 
of  two  stories,  painted  red  and  appeared  to  be  old.  Frederic 
removed  to  New  Jersey.  Camillus  lived  and  died  in  Hat- 
field, but  no  descendants  of  either  are  now  in  town.  There 
was  a  large  elm  tree  in  front  of  the  house,  remarkable  for 
its  beauty.  Some  rods  south  of  the  house,  on  the  line  of 
the  street,  stood  the  barn  belonging  to  the  place. 

Adjoining  on  the  same  line  stood  the  barn  of  Perez  Mor- 
ton, who  lived  in  the  next  house  a  little  further  south.  Mr. 
Morton  was  a  son  of  Jonathan  Morton,  and  his  wife  was  a 
sister  of  Ebenezer  Morton.  He  had  four  sons  and  three 
daughters,  only  one  of  whom  has  removed  from  town.  An 
elder  brother  of  Mr.  Morton,  Jonathan,  lived  with  him.  He 
was*  a  man  of  a  gentle,  refined  nature,  fond  of  readings 
small  of  stature,  and  of  delicate  health.  I  remember  hear- 
ing him  say  that  he  had  never  seen  a  well  day;  yet  by  reg- 
ular habits,  and  in  every  way  taking  good  care  of  himself^ 


270  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

he  lived  to  be  over  ninety  years  of  age.  The  house  was 
painted  a  light  yellow,  but  w^ith  the  exception  of  its  color 
presents  much  the  same  general  appearance  that  it  did  sixty 
years  ago. 

Next  to  this  house,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  Elijah 
Bardwell,  Jr.,  was  an  old  two-story  house,  in  which  lived 
Joseph,  the  eldest  son  of  Perez  Morton.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  Joel  Day  and  had  two  children,  a  son  and  a 
daughter.  Some  years  after  his  death,  his  widow  and  chil- 
dren removed  to  New  Haven,  Conn. 

The  next  house  was  owned  by  Oliver  Smith  and  stood 
very  near  the  site  now  occupied  by  Mrs.  Joseph  Smith's 
house.  It  was  two  stories  high,  painted  red,  and  looked  old 
and  neglected.  At  different  times  private  schools  were  kept 
in  the  house.  I  remember  one  taught  by  a  Miss  Childs. 
and  another  by  the  late  Dr.  Barstow  of  Keene,  X.  H.  A 
familv  named  Elderkin  lived  there  manv  vears  since,  but 
it  was  generally  untenanted. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Dr.  Daniel  White,  who  kept 
it  as  a  tavern  many  years  ago.  He  was  the  son  of  Daniel, 
whose  wife  was  Submit  Morton,  and  his  wife,  who  was 
living  at  my  first  recollection,  was  Lucy  Allis  of  Somers, 
Conn.  He  afterwards  married  successivelv  Lucv  Burt  of 
Longmeadow,  Elizabeth,  widow  of  Cotton  White,  and  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Ebenezer  Fitch.  Dr.  White  had  no  children. 
The  house,  now  owned  by  the  children  of  his  nephew,  Elisha 
Wells,  is  the  same,  but  greatly  changed  in  its  appearance. 
I  believe  this  to  be  the  old  White  lot,  the  same  originally 
allotted  to  John  White,  Jr. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Joseph  Smith,  but  between 
that  and  Dr.  White's  was  a  barn,  which  stood  at  some  dis- 
tance east  from  the  street,  and  I  suppose  is  still  there,  in  the 
rear  of  the  house  built  by  Miss  Sophia  Smith  and  now 
owned  by  Mr.  George  Billings.  Mr.  Smith's  wife  was  a 
sister  of  Elihu  and  Ebenezer  White,  who  lived  on  "the  Hill." 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Smith  had  three  sons  and  four  daughters.  Of 
these  all  but  one  died  unmarried,  and  that  one,  Joseph,  Jr., 
left  no  children.  Mr.  Smith  was  a  brother  of  Oliver  Smith 
and  the  youngest  but  one  of  six  brothers,  who,  with  one 
exception,  were  married  and  had  cliildren,  but  none  of  the 
name  are  now  living  in  Hatfield,  and  the  number  of  those 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  271 

who  have  removed  from  town  is  very  small.  Three  of  Mr. 
Smith's  children  died  before  their  father,  Joseph,  had  re- 
moved from  the  homestead  and  lived  in  his  own  house, 
leaving  this  house  occupied  by  the  oldest  son,  Austin,  and 
two  maiden  sisters.  The  homestead  owned  by  Mr.  Smith 
was  originally  allotted  to  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  and  the 
division  lines,  both  on  the  north  and  south  side,  have  never 
been  changed.  Sophia,  the  elder  of  the  maiden  sisters, 
was  the  founder  of  Smith  College,  an  act  which  entitles 
fier  to  the  rank  of  a  public  benefactress.  The  greater  part 
3f  the  money  which  constituted  the  benefaction  was  amassed 
3y  her  brother  Austin.  Mr.  Smith,  the  father,  having  little 
education  himself,  placed  a  low  estimate  upon  it  for  others. 
He  gave  his  children  very  meager  opportunities  for  mental 
zulture,  teaching  them  by  his  example  that  the  chief  object 
in  life  was  to  acquire  property  by  industry  and  preserve  it  by 
economy.  The  grace  of  giving  had  no  place  in  his  teaching 
Dr  example.  Brought  up  in  this  way  it  is  not  surprising 
that  his  son  became  rich.  This  son  had  good  natural 
abilities,  with  a  quick  and  ready  wit,  and  under  favorable 
influences  might  have  become  a  genial  and  generous  man, 
DUt,  devoting  all  his  energies  to  the  making  and  saving  of 
money,  he  became  narrow  in  the  extreme  and  hostile  to  all 
public  measures  which  involved  any  outlay  of  money.  Like- 
his  uncle,  Oliver,  he  always  favored  the  smallest  sum  pro- 
posed for  the  use  of  public  schools.  I  have  known  him 
to  introduce  resolutions  in  town  meeting  forbidding  all 
instruction  in  those  schools  of  any  branches  except  reading, 
writing,  arithmetic,  and  geography.  Fortunately,  his  in- 
fluence in  town  meetings  was  very  slight.  This  brother 
with  two  surviving  sisters  remained  in  the  old  homestead, 
and  having  become  somewhat  advanced  in  life  each  made  a 
will  giving  his  or  her  property  to  the  survivor.  The  younger 
sister  died  first,  and  the  brother  dying  soon  after  left 
5ophia  sole  heir  to  a  large  estate.  This  was  fortunate  for 
the  cause  of  education,  a»  from  neither  of  the  others  would 
there  have  been  any  impulse  in  that  line. 

Yet  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  infer  that  Sophia  Smith 
was  a  person  of  superior  abilities,  or  that  her  education  sur- 
:)assed  or  even  equaled  the  ordinary  standards  of  her  day. 
Her    opportunities    for   school    education    were    slight,    and 


272 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


during;  her  early  life  site  had  access  to  few'books.  At  a  later 
period  she  availed  herself  of  the  advantages  afforded  by 
the  Social  Library,  a  well-selected,  though  not  large,  collec- 
tion of  books,  and  from  this  source  she  acquired  considerable 
information  and  a  taste  for  improvement.  She  was  con- 
scientious, felt  deeply  the  responsibility  attending  the  pos- 
session of  wealth,  and  her  need  of  counsel  in  regard  to 
the  disposition  of  her  estate.  She  was  at  heart  loyal  to  her 
native  town,  an<l  when  she  had  decided  upon  the  establish- 
ment of  a  female  college,  she  expected  to  locate  the  institu- 
tion in  Hatfield.  But  those  to  whom  she  went  for  advice 
were  of  a  different  mind,  some  urging  the  claims  of  Nortli- 


am|)ton  and  some  of  Andierst,  until  she  was  finally  per- 
suaded to  locate  it  in  Northampton;  and  tt  may  be  that 
circumstances  in  the  future  will  justify  this  conclusion. 
which  now  seems  so  unsatisfactory  to  the  friends  of  Hat- 
field. Miss  Smith  will  also  be  remembered  as  the  founder 
of  ail  academy  in  Hatfield.  She  also  gave  the  town  five 
hundred  dollars  for  the  Library,  although  the  benefits  she 
had  herself  ilcrived  from  it  would  have  justified  a  much  more 
generou.*  donation. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1794  [1783]  by  Lieut.  David 
Billings,  the  granduncle  of  Mr.  Joseph  D.  Billings,  the  pres- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  273 

ent  owner.  It  presented  quite  a  modern  appearance  as  I 
first  knew  it,  being  then  some  fifteen  or  sixteen  years  old. 
It  has  always  been  well  cared  for  and  its  general  appearance 
is  about  the  same  now  as  then,  except  that  there  was  a  balus- 
trade around  the  roof,  w^hich  has  been  removed.  Its  occu- 
pants in  my  early  days  were  the  widow  of  Lieut.  David 
Billings,  who  was  a  sister  to  the  wives  of  Hon.  John  Hastings 
and  Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson  and  a  daughter  of  Rev.  Ephraim 
Little  of  Colchester,  Conn. ;  Deacon,  then  Capt.  Joseph 
Billings,  his  wife,  a  daughter  of  Capt.  Elijah  Smith,  and 
Caroline,  a  daughter  of  John  and  granddaughter  of  Col. 
Oliver  Partridge.  Caroline  afterw^ards  married  Theodore 
Partridge,  son  of  Dea.  Cotton  Partridge,  and  removed  to 
Phelps,  N.  Y.,  afterwards  removing  to  Raleigh,  N.  C,  where 
they  died.  This  is  the  original  Billings  lot,  which,  with  the 
Cowles  lot,  are  the  only  ones  remaining  on  the  street  owned 
by  the  descendants  of  the  first  settlers  bearing  the  same 
name. 

The  next  house,  which  still  stands,  though  uninhabited, 
was  the  residence  of  Dr.  John  Hastings,  his  wife,  three  sons, 
and  two  daughters.  He  was  the  son  of  Hon.  John  Hastings 
and  his  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Elijah  Dickinson,  Sr. 
Chester,  the  oldest  son,  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield.  John,  the 
second  son,  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1815,  and  is  now 
living  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y.  The  youngest,  Justin,  still  lives 
in  Hatfield  and  he  and  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Silas  G.  Hubbard, 
are  all  that  remain  in  town  of  the  Hastings  family.  Mary, 
the  elder  daughter,  married  Dr.  Chester  Bardwell  and  re- 
moved to  Whately;  and  Sophia,  the  younger,  lives  with  her 
brother  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y.  The  gambrel-roofed  one-story 
building  south  of  the  house  was  built  by  Doctor  Hastings, 
and  the  north  room  w-as  occupied  by  him  for  an  office,  while 
the  south  room  was  occupied  by  Israel  Billings  as  a  law 
office.  I  remember  afterwards  attending  a  school  there  (in 
the  south  room)  taught  by  Parsons  Cook.  The  first  ther- 
mometer I  ever  saw-,  I  believe  the  first  ever  owned  in  town, 
hung  in  Doctor  Hastings's  office.  An  addition  was  made  on 
the  east  side  of  this  building  when  it  was  transformed  into 
a  dw^elling  house.  In  1672  Thomas  Hastings  of  Watertowni 
married  a  daughter  of  John  Hawks  of  Hatfield,  where,  about 
that  time,  he  settled  as  a  physician;  but  so  little  were  the 
services  of  a  physician  required  in  those  days  that,  althou^K 


274  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

his  practice  extended  to  Springfield,  Deerfield,  and  Brook- 
field,  he  still  had  leisure  to  teach  the  town  school.  He  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  Thomas,  both  as  a  physician  and 
schoolmaster.  He  had  two  sons  who  settled  in  Hatfield; 
one,  Hopestill,  was  a  blacksmith  and  father  of  Perez  Hast- 
ings and  of  Seth,  the  father  of  Dr.  Thomas  Hastings,  presi- 
dent of  Union  Theological  Seminary. 

Waitstill,  the  other  son,  succeeded  his  father  as  a  physician 
in  Hatfield  and  was  the  father  of  Hon.  John  Hastings,  who 
lived  in  a  house  a  few  rods  south  of  his  son's  oflfice  just 
described  with  his  wife.  Content  Little,  and  three  unmarried 
daughters.  He  died  in  1811.  I  remember  to  have  seen  him 
many  times  leaning  over  the  front  fence,  wearing  a  cocked 
hat.  His  was  the  last  of  the  cocked  hats  in  Hatfield.  The 
house  was  then  old  and  gave  but  slight  indications  of  paint, 
though  I  think  it  had  been  red.  Within  a  few  years  it  has 
disappeared.  **Squire  Hastings/'  as  he  was  generally  called, 
had  four  sons  and  four  daughters.  Two  of  the  sons  were 
physicians, — John,  who  settled  in  Hatfield,  and  Waitstill,  who 
removed  to  Ohio.  Of  the  other  two,  Ephraim  removed  to 
Heath  at  an  early  day,  while  Samuel  remained  in  Hatfield 
to  a  later  period.  Only  one  of  the  daughters  was  married 
and  she  became  the  wife  of  Daniel  Wait.  Squire  Hastings 
was  for  twenty-eight  years  either  a  member  of  the  State 
Legislature  or  a  member  of  the  Executive  Council  and  for 
thirty-four  years  a  magistrate. 

His  son,  Samuel,  lived  in  the  next  house,  on  the  corner  of 
Main  Street  and  the  road  to  the  bridge.  This  house  was 
comparatively  new  and  of  a  yellowish  color.  His  wife  was 
Lucy  Andrews  of  Ashfield.  Before  leaving  Hatfield  they 
had  seven  sons,  and  a  daughter  was  born  to  them  after  their 
removal  to  Heath. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  bridge  road  stood  the  same 
house  which  now  stands  there,  occupied  by  Dwight,  a  son  of 
Dea.  Cotton  Partridge,  with  his  wife,  Betsey  Sabin,  and  five 
or  six  children.  They  removed  to  Phelps,  N.  Y.  This  had 
been  tlie  home  of  John  Dickinson,  a  brother  of  Gen.  Lemuel 
Dickinson,  who  removed  to  the  state  of  New  York.  The 
house,  which  is  probably  among  the  oldest  in  town,  remains 
unchanged  in  its  form. 

The  toll  house,  at  the  bridge,  was  a  one-story  building  and 
was  occupied  by  Simeon  Smith  with  his  wife,  three  sons,  and 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  275 

three  daughters.  This  bridge  had  a  fine  appearance  and  was 
built  on  four  arches.  Mr.  Smith  was  the  son  of  Simeon 
Smith  o!  Amherst  and  a  descendant  of  Samuel,  who  was 
the  ancestor  of  Oliver  Smith.     He  was  a  brother  of  Maj, 


Sylvanus  Smith  and  of  Asa  Smith  of  Northampton,  both  at 
one  time  deputy  sheriffs  in  Hampshire  County.  He  was  the 
first  man  to  raise  broom  corn  and  manufacture  brooms  in 
Hatfield.  In  1816  or  17  he  removed  with  his  family  to 
Amherst. 


276  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

On  or  near  the  spot  where  the  house  of  Mrs.  Polly  Graves 
now  stands,  looking  up  the  street,  there  stood  a  house  bear- 
ing marks  of  age,  where  lived  Cotton  White  and  his  family, 
who  are  also  the  first  whom  I  recollect  as  occupying  the 
Jesse  Billings  house  nearly  opposite.  It  was  an  old  Dickin- 
son homestead.  The  last  of  the  family  who  owned  it  was 
Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson,  who,  about  the  year  1806,  removed 
with  his  wife,  Molly  Little,  and  four  sons  to  Lowville,  N.  Y. 
His  three  daughters  remained  in  Hatfield,  Mabel,,  the  oldest, 
being  married  to  Samuel  Partridge  (my  father),  Polly  to 
Israel  Dickinson,  and  Sophia  to  John  Smith.  Col.  John 
Dickinson,  the  father  of  Gen.  Lemuel  Dickinson,  lived  on 
this  place,  where  he  died  in  1799  in  the  ninety-second  year  of 
his  age,  and  my  impression  is  that  his  father,  John,  who  was 
born  in  1667,  died  here  in  1761,  aged  ninety-four  years.  The 
estate  was  subsequently  purchased  by  Obadiah  Smith,  son  of 
Windsor  Smith  of  Hadley,  who  built  the  present  dwelling 
house  and  a  store  a  little  to  the  east  of  the  house.  This 
store  has  since  been  removed  to  the  Meadow,  where  it  is 
occupied  as  a  dwelling  house.  Col.  John  Dickinson  and 
Elihu  represented  the  town  in  a  Congress  held  at  Watertown 
in  1775. 

Of  the  forty-seven  places  on  Main  Street  which  I  have 
above  attempted  to  describe  with  their  occupants  as  they 
were  in  my  early  childhood,  only  nine  now  remain  in  the 
same  name  and  family;  and  of  all  the  lots  assigned  in  1661, 
only  two  remain  in  the  same  family  and  name.  These  are 
occupied,  one  by  Mr.  Joseph  D.  Billings  and  the  other  by 
Mr.  Rufus  Cowles. 

About  midway  between  the  Medad  Field  place  and  the 
Mill  river,  where  the  house  of  Mrs.  William  H.  Hubbard 
now  stands,  Dea.  Moses  Warner  lived  in  a  two-story  house 
which  has  since  been  burned.  Mr.  Warner  was  a  descendant 
of  Andrew  Warner  of  Hadley,  and  his  wife  was  the  daughter 
of  Elisha  King.  They  were  married  in  1779  and  the  house 
was  probably  built  about  that  time.  Two  sons,  Elisha  and 
Moses,  and  two  daughters,  afterwards  Mrs.  Hubbard  and 
Mrs.  Morgan,  all  remained  in  Hatfield  and  all  died  there, 
except  Mrs.  Morgan.  Deacon  Warner  was  a  man  highly 
esteemed  in  the  church  and  community,  and  was  regarded 
with  esteem  by  his  pastor,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  Lyman. 

John  Warner,  son  of  Deacon  Moses,  lived  in  a  brick  house 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  277 

on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street,  and  the  house  now  pre- 
sents the  same  general  appearance  which  marked  it  then. 
Mr.  Warner's  wife  was  a  Miss  Whiton  from  Berkshire 
County.  They  then  had  two  children,  but  five  were  added 
afterwards.  With  the  exception  of  one,  who  died  young, 
and  James,  who  now  occupies  the  place,  they  all  found  homes 
away  from  Hatfield.  The  north  side  of  Deacon  Warner's  lot 
was  bounded  on  the  west  by  Mill  river,  and  from  the  point 
where  the  river  turns  to  the  west  a  fence  ran  south  to  the 
street.  Sometime  before  his  death,  Deacon  Warner  ran  a 
fence  from  the  southwest  corner  of  his  lot  to  a  point  on  the 
river  a  little  above  the  bridge,  inclosing  a  triangular  piece  of 
the  highway.  The  highway  south  of  this  road  was  much 
larger  than  at  the  north,  extending  south  to  his  pasture  a 
distance  of  several  rods  beyond  the  line  of  John  Warner's 
front  fence.  In  those  days  a  kind  of  fine  white  sand  was  an 
important  article  to  housekeepers,  and  this  sand  being  found 
here  a  few  feet  below  the  surface,  it  was  said  that  the  town 
reserved  this  tract  for  the  benefit  of  housekeepers. 

The  next  house  on  the  left,  beyond  the  bridge,  built  by 
Deacon  Church,  is  the  same  now  occupied  by  Mr.  James 
Porter,  but  at  the  time  of  which  I  write  it  was  the  residence 
of  Col.  Erastus  Billings.  His  wife  was  Abigail  Allis,  daugh- 
ter of  John  Allis  and  Esther  Partridge.  Their  three  sons  and 
a  daughter  were  born  there.  The  house  appeared  to  be 
considerably  old  and  showed  no  signs  of  paint.  David  Wait 
and  his  family  lived  there  sometime  after  the  removal  of 
Colonel  Billings,  but  the  property  passed  many  years  ago 
into  the  hands  of  Maj.  Jonathan  Porter.  Between  this  and 
the  next  dwelling  stood  a  building  which,  after  the  town  was 
divided  into  school  districts,  was  used  for  a  schoolhouse,  and 
possibly  it  was  so  used  previously. 

Samuel  Partridge,  with  his  second  wife  and  the  two  daugh- 
ters of  his  first  wife,  lived  in  the  next  house.  He  was  gen- 
erally known  as  "Lawyer  Partridge,"  was  the  son  of  Col. 
Oliver  Partridge,  and  a  graduate  of  Yale  College.  His 
daughter,  Caroline,  married  Harvey  Ely  of  Rochester,  N.  Y. 
His  other  daughter,  Clarissa,  married  Sewall  Sergeant  of 
Stockbridge,  to  which  town  Mr.  Partridge  and  his  wife  late 
in  life  removed,  having  sold  the  place  to  Mr.  Ebenezer 
Graves.  The  part  of  the  house  which  is  now  standing  was 
built  by  Col.  Oliver  Partridge;  the  back  part  was  built  by 


278  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Col.  Samuel  Partridge  and  was  torn  down  by  Mr.  Graves 
when  he  took  possession.  The  house  is  undoubtedly  more 
than  a  hundred  years  old,  as  Oliver  died  in  1792.  This  is 
the  homestead  on  which  Col.  Samuel  Partridge  settled  after 
his  removal  from  Hadley  in  1687  and  where  he  resided  from 
that  time  until  his  death  in  1740.  He  was  among  the  ablest 
men  of  the  colony.  Savage  and  Judd  both  speak  of  him  as 
being  after  the  death  of  Colonel  Pynchon  the  most  influ- 
ential man  in  the  western  part  of  the  colony;  and  he,  to- 
gether with  Colonel  Pynchon  and  Colonel  Stoddard  [of 
Northampton],  were  known  in  Boston  as  the  "River  Gods.*' 
His  son  Samuel,  my  ancestor,  returned  to  Hadley  and 
settled  on  the  property  there.  His  son  Edward  remained 
in  Hatfield.  His  grandson,  my  grandfather,  Lieut.  Samuel 
Partridge,  was  born  in  Hadley,  but  removed  to  Hatfield, 
where  he  was  married  in  1754.  Col.  Oliver  Partridge  was 
quite  a  distinguished  man  in  his  day.  He  was  one  of  the 
representatives  of  Massachusetts  in  a  Congress  convened 
previous  to  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution,  held  many 
important  offices,  and  in  1758  commanded  a  regiment  belong- 
ing to  the  expedition  for  the  invasion  of  Canada  which  took 
part  in  the  battle  of  July  6,  1758,  at  Ticonderoga,  N.  Y., 
where  the  British  were  badly  beaten  by  the  French  under 
Montcalm.  William,  the  father  of  Col.  Samuel,  wrote  his 
name  Partrigg,  but  the  form  of  the  last  syllable  was  changed 
during  the  life  of  Col.  Samuel,  and  after  his  removal  to 
Hatfield.  The  descendants  of  Col.  Samuel  of  the  same  name 
are  not  numerous,  but  probably  more  than  half  bearing  the 
name,  or  tlie  blood  of  Dwight,  among  them  President 
Dwight  of  Yale  College,  are  descended  from  him. 

The  next  house  west  was  that  of  Mr.  Levi  Graves.  It  had 
a  rather  new  appearance,  more  so  than  any  other  on  "the 
Hill."  Mr.  Graves  was  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  good 
sense  and  a  successful  farmer.  He  was  a  son  of  Capt.  Perez 
Graves  and  a  brother  of  Solomon  and  Timothy  Graves.  His 
wife  was  a  Smith  from  South  Hadley.  His  children  were 
three  sons  and  a  daughter.  The  two  eldest  sons  removed 
from  town.  The  daughter  married  Silas  Billings  and  died 
in  Hatfield.  The  youngest  son,  Jonathan,  resides  on  the  old 
homestead. 

El)enezer  Fitch  lived  in  the  next  house.  He  came  from 
Suffield,  Conn.,  and  his  wife's  name  was  Taylor.     A  son  and 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  279 

two  daughters  lived  with  him;  another  daughter  had  been 
married  to  Sylvanus  Smith.  The  son  lived  and  died  on  the 
old  homestead. 

The  next  was  the  house  of  Mr.  Silas  Graves,  who  lived 
here  with  his  son,  Silas,  Jr.,  and  two  daughters.  Mr.  Graves 
was  a  brother  of  Perez  Graves.  One  of  his  daughters  mar- 
ried Mr.  Starkweather  of  Northampton,  and  the  other  be- 
came the  second  wife  of  Elisha  Wait  of  Hatfield.  The  son 
died  unmarried.  Henry  Hitchcock  lived  in  the  family  and 
the  place  passed  into  his  hands. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Elihu  White, 
a  brother  of  Ebenezer  White.  His  wife  was  Sarah  Smith. 
Besides  the  three  sisters  of  Mr.  White  living  in  Hatfield,  he 
had  three  sisters  who  were  married  and  lived  in  Vermont, 
and  the  wife  of  Senator  Edmunds  of  that  state  is  a  grand- 
daughter of  one  of  them.  Mr.  White  had  one  son  and  three 
daughters.  One  daughter  married  Seth  Kingsley  and  re- 
mained in  Hatfield;  the  other  children  removed  from  town. 
The  house  was  old,  and  is  now  occupied  by  Mrs.  Packard. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Solomon 
Graves.  He  was  a  son  of  Perez  Graves  and  was  highly 
respected  in  town.  His  sense  of  humor  was  somewhat 
remarkable,  especially  for  those  severe  and  earnest  days. 
His  wife  was  a  sister  of  Abijah  Bliss.  They  had  four  sons 
and  one  daughter.  The  two  eldest  sons,  Thaddeus  and 
Solomon,  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield.  Ebenezer  removed  to 
Michigan.  William,  the  youngest,  died  suddenly  while  a 
member  of  Williams  College.  He  was  a  young  man  of  bright 
promise,  and  died  greatly  beloved  and  lamented  by  all  who 
knew  him.  The  daughter  married  John  Wells  of  Williams- 
burg. Thaddeus,  the  eldest  son,  died  in  the  prime  of  life, 
and  was  a  great  loss,  not  only  to  his  family,  but  to  the  town 
itself,  for  he  was  a  citizen  of  enlightened  public  spirit  and 
alive  to  all  the  best  interests  of  the  community.  He  cher- 
ished high  standards  and  was  always  on  the  side  of  right. 
The  general  ajypearance  of  the  house,  w^hich  is  now  occupied 
by  his  grandson,  Thaddeus  Graves,  son  of  Solomon,  Jr.,  is 
not  materially  changed. 

Between  this  and  the  Northampton  line,  on  the  same  side, 
there  were  but  two  dwellings.  One,  near  the  meadow  gate 
on  the  road  leading  to  Little  Ponsett,  was  the  house  of  a 
colored  man  named  Jason  and  his  wife,  Orin.     The  other,  at 


230  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

some  distance,  and  almost  to  the  Northampton  line,  on  the 
land  now  owned  by  James  Warner,  was  the  home  of  Michael 
Kelly,  an  Irishman,  who  married  the  daughter  of  Henry 
Wilkie,  Sr.,  and  in  a  few  years  left  for  New  York. 

Having  reached  the  boundary  of  the  town,  we  cross  the 
road  and,  going  eastward  to  the  fork  of  the  roads,  come  to 
a  small  house,  where  lived  Thomas  Banks  and  his  wife, 
Sarah.  "Tom,*'  as  he  was  generally  called,  was  somewhat  of 
a  character  about  whom  many  anecdotes  are  related.  I  don't 
know  whence  he  came,  but  when  a  boy  he  lived  with 
"Clerk'*  Williams.  This  gentleman,  with  his  wife,  was  on 
one  occasion  about  to  leave  home  for  a  few  days  and  gave 
Tom  particular  instructions  for  taking  care  of  the  garden, 
and,  as  they  drove  away,  Mrs.  Williams  called  out  from  the 
carriage,  "Tom,  don't  you  leave  a  green  thing  in  it."  On 
returning  they  found  that  this  last  charge  had  been  obeyed 
to  the  letter,  all  trace  of  vegetation  having  disappeared  from 
the  garden.  Mr.  Williams,  who  had  borne  a  great  deal  from 
Tom,  thought  this  was  a  little  too  much,  and  proceeded  to 
tie  him  up  preparatory  to  whipping  him.  By  way  of  pre- 
paring Tom's  mind  to  profit  by  the  discipline,  he  said,  "Now, 
Tom,  if  you  had  such  a  boy,  what  should  you  do  with  him?" 
To  which  Tom,  with  great  presence  of  mind,  quickly  replied, 
"Mr.  Williams,  I  should  try  him  once  more."  Tom  was  at 
the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  but  is  reported  to  have  shown  the 
white  feather,  and  left  the  field  early  in  the  engagement. 

Going  north  from  this  place,  at  no  great  distance,  we  come 
to  the  house  occupied  by  Ebenezer  Dwight  and  his  brother, 
Daniel  Dwight.  The  family  of  Ebenezer  consisted  of  his 
wife,  two  sons,  and  three  daughters,  one  of  whom  married 
Erastus  Knight.  Ebenezer,  the  eldest  son,  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  Silas  Porter  and  died  in  Ohio.  William  married  a 
Miss  Sadler  of  Williamsburg,  and  lived  and  died  on  the  home- 
stead. Daniel  Dwight  was  unmarried  and  had  previously 
been  in  trade  with  Lieut.  Samuel  Partridge. 

Further  on,  though  I  do  not  remember  its  exact  location, 
stood  a  house  said  to  have  been  occupied  by  Gen.  Israel 
Chapin,  before  his  removal  to  Canandaigua,  N.  Y.  It  was 
then  called  the  "Pest  House,"  having  been  used  for  smallpox 
patients. 

Returning  now  to  the  Northampton  road,  and  going  east 
a  short  distance,  we  come  to  a  house  on  the  left  hand  side 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  281 

occupied  by  Joseph  Smith,  known  familiarly  as  "Wicked  Joe," 
to  distinguish  him  from  another  townsman  of  the  same  name. 
A  son  lived  with  him,  named  Joseph.  They  only  remained 
a  few  years. 

A  short  distance  farther  on  lived  a  colored  man  named 
Pedro  Fenimore. 

The  next  house  to  the  east,  and  standing  directly  opposite 
the  house  of  Solomon  Graves,  was  owned  and  occupied  by 
Phineas  Graves.  It  had  an  old  appearance  and  had  been 
owned  and  occupied  by  his  father,  Seth  Graves,  who  was 
the  brother  of  Silas.  His  family  consisted  of  his  wife,  who 
was  a  Pomeroy,  a  son,  and  a  daughter.  He  died  when  I  was 
very  young,  and  his  family  removed  from  town.  The  place 
is  now  owned  by  Jonathan  D.  Porter. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  Timothy 
Graves,  the  son  of  Perez,  who  also  lived  there.  His  family 
consisted  of  his  wife,  who  was  a  Graves  from  Middlefield, 
three  daughters,  and  two  sons,  who  all  lived  and  died  in 
Hatfield  except  one  daughter,  who  married  and  went  to 
Maine.  The  house  is  still  standing  and  must  be  a  hundred 
years  old.  perhaps  more.  One  of  the  daughters  married 
Henry  Hitchcock. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Ebenezer  White,  brother  of 
Elihu  White,  Jr.,  and  was  kept  by  him  as  a  tavern.  His  wife 
was  a  sister  of  Elijah  Dickinson  and  they  had  five  daughters 
and  two  sons.  The  three  eldest  daughters  married  and  re- 
moved from  town,  while  the  two  younger  married  and 
remained  in  Hatfield.  Only  one  of  the  sons  married,  and 
both  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield. 

Next  lived  Dea.  Jonathan  Porter,  whose  wife  was  Ruth 
Chapin  of  Somers,  Conn.  He  had  four  sons  and  four  daugh- 
ters. Reuben,  the  eldest  son,  removed  to  Heath.  Jonathan, 
Jr.,  married  Electa  Allis.  Chester  married  Rachel  Smith, 
and  both  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield.  Samuel  died  unmarried. 
One  daughter  married  John  Graves,  son  of  Seth  Graves,  and 
removed  to  Williamsburg.  The  house,  though  much  changed, 
is  still  standing  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Henry  Porter.  Mr. 
Porter  was  for  many  years  a  deacon  in  the  church,  and  was 
much  respected. 

The  next  house  was  old,  of  a  light  yellow  color,  and  was 
occupied  by  the  Meekins  family,  consisting  of  two  brothers, 
Levi  and  John,  and  one  sister,  Irene,  who  all  died  unmattv^d. 


282  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

They  had  not  a  high  social  standing,  being  regarded  as  very 
miserly.  But  after  the  death  of  John,  Levi  showed  a  desire 
for  a  more  decent  way  of  life  and  prevailed  upyn  Mr.  Roswell 
Hubbard  to  take  the  house  and  care  for  him,  and  at  his  death 
made  Mr.  Hubbard  his  principal,  if  not  his  sole,  heir.  The 
house  now  standing  is  the  same,  but  much  improved  in 
appearance. 

The  next  house,  I  am  told,  was  built  by  EHhu  Morton,  who 
married  a  Miss  Ballard  and  afterwards  removed  to  New 
Jersey.  It  then  became  the  property  of  Ebenezer  White  and 
was  occupied  as  a  sort  of  tenement  house  sometimes  by  one 
family  and  sometimes  by  another.  At  length  it  became  a 
tavern  kept  by  Ebenezer  Dwight,  but  this  continued  only  a 
few  years.  When  I  left  Hatfield,  it  was  occupied  by  Silas 
White,  son  of  Ebenezer  White.  Whether  the  house  is  still 
standing,  I  do  not  know.  I  think  it  was  bought  and  is  still 
owned  by  Jonathan  S.  Graves. 

In  the  next  house  lived  Elijah  Nash.  Of  his  family  I  only 
recollect  that  he  had  one  son,  named  John.  The  family  left 
town  when  I  was  very  young.  After  the  Nash  family  left, 
it  was  occupied  by  Gad  Wait  and  his  family,  consisting  of 
himself,  wife,  three  sons,  and  three  daughters.  The  parents 
died  in  town,  but  the  children  all  removed.  The  house  was 
painted  red,  and  was  afterwards  owned  and  occupied  by 
Thaddeus,  son  of  Solomon  Graves,  Sr.,  and  after  him  by 
Harvey  Graves,  the  son  of  Levi,  who  left  it  for  a  home  in 
Wisconsin.  It  afterwards  passed  into  the  hands  of  Marshall 
Hubbard,  who  built,  I  think,  a  new  house  on  the  site  of  the 
old  one. 

The  next  house  was  of  one  story  and  unpainted.  I  seem 
to  remember  Adney  Smith  as  living  there,  but  I  must  have 
been  very  young.  I  have  been  told  that  this  Adney  Smith 
was  an  ardent  Whig  in  the  Revolution,  and  that  when  on 
one  occasion  he  was  attending  family  prayers  at  Mrs.  Hub- 
bard's, the  next  house,  a  Mr.  Joel  Smith,  who  was  officiating. 
offered  a  petition  for  the  king  and  Parliament,  Adney  gave 
him  a  severe  kick,  exclaiming,  *'Xow  keep  in  your  own  coun- 
try." The  next  occupant  of  this  house,  as  I  remember,  was 
John  White,  who  married  Sophia,  eldest  daughter  of  Ebe- 
nezer White,  and  lived  here  many  years,  afterwards  remov- 
ing with  his  family  to  Ohio. 

llie  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  the  widow  of 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  283 

Mr.  John  Hubbard  and  must  be  now  more  than  a  hundred 
years  old.  Mr.  Hubbard  was  one  of  a  large  family.  His 
mother,  widow  of  Elisha  Hubbard,  lived  here  with  John's 
widow.  His  children  were  four  sons  and  one  daughter,  and 
these,  together  with  '*Uncle  Joel**  Smith,  constituted  the 
family.  The  eldest  son,  Stearns,  married  Electa,  daughter  of 
Elijah  White;  Roswell  married  Mehitable  Packard  of  En- 
field; Elijah  married  Julia,  daughter  of  Ebenezer  White;  and 
John  married  Clarissa  Clapp  of  Northampton.  These  all  lived 
and  died  in  Hatfield,  and  one  daughter.  Miss  Lois,  still  lives 
on  the  old  homestead.  The  two  elm  trees  in  front  of  this 
house,  as  I  have  been  informed,  were  brought  from  Brook 
Hollow  by  the  grandfather  of  Miss  Lois  more  than  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  years  ago,  and  are  probably  among  the  oldest, 
if  not  the  very  oldest,  in  town. 

Passing  northerly,  by  the  old  burying  ground,  the  next 
house  was  that  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Samuel  P.  Billings,  and 
Was  then  the  home  of  Mr.  Israel  Williams,  a  bachelor  and 
son  of  Col.  Israel  Williams.  His  housekeeper  was  Hannah 
Barker.  The  house  before  my  day  was  occupied  by  a  brother 
of  Colonel  Williams,  who  was  clerk  of  the  Court  and  known 
as  **Clerk''  Williams.  His  office  was  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  street  and  was  removed  by  the  father  of  Mr.  S.  P. 
Billings  towards  the  bridge,  where  it  is  now  occupied  as  a 
dwelling  house  by  Mr.  Moses  Kingsley. 

The  first  house  on  the  east  side  was  that  of  Sylvanus 
Smith,  brother  of  Simeon,  and  was  a  one-story  building. 
Mr.  Smith's  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Ebenezer  Fitch  and  they 
had  two  sons  and  two  daughters.  One  of  the  sons,  E.  Fitch 
Smith,  was  at  the  time  of  his  death  a  lawyer  of  some  prom- 
inence in  New  York  and  had  been  previously  a  judge  in 
Geneva,  N.  Y.  This  whole  family  removed  to  the  state  of 
New  York. 

Next,  north  of  this,  was  a  one-story  building,  flush  with 
the  street,  which  changed  occupants  from  time  to  time.  I 
do  not  remember  who  occupied  it  in  those  early  days. 

The  next  house  was  a  one-story  house  occupied  by  Isaac 
Sanderson.  He  had  three  sons  and  two  daughters.  One  of 
the  daughters  married  Horace  Shumway  and  remained  in 
town.  One  son,  also.  Alvan,  remained  in  town,  but  the 
other  children  all  emigrated  to  the  state  of  New  York. 

Going     towards     the     Mill     bridge,     where.     tVv^     ¥\\.<:!a 


234  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Brothers  built  a  store  which  is  now  standing,  was  a  one- 
story  house  occupied  by  Enos  Nash,  who  came  from  Hadley 
and  was  a  carpenter.  He  had  two  sons,  both  of  whom 
removed  from  town.  These  were  the  only  hous.es  between 
the  two  bridges. 

Coming  to  the  Mill  bridge,  there  was  at  the  right  hand  on 
the  south  end  an  old  dilapidated  building,  called  the  "Oil 
Mill/'  At  the  other  end  of  the  bridge,  on  the  right  hand, 
were  the  grist  mill  and  sawmill.  Turning  from  this  end  of 
the  bridge,  and  going  west  some  twenty  or  thirty  rods,  on 
the  left  side  of  the  road,  stood  the  house  of  John  Allis,  who 
lived  here  with  his  wife,  a  daughter  of  Lieut.  Samuel  Par- 
tridge, and  two  sons.  One  of  these  died  in  infancy;  the 
other  remained  in  Hatfield,  where  he  married  and  died.  The 
house  was  old,  of  two  stories,  and  is  probably  not  standing 
now.  Mr.  Allis  had  living  with  him  two  colored  boys,  Spence 
and  Bob,  who  attended  school  in  the  brick  schoolhouse, 
described  in  the  first  part  of  this  paper. 

Going  still  west,  about  one  fourth  of  a  mile,  on  the  same 
side  of  the  road,  lived  Henry  Wilkie,  who  was  from  Wolfen- 
buttel,  Germany,  belonged  to  General  Burgoyne's  army,  and 
was  taken  prisoner  at  Saratoga.  While  on  his  march  to 
Boston  for  reembarkation  to  Germany,  he  made  his  escape, 
preferring  to  remain  in  this  country.  He  was  a  barber  in  his 
native  country,  and  told  me  that  the  barbers  there  were 
surgeons  to  the  extent  of  bleeding  patients.  He  lived  in  a 
small  one-story  house  with  his  wife  and  four  sons.  All  of 
these  sons  attended  school  in  the  old  brick  schoolhouse.  One 
of  the  sons,  Henry,  remained  in  town,  where  he  died  at  an 
advanced  age.  The  others  left  town  before  their  father's 
death. 

Returning,  and  following  the  road  as  it  turns  to  the  north, 
crossing  a  little  stream,  and  ascending  the  hill,  on  the  left 
side  of  the  road  at  a  point  a  little  south  of  the  spot  where 
Henry  Wilkie's  house  now  stands  was  a  one-story  building 
occupied  by  Quartus  Knight  and  his  family.  Mrs.  Knight 
was  Lydia  Parsons,  who  had  lived  with  Lieut.  David  Billings 
and  was  a  relative  of  his  wife.  The  family  removed  from 
town  many  years  ago. 

Nearly  opposite  the  Knight  house,  down  in  a  hollow,  was 
a  distillery,  where  Josiah  Allis,  Remembrance  Bardwell, 
Samuel  Hastings,  and  Austin  Smith  manufactured  whisky. 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  285 

It  was  not  a  pecuniary  success,  fortunately,  and  was  soon 
discontinued. 

The  next  house,  about  thirty  or  forty  yards  distant,  on  the 
Deerfield  road,  was  occupied  by  an  elderly  man  named  John 
Curtis,  with  his  son  Lebbeus  and  family.  The  elder  Curtis 
was  a  miller,  having  charge  of  the  gristmill.  He,  with  his 
son  Lebbeus,  removed  from  town  long  ago,  but  three  of  his 
sons,  Edward,  Elbartus,  and  Dorus,  remained  in  town  and 
died  there. 

At  some  little  distance  north  was  a  small  one-story  house 
w^here  Primus  Easton,  a  colored  man,  lived.  Still  farther  on, 
at  the  corner  of  the  Deerfield  and  Williamsburg  roads,  lived 
Amos  Newport,  another  colored  man,  whose  father  was  kid- 
naped when  a  child  and  brought  from  the  coast  of  Africa. 
He  was  owned  by  the  Billings  family,  and  when  slavery  was 
abolished  in  Massachusetts  that  family  gave  him  a  little  farm 
in  West  Whately. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  Williamsburg  road  were  two  small 
houses,  little  better  than  huts,  one  inhabited  by  Jabez  New- 
bury, a  colored  man,  and  his  family,  and  the  other  by  Patience 
Wells,  a  little  old  white  woman,  commonly  called  "Aunt 
Patie,*'  who  kept  house  here  and  was  supported  partly  by  the 
town  and  partly  by  individuals.  This  woman  was  a  peculiar, 
and  not  an  unpleasant,  object,  as  her  short  figure  passed 
along  the  street,  dressed  in  coarse  garments,  but  with  scru- 
pulous neatness  and  in  cold  weather  wearing  a  large  gray 
woolen  cloak  over  all,  and,  whatever  the  weather,  always 
carrying  a  good-sized  basket  on  her  arm.  She  used  no 
formality  in  calling  upon  her  chosen  patrons,  but  opened  the 
door  and  walked  straight  in.  But  her  calls  were  not  made 
at  haphazard,  for  she  only  favored  such  families  as  she  held 
in  esteem  for  their  superior  cookery  and  generous  house- 
keeping. She  would  always  sit  and  refresh  herself  and  have 
a  little  friendly  chat  before  announcing  the  object  of  her  call, 
which  she  was  accustomed  to  do  with  this  formula,  "Have 
you  got  anything  to-day  for  the  old  beggar's  basket?"  This 
question  was  not  put  with  the  air  of  a  beggar  at  all,  but 
rather  of  a  creditor  who  had  come  to  collect  his  just  dues ; 
and  her  friends  took  care  in  filling  her  basket  to  select  only 
such  preparations  as  were  suited  to  a  critical  and  fastidious 
appetite.  She  was  liberal  in  her  theological  views  for  those 
Hays,  and,  in  fact,  she  might  be  called  an  "advanced  thltvk^t" 


286 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


I  heard  her  relate  how  she  once  heard  a  sermon  where  the 
minister  told  the  story  of  the  prodigal  son's  return,  and  how 
his  father  saw  him  a  great  way  off  and  ran  and  met  him  and 
fell  on  his  neck  and  kissed  him.  assuring  his  hearers  that  was 
the  way  Christ  felt  towards  them,  "and  that,"  she  said,  "is 
the  kind  of  preaching  I  like  to  hear." 

About  half  a  mile  to  the  west,  on  the  left  side  of  the  road, 
near  where  it  turns  to  the  north,  stood  the  house  of  Roswell 
Pease,  where  he  lived  with  his  family.  It  was  a  small  red 
building,  and  there  was  no  other  dwelling  on  this  road  nearer 
than  the  other  side  of  Horse  Mountain  in  Williamsburg, 


Returning  eastward  toward  the  Middle  Lane,  and  descend- 
ing the  hill  known  as  "Stone  Pits,"  there  was  on  the  right  a 
yellow  gambrel-roofed  one-story  house,  then  occupied  by 
Nehemiah  Wait  and  his  wife.  The  house  still  remains  there, 
and  I  think  is  probably  the  oldest  house  in  town.  I  have 
mentioned  it  before  as  the  old  "Morton  house"  removed  from 
the  Perez  Hastings  place  not  less  than  eighty  years  ago. 

In  a  southeasterly  direction  from  this  house,  and  on  the 
op]>osite  side  of  the  road  leading  to  the  mill,  there  stood  a 
tivo-.^tory.  uiipainted  house,  in  which  lived  Joel  Day  and  his 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  287 

family,  consisting  of  his  wife,  four  sons,  and  one  daughter. 
One  son  was  drowned  in  the  river  near  the  house.  Another 
son,  Zelotes,  settled  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  where  he  became 
a  wealthy  and  respected  citizen.  Alonzo,  the  eldest,  removed 
to  Savannah,  Ga.  Pliny  remained  in  Hatfield,  where  he  died. 
He  was  married,  but  had  no  children.  The  daughter  mar- 
ried and  removed  west,  where  she  became  a  Mormon.  Mr. 
Joel  Day  served  a  short  time  in  the  Revolutionary  army,  and 
married  Mercy,  daughter  of  William  Murray. 

The  next,  a  two-story  house  east  of  Mr.  Day's,  was  that  of 
Lieut.  Abraham  Billings,  who  lived  there  with  his  son  Abra- 
ham, whose  wife  was  a  daughter  of  William  Morton.  These 
all  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield,  but  the  children  of  Abraham, 
Jr.,  left  the  town. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Abner  Dickinson,  who  re- 
moved to  the  state  of  New  York  with  his  family  many  years 
ago.  I  only  remember  his  son  Wells,  who  became  a  prom- 
inent man  in  that  state  and  a  member  of  Congress.  This 
house  was  afterwards  occupied  by  Richard  Smith.  It  was 
by  no  means  new,  but  had  a  fresher  appearance  than  any 
other  house  on  that  street  except  one. 

Jabez  Belden  and  his  wife  lived  in  the  next  house.  I  only 
remember  him  as  in  appearance  a  very  old  man  and  having 
the  reputation  of  being  miserly. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Zebina  Dickinson  and  stood 
nearly  opposite  the  house  of  Elijah  White.  It  was  of  one 
story  and  appeared  very  old.  He  had  two  sons  and  four 
daughters.  The  oldest  son  removed  when  a  young  man  to 
Canada;  the  remaining  children  lived  in  Hatfield,  where  they 
all  died  except  the  widow  of  Erastus  Cowles,  who  still  lives. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  street,  farther  to  the  east  and 
beside  "the  Drain,"  there  was  a  tan  yard  belonging  to  Silas 
Porter,  but  no  dwelling  house  between  this  and  the  main 
street  on  either  side  of  the  lane. 

Going  west,  next  to  the  tan  yard  stood  the  house  of 
Alpheus  Longley,  a  one-story  building  still  standing.  Mr. 
Longley  came  from  Shirley,  Mass.  He  was  a  mason  and 
stonecutter.  His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Seth  Bardwell 
and  granddaughter  of  Salmon  Dickinson.  They  had  a  son 
and  daughter.  The  son  died  in  infancy;  the  daughter  is  the 
wife  of  James  W.  Warner.     Mr.  Longley  removed  to  the 


288  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Bardwell  house  on  Main  Street,  where  he  died,  having  held 
the  office  of  postmaster  for  several  years. 

Next  was  the  house  of  Elijah  White,  the  newest  on  the 
lane.  It  presented,  when  I  last  saw  it,  about  the  same  ap- 
pearance that  it  had  in  my  early  days,  except  that  it  had  been 
painted.  His  family  consisted  of  himself  and  wife,  four  sons, 
and  five  daughters.  Two  of  the  sons  and  three  of  the  daugh- 
ters removed  to  the  states  of  New  York  and  Ohio;  the 
remainder  died  in  Hatfield. 

Mr.  Josiah  Morton  lived  in  the  next  house,  which  was  said 
to  be  the  oldest  in  town.  It  was  of  two  stories  and  stood 
on  the  site  of  the  house  now  occupied  by  his  grandson,  Mr. 
Charles  K.  Morton.  The  family  consisted  of  Mr.  Morton, 
his  wife,  who  was  from  Longmeadow  and  was  a  sister  of 
Abijah  Bliss;  three  sons,  Moses,  Rodolphus,  and  Leander; 
and  two  daughters,  all  of  w-hom  died  in  Hatfield.  Moses 
married  Sophia,  daughter  of  Dea.  Cotton  Partridge;  Rodol- 
phus married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Mr.  Israel  Dickinson; 
while  the  other  children  remained  unmarried.  The  upper 
story  of  Mr.  Morton's  house  projected  over  the  lower  story, 
like  all  the  early  houses,  so  built  for  defense  against  the 
Indians. 

Going  now  to  the  junction  of  Upper  Lane  and  Main  Street 
from  Elijah  Dickinson's  northwesterly,  the  next  house  was 
that  of  Silas  Bardwell,  of  two  stories,  painted  red,  and  pretty 
old.  Mrs.  BardW'Cll  was  the  daughter  of  William  Morton. 
They  had  two  children,  a  son,  Oliver,  who  became  insane, 
and  a  daughter,  Louisa,  who  married  Josiah  AlHs.  The 
house  is  the  same  now  occupied  by  James  Wait. 

The  next  house  was  that  of  Benjamin  Morton,  though  I 
think  he  died  before  my  recollection.  His  wife  and  children, 
two  sons  and  tliree  daughters,  lived  in  this  house.  All  of 
these,  W'ith  one  exception,  died  in  Hatfield.  One  son,  Ben- 
jamin, removed  to  Northampton. 

In  the  next  house  lived  Zechariah  Field  and  wife  with 
their  son  Seth  and  his  wife  and  children,  three  sons  and  two 
daughters.  The  parents  and  grandparents  died  in  Hatfield, 
but  tlie  children  all  left  tow^n.  The  house  was  of  two  stories 
and  had  l)een  painted  white. 

A])out  midwav  between  this  house  and  the  foot  of  "Clav 
Hill"  there  stood  a  one-story  house,  which  I  think  was  cov- 
ered witli  rough  boards,  very  poor  in  appearance,  and  occu- 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  289 

pied  by  Elijah  Graves,  who  came  from  South  Hadley  and 
after  a  few  years  returned  to  that  town  with  his  family,  of 
whom  I  remember  only  one  son,  by  the  name  of  Ransom. 
Between  this  house  and  the  Field  house  there  was  a  gate 
leading  into  the  meadow. 

Crossing  to  the  other  side  of  the  street,  about  opposite  the 
Field  house,  stood  an  old  building  in  which  Gideon  Morton 
had  lived,  but,  as  I  recollect  it,  was  uninhabited. 

Next  to  this  was  a  two-story  house  not  very  old,  owned 
by  Chester  Morton,  in  which  he  lived  with  his  wife  and 
several  children.  Mr.  Morton  and  his  wife  died  in  Hatfield, 
but  his  children  moved  away. 

Next  to  this,  towards  the  east,  was  a  two-story  house 
painted  white,  occupied  by  Elisha  Wait,  his  wife,  his  son 
Elisha  and  his  wife,  with  three  children,  Justin,  George,  and 
Dolly.  The  house  is  the  same  as  that  owned  by  George 
Wait  at  his  death.  The  other  son,  Justin,  bought  the  house 
of  Silas  Bardwell  and  died  there.  The  daughter  married 
Justin  Hastings  and  lived  and  died  in  Hatfield.  The  elder 
Elisha  Wait  was  a  grandson  of  the  heroic  Benjamin  Wait, 
and  was  born  in  1725,  seven  years  before  the  birth  of  General 
Washington  and  thirty  years  before  the  defeat  of  Braddock. 
I  remember  seeing  him  a  great  many  times  when  I  was  a 
little  boy  and  drove  the  cows  past  his  house  to  pasture.  He 
was  always  sitting  at  one  window  and  his  wife  opposite  him 
at  another  window.  He  died  in  1816,  aged  ninety-one.  I 
remember  seeing  no  other  man  born  at  so  early  a  date. 

With  the  exception  of  the  outskirts,  I  have  now  given  my 
earliest  recollections  of  the  town,  with  its  houses  and  inhab- 
itants as  they  then  appeared.  I  will  now  proceed  to  give 
what  I  can  recollect  of  the  outlying  districts. 

Commencing  with  what  was  then  called  "West  Farms," 
the  nearest  house  to  the  Whately  line  was  on  the  west  side 
of  the  street  and  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Joseph  Guild  and  his 
wife.  He  was  an  exemplary  Christian  citizen,  and  was  held 
in  the  highest  respect  by  all  who  knew  him.  He  served 
through  the  seven  years  of  the  Revolutionary  war  and  was, 
for  a  time,  at  least,  sergeant  in  Colonel  Cilley's  regiment. 
He  was  present  at  the  taking  of  General  Burgoyne  at  Sara- 
toga, at  the  battle  of  Monmouth,  at  the  surrender  of  Lord 
Cornwallis  at  Yorktown,  besides  being  concerned  in  other 
minor  affairs.     He  told  me  how  on  two  occas\ow%  \v^  vcv^\. 


290  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

General  Washington.  Once,  when  on  sentry  duty,  General 
Washington,  accompanied  by  General  Hamilton,  made  a 
movement  to  pass  him,  when  he  stopped  them  and  demanded 
the  countersign.  They  did  not  comply  with  his  request  at 
once,  and  General  Hamilton  persisted  in  the  attempt  to  pass, 
when  Mr.  Guild  cocked  his  gun  and  told  him  if  he  passed  he 
was  a  dead  man.  Upon  this.  General  Washington  said  some- 
thing to  General  Hamilton  and  they  gave  him  the  counter- 
sign and  passed  on.  The  other  occasion  was  at  Yorktown, 
when  General  Washington  sent  him  to  reconnoiter  a  certain 
fort  in  order  to  ascertain  whether  the  British  still  held  it. 
He  went,  ascertained  that  they  were  still  in  possession,  and 
so  reported  to  the  General.  In  speaking  of  the  depreciated 
state  of  the  currency  at  that  time,  he  told  me  that  he  had 
taken  his  whole  month's  pay  and  paid  it  out  for  one  glass  of 
grog.  During  the  last  years  of  his  life  he  received  a  pension 
of  eight  dollars  a  month.  He  had  no  children,  but  was  well 
cared  for  in  his  declining  years  by  Mr.  Aretas  Scott,  who 
succeeded  to  his  property. 

Next,  going  south,  was  a  one-story  house  occupied  by 
Thaddeus  Scott,  his  mother,  wife,  and  two  sons.  Both  of  the 
sons  removed  from  town. 

A  little  above  the  meadow  gate,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
road,  was  a  two-story  house  occupied  by  Gideon  Dickinson 
and  his  family,  who  removed  from  town  some  forty  years 
ago.  If  I  mistake  not,  this  is  the  same  house,  though  con- 
siderably changed,  as  that  now  occupied  by  Solomon  Mosher. 
Jeremiah  Belden  lived  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  with  his 
family  at  some  distance  south  of  Thaddeus  Scott.  He  re- 
moved from  town. 

Samuel  Belden  lived  in  West  Farms,  and  I  think  on  the 
east  side  of  the  road,  but  am  not  sure.  He  had  three  sons, 
two  of  whom  left  town;  the  third,  Sanford,  lived  and  died  in 
Hatfield.  When  he  died  the  town  lost  a  man  of  strict  in- 
tegrity. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  road,  considerably  south  of  Jere- 
miah Belden,  there  stood  a  one-story  house  in  which  lived 
Solomon  Morton  and  his  wife  and  several  children.  All  of 
these  removed  to  Ohio,  except  Richard  T.  and  Susannah, 
who  married  Dorus  Curtis.  Afterwards  Richard  T.  removed 
to  Wliately,  where  he  died. 

On  the  Deerfield  road,  before  it  descends  into  West  Farms. 


REMINISCENCES    OF    SAMUEL    D.    PARTRIDGE.  291 

stood  an  old  one-story  house  in  which  there  lived  a  family 
named  Munson.  I  think  I  am  not  mistaken,  though  at  that 
time  I  was  very  young.  I  suppose  this  to  be  the  house  in 
which  William  Morton,  Jr.,  lived  and  afterwards  his  brother, 
Cotton. 

Not  far  distant  from  this  house,  on  the  Whately  road,  in  a 
small  one-story  house,  Edmund  Bird  lived.  I  recollect  only 
one  house  between  this  and  the  river  at  West  Brook,  and 
that  was  a  small  house  on  the  corner  of  the  Claverick  road, 
where  lived  an  elderly  man  named  Carly,  with  the  accent  on 
the  last  syllable.     This  family  soon  left  town. 

Passing  on  towards  Whately,  soon  after  crossing  the 
bridge  on  the  north  side  of  the  road,  in  a  one-story  house, 
lived  Laban  Lorin  with  his  wife  and  three  sons.  The 
parents  died  there,  but  the  sons  left  town. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  lived  a  Mr.  Bennett,  I 
think  his  name  was  Phineas,  who  was  accidentally  killed. 
He  was  the  father  of  Lyman  Bennett,  previously  mentioned. 
I  believe  that  none  of  the  family  remain  in  town. 

Next  to  this  was  a  two-story  house,  unpainted,  owned  by 
Nathaniel  Frary,  in  which  he  lived  with  his  wife,  one  or  two 
daughters,  and  a  stepson  named  Hillman.  Another  stepson, 
Samuel  Hillman,  was  a  lawyer  in  North  Carolina.  None  of 
this  family  remain  to  my  knowledge  except  a  daughter  who 
married  David  Gardner. 

Going  west,  the  next,  a  two-story  house,  was  that  of  Aaron 
Dickinson,  a  brother  of  Daniel  and  Roger  Dickinson.  His 
wife  was  a  daughter  of  Charles  Phelps,  Esq.,  of  Hadley. 
They  had  four  sons,  David,  Aaron,  Walter,  and  Cooley. 
The  last  named  still  lives  in  the  same  house.  The  others 
died  in  Hatfield,  though  I  am  not  sure  but  David  removed 
from  town. 

A  few  families  lived  over  the  mountain,  on  farms  which 
belonged  to  Hatfield,  though  inside  the  Williamsburg  line. 
There  may  have  been  more,  but  I  only  remember  two  fam- 
ilies, Jonathan  A.  Gillett,  who  lived  with  his  father  on  the 
east  side  of  Mountain  Street,  and  Bevil  G.  Warren,  who  lived 
with  his  family  farther  south.  He  was  the  great-uncle  of 
Bishop  Warren  of  the  Methodist  church. 

On  a  road  which  led  over  the  mountain  from  Pantry,  to 
the  south  end  of  Mountain  Street,  there  was  a  house  occu- 


292  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

pied  by  Stephen  Green  and  his  family,  consisting  of  two 
sons. 

I  have  now  given  account  of  every  house  in  Hatfield 
which  was  standing  at  the  period  of  my  earliest  recollection, 
and  I  would  fix  1812  as  a  close  approximation  to  the  true 
date,  though  in  regard  to  many  my  memory  goes  farther 
back. 

It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  preceding  pages  con- 
tain my  own  personal  recollections;  that  written  as  they 
have  been  without  any  assistance  from  documents  or  con- 
temporaries, it  is  hardly  possible  that  I  should  have  escaped 
falling  into  some  errors ;  but  I  believe,  in  the  main,  my  state- 
ments may  be  relied  upon  as  correct. 

SAMUEL  D.  PARTRIDGE. 

Milwaukee,  Wisconsin,  1880. 

Note. — I  had  intended  to  give  in  the  foregoing  pages  the 
name  of  every  inhabitant  of  Hatfield  who  to  my  knowledge 
participated  in  the  French  war  of  1758,  or  in  the  war  of  the 
Revolution,  but  I  find  that  I  have  omitted  to  state  that  my 
great-grandfather,  Col.  John  Dickinson,  commanded  a  regi- 
ment of  militia  in  1775,  when  Boston  was  invested  by  the 
Americans  under  General  Washington  and  Governor  Gage 
with  the  British  troops  was  compelled  to  evacuate  that  city. 

S.  D.  P. 


N.  B. — I  have  read  with  great  pleasure  the  entire  text  of 
the  foregoing  reminiscences  by  my  cousin,  Samuel  D.  Par- 
tridge. Our  early  lives  were  contemporaneous  (being  my- 
self only  two  years  the  older)  and  were  passed  within  a 
stone's  throw  of  each  other.  My  memory  harmonizes  very 
closely  with  his;  and  I  am  deeply  impressed  with  the  accu- 
racy of  his  statements  of  fact  and  of  reflection  upon  indi- 
vidual character  in  every  instance  where  he  has  expressed 

^^^^'  JOS.  L.  PARTRIDGE. 

August  11,  1891. 


II.— REMINISCENCES  OF  DANIEL  W.  WELLS. 

The  interest  manifested  by  many  of  the  people  of  Hat- 
field in  the  reminiscences  of  our  town  by  Samuel  D. 
Partridge  has  led  us  to  continue  the  same  through  the  year 
1909.  The  following  pages  give  the  result  of  our  search 
and  inquiry  respecting  the  homes  and  occupants  since  the 
time  mentioned  by  Mr.  Partridge.  There  may  be  errors 
and  omissions  in  this  list,  but  it  is  as  correct  as  present 
information  will  allow.  The  places  described  are  by  house 
row,  up  one  side  of  the  street  and  down  on  the  opposite 
side.  These  notes  are  offered  in  hope  that  they  may  be  of 
interest  and  value  in  future  time. 

Valley  Street. 

Beginning  at  the  south  end  of  what  was  once  Main 
Street,  near  the  old  meadow  gate,  the  house  of  Nathan 
Gerry  was  torn  down  by  Samuel  F.  Billings  in  1860.  Silas 
Billings  with  his  wife,  Mary  Graves,  lived  on  the  Richard 
Fellows  allotment.  Their  son,  Samuel  F.  Billings,  who 
married  Elizabeth  H.,  daughter  of  Dexter  Allis,  repaired 
the  house,  and  his  widow  with  her  two  sons,  Edward  H. 
and  Louis  A.,  now  occupies  the  place. 

The  house  on  the  John  Cowles  allotment  was  built 
by  Rufus  Cowles,  who  married  Fanny  P.  Moody  of 
Amherst.  They  had  one  daughter,  Lucy  Osborn,  who  died 
in  1893.  The  place  was  devised  to  Rufus  H.  Cowles,  who 
sold  it  in  1898  to  the  present  owner,  Patrick  T.  Boyle,  who 
married  Lizzie  Brennan  of  Whately. 

John  T.  Powers  purchased  the  corner  plot  of  Patrick 
T.  Boyle  and  built  a  new  house  in  1902.  He  married 
Kate  McGrath,  daughter  of  Thomas  McGrath.  Before 
1854  Pliny  Day  had  a  wagon  and  carriage  shop  on  this 
plot,  which  was  removed  for  a  farm  building  by  Moses 
Morton.  Just  south  of  this  shop  was  a  blacksmith's  shop 
and  a  small  unpainted  tenement  occupied  by  Waterman 
Bartlett  and  wife,  Melinda.  They  removed  from  Hatfield 
about  1855  with  their  sons,  Alonzo  and  William. 


294  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Main  Street,  West  Side. 

The  house  on  the  Zechariah  Field  allotment  was  owned 
by  Luman  Pease,  who  kept  a  store  on  the  corner  of  Main 
and    Maple    streets    about    1828,    afterwards    by    Ebenezer 
Graves,  brother  of  Capt.  Thaddeus  Graves,  then  purchased 
by  Josiah   Brown,  who  built  a  new  store   northerly  from 
the  dwelling  house,  and  moved  the  store  from   the  south 
corner  to  the  rear  of  the  new  building.     Mr.  Brown  sold  the 
property  to  Erastus  Billings,  and  his  sons,  Henry  P.  and 
Erastus  F.  Billings,  kept  the  store  and  also  a  tailor's  shop 
on  the  second  floor.     Erastus   F.   Billings  was  postmaster 
here   for  a  number  of  years.     The  store   now  belongs  to 
George  A.  Billings  and  the  post  office  is  now  in  this  build- 
ing with  Edwin  L.  Graves  as  postmaster.     The  upstairs  tene- 
ment is  occupied  by  Rupert  D.  Graves  and  his  wife,  who  was 
Helen  Murphy  of  Hatfield.     The  dwelling  was  owned  and 
occupied   by   William   D.    Billings,    who   married    Mary   L.. 
daughter  of  James  W.  Warner.     Mr.  BiUings  was  town  clerk 
for  47  years.     Smith  E.  Briggs  afterwards  lived  here  with 
his  mother  and  sister.     The  place  was  bought  in  1905  and 
repaired  by  Reuben  Field  Wells,  who  married  A.  Beatrice 
Fiske  of  Huntington.     They  lived   there  till  the   spring  of 
1909.     The  house  is  now  occupied  by  Mortimer  H.  Bowman, 
superintendent  of  schools,  who  came  to  Hatfield  in  1905.     He 
was  born  in  Pamelia,  N.  Y.     He  married  Margaret  Wolfe 
of  Boston. 

The  house  on  the  Hope  Atherton  allotment  was  owned 
by  Col.  Erastus  Billings  and  later  by  his  son,  Erastus. 
who  married  Artemisia  Ford  of  Somers,  Conn.  They  both 
died  in  Hatfield  and  their  son,  George  A.  Billings,  who  mar- 
ried Abby  F.,  daughter  of  Dea.  Jonathan  S.  Graves,  now 
lives  on  the  place.  The  house  has  been  greatly  repaired 
and  renewed.  Henry  P.,  son  of  Erastus  Billings,  was 
2d  lieutenant  in  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the 
Civil  war. 

The  house  on  the  Stephen  Taylor  allotment  descended 
from  Rosvvell  Billings  to  his  son  David,  whose  wife  was 
Mary  A.  Wells  of  Leyden.  Their  son  David  married  Emma 
E.,  daughter  of  Dea.  James  Porter,  and  now  lives  in  the 
same  house.  The  social  library  of  Hatfield  was  kept  in  this 
house  for  many  years. 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  295 

The  house  on  the  John  and  Isaac  Graves  allotment  was 
built  in  1856  by  John  A.  Billings,  who  purchased  the  lot 
from  Samuel  D.  Partridge  and  tore  down  the  old  house. 
It  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Samuel  F.  Billings,  Jr., 
who  married  Sarah  Jenny,  daughter  of  William  B.  and  Sarah 
Langdon.  A  large  stone  was  set  in  front  of  the  place  in 
1906  by  the  descendants  of  Thomas  Graves,  and  the  "J^^^X 
Lind''  elm  is  now  standing  in  the  street  beside  it.  The 
old  brick  schoolhouse  in  front  of  this  place  was  torn  down 
in  1846. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Oliver  Partridge,  was  afterward 
owned  by  Miss  Lois  Dickinson,  and  was  the  home  of  Oliver 
Smith  at  the  time  of  his  decease,  and  his  caretaker.  Miss 
Eliza  A.  Warner.  Edwin  Brainerd  lived  here  a  number  of 
years.  Otis  C.  Wells,  whose  wife  was  E.  Lucelia  Loomis, 
daughter  of  Jonathan  C.  Loomis  of  Whately,  repaired  the 
house  in  1880.  They  both  died  in  Hatfield  and  their 
children  removed  from  town.  Harry  L.  Howard,  who  mar- 
ried Mabel  L.,  daughter  of  George  A.  Billings,  now  owns 
the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  on  the  Amasa  Wells  place  by 
Charles  Morris  Billings  in  1831.  He  was  a  strong  anti- 
slavery  man,  and  his  home  was  one  of  the  underground 
railway  stations.  He  married  Charlotte  White,  daughter 
of  Ebenezer  White.  Both  died  in  Hatfield,  and  were  fol- 
lowed by  their  son,  Frederick  D.  Billings,. whose  wife  was 
Fanny  Hunt  of  New  York.  After  his  decease  the  family 
removed  to  California.  Joseph  Billings,  son  of  Charles  M., 
was  a  member  of  the  27th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  and  also  of 
the  2d  Heavy  Artillery  in  the  Civil  war.  This  place  was 
afterward  the  home  of  Merritt  F.  Sampson,  whose  wife 
was  Isadore  H.  Kenny.  She  lived  before  her  marriage 
with  Dea.  Alpheus  Cowles.  Mr.  Sampson  was  a  member  of 
the  4th  Mass.  Cavalry  in  the  Civil  war  and  afterward  in 
the  regular  service.  The  place  was  sold  in  1909  to  William 
H.  Burke,  son  of  John  and  Mary  Burke. 

On  the  Eleazer  Frary  allotment  Lucy  Smith,  the  last 
survivor  of  Capt.  Elijah  Smith's  children,  lived  until  her 
decease  in  1864.  Frederick  D.  Billings  lived  here  for  sev- 
eral years,  and  it  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Roswell 
Billings,    son    of    David    Billings.     He    married    Carrie    E.. 


296 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


daughter  of  Dea.  Jonathan  Graves.  In  recent  years  the  two 
large  elms  have  been  blown  down  by  severe  windstorms,  the 
one  in  the  street  in  1879,  and  the  one  in  the  dooryard 
in  1895.     (See  illustration  on  page  44.) 

The  next  house,  called  the  Ur.  Lyman  place,  was  occu- 
pied by  Dwight  P.  Morton  and  his  wife,  Chloe  Cole,  This 
house  was  torn  down  after  Mr.  Morton  moved  to  the  home 
of  his  father,  Moses  Mortoii.  The  large  elm  tree  spoken 
of  by  Mr.  Partridge  died  and  was  taken  down  in  1907. 
On  the  corner  «f  this  lot  stood  the  town  hall  until  it  was 


moved  to  the  rear  of  the  present  meetinghouse  about  1849. 
The  Dickinson  Memorial  hall  now  stands  on  this  lot,  the 
gift  to  thf  town  of  .Samuel  II.  Dickinson,  It  was  built  in 
1S94.  The  sohoolhouse  built  in  the  rear  of  the  meeting- 
house in  \H4<>  was  moved  to  thi.s  lot  and  torn  down  in  1908 
by  .MlitTl   W.   Morton,  the  present  owner. 

The  next  house,  the  Squire  Smith  ])lace,  was  torn  down 
in  18,^2.  This  lot  was  secured  for  public  use.  The  ceme- 
tery was  laid  out  and  the  south  center  district  schoolhouse 
built  on  this  lot  in   1M6.     The  meetinghouse  was  built  here 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  297 

n  1849,  and  the  old  town  hall  moved  to  a  site  in  the  rear 
)f  the  meetinghouse  next  to  the  schoolhouse.  The  present 
own  hall  and  the  parsonage  were  built  in  1852.  Rev.  Henry 
^eill,  the  eighth  pastor  of  the  church,  lived  in  the  Squire 
imith  house  and  the  Rev.  Jared  O.  Knapp  was  the  first 
castor  to  occupy  the  parsonage.  The  large  elm  tree  in  front 
)f  the  meetinghouse  fell  to  the  ground  of  old  age  in  1868. 
The  elm  trees  now  there  were  set  out  in  1876.  The  town 
ilock  was  placed  in  the  belfry  in  1898.  Rev.  R.  M.  Woods 
noved  in  1887  to  the  Sophia  Smith  house  and  the  parson- 
ige  was  occupied  by  DeForest  E.  Shattuck,  who  married 
Augusta  Warner  of  Bernardston,  until  his  death,  Aug.  7, 
.909.  He  was  a  member  of  the  1st  Vermont  Cavalry  in 
he  Civil  war.  The  brownstone  steps  at  the  front  door 
Df  the  parsonage  are  the  sa^me  as  were  in  front  of  the 
rd.  Israel  Williams  house,  built  before  the  French  and 
[ndian  war.  Rev.  Irving  A.  Flint  moved  into  the  house 
Feb.  1,  1910.     He  was  born  in  Braintree,  Vt. 

The  next  house,  in  which  Moses  C.  Porter  lived,  is  now 
)wned  by  Frederick  H.  Bardwell  and  occupied  by  Thomas 
f.  Ryan,  who  married  Mary  Ryan,  daughter  of  James  and 
Mary  Ryan,  and  by  Percy  L.  White,  who  came  from 
Chicopee  Falls  in  1909.  His  wife  was  Clara  B.  Ellsworth 
3f  Chester.  It  was  for  many  years  the  home  of  Caleb  D. 
Bardwell,  a  veteran  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.  Mrs. 
Bardwell  was  a  daughter  of  James  W.  Warner.  Howard 
W.  Dickinson,  principal  of  Smith  Academy,  1894-1904, 
lived  here  after  his  marriage  to  Anna  Graves,  daughter  of 
Thaddeus  Graves,  until  they  left  town.  In  front  of  this 
bouse  is  the  only  hackberry  tree  in  Hatfield. 

The  next  house,  on  the  John  Allis  allotment,  was  repaired 
and  renewed  by  Silas  G.  Hubbard  in  1851.  He  married 
Rhoda  W.,  daughter  of  Justin  and  Dolly  Hastings.  Mr. 
Hubbard  died  in  1890.  His  widow  now  lives  on  the  place. 
The  large  elm  tree  in  front  at  one  time  had  a  spread  of 
t)ranches  one  hundred  feet  across. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Obadiah  Dickinson  allotment, 
was,  after  the  decease  of  Israel  Morton  and  his  widow, 
Lucy  Lyman  Morton,  purchased  by  Fred  P.  Pease,  who 
came  from  Ludlow.  He  married  Harriet  Lilla,  daughter 
of  Arnold  M.  Peck.     She  survives  her  husband  and  occupies 


298  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

the  place  with  a  son,  Arnold,  and  daughter,  Mildred.  Fred 
G.  Howard,  who  married  Etta  Black  of  Florence,  rents  a 
part  of  the  house. 

Smith  Academy,  the  gift  of  Sophia  Smith,  and  the  town 
schoolhouse,  were  both  built  on  the  Samuel  Kellogg  allot- 
ment in  1871. 

The  next  house,  across  School  Street  on  the  Tohn 
Hawkes  allotment,  was  occupied  by  Theodore  Baggs,  who 
married  (1)  Harriet,  daughter  of  Justin  Hastings,  and  (2) 
Nellie  E.,  daughter  of  Luman  M.  Moore.  Mr.  Baggs  kept 
a  hotel  here  a  number  of  years  and  after  his  decease  the 
heirs  sold  the  place  to  James  L.  Day,  who  now  occupies  it 
with  his  wife,  Mary  Connelly,  from  Worcester,  Mass. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  F.  O'Dea  in  1904  and 
is  occupied  by  him  and  his  wife,  who  was  Barbara  Hold- 
felder  of  Hatfield. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Richard  Morton  allotment,  after 
the  decease  of  Joseph  Smith,  was  occupied  by  John  E. 
Waite,  then  by  Caleb  Dickinson,  and  is  now  owned  and 
occupied  by  Thomas  Dea,  who  married  Mary  McGrath 
of  Hadley. 

The  next  house,  called  the  Seth  Bardwell  place,  was 
owned  and  occupied  by  Alpheus  Longley,  who  married 
Lois,  daughter  of  Seth  Bardwell.  Mr.  Longley  was  for 
some  years  postmaster  and  kept  the  office  in  the  old  house. 
The  land  is  now  owned  by  E.  Seward  Warner,  who  tore 
the  house  down  in  1893.  Mr.  Warner's  mother  was  Louisa, 
daughter  of  Alpheus  Longley.  Obed  Smith  once  had  a 
store    on    tfie    south    corner   of   this   lot. 

The  next  house,  on  a  part  of  the  Solomon  Dickinson  lot, 
was  built  by  Myron  Dickinson,  who  came  to  Hatfield  from 
Whately  in  1873,  and  afterward  purchased  by  Charles  G. 
Waite,  who  was  born  in  Whately  and  returned  from  the 
West  and  married  Matilda  C.  Marsh,  widow  of  Chester 
Marsh.  It  has  been  owned  and,  since  1897,  occupied  by  Dr. 
Charles  A.  Ryrne,  who  married  Mary  Shank  of  Hamilton. 
Ohio.  A  small  schoolhouse  once  stood  on  this  part  of  the 
lot. 

The  next  house,  on  the  site  of  the  Solomon  Dickinson 
house,  which  was  burned  in  1868,  was  built  in  1871  bv 
E.    Ashley   Bardwell,    who   married   Sarah    E.,   daughter  of 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL  W.   WELLS.  299 

William  H.  Dickinson.  After  Mrs.  Bardwell's  decease 
Wilder  B.  Harding  and  wife,  who  was  Sarah  Houghton  of 
Putney,  Vt.,  the  principal  and  preceptress  of  Smith  Acad- 
emy, lived  here  for  some  years.  It  was  afterward  pur- 
chased by  Maj.  Charles  S.  Shattuck,  who  served  with  the 
6th  Vermont  Infantry  in  the  Civil  war.  His  wife,  now 
deceased,  was  Addie  M.  Doolittle  of  Hinsdale,  N.  H.  Mr. 
Shattuck  now  lives  on  the  place  with  his  niece,  Mary 
Thayer,  who  married  Vernet  H.  Keller  of  Ohio. 

The  next  place,  the  Elijah  Dickinson  house,  was  torn 
down  in  1892  by  Edward  B.  Dickinson.  The  site  is  now 
vacant. 

The  next  house,  called  the  John  Brown  place,  is  now 
occupied  by  his  widow,  Augusta  S.,  who  was  a  daughter 
of  Josiah  Allis.  Her  daughter,  Harriet  A.,  who  married 
George  B.  Barnes  of  Warehouse  Point,  Conn.,  lives  with 
Mrs.  Brown.  The  north  center  schoolhouse  once  stood  on 
this  lot. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Benjamin  Waite  allotment,  was 
occupied  by  Jeremy  Morton  and  his  wife,  who  was  Tem- 
perance McCullock.  Both  died  in  Hatfield.  Matthew  J. 
Ryan  and  wife,  who  was  Jane,  daughter  of  Nicholas  and 
Margaret  Powers,  now  live  on  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  occupied  by  Richard  T.  Morton, 
afterward  by  Champion  Dickinson,  then  by  one  Lockjaw, 
then  by  Edward  Proulx,  who  married  Hannah  Larkin. 
He  now  lives  on  the  place  with  his  son,  Michael  J.  Proulx 
and  wife,  who  was  Mary  Hamel,  daughter  of  Marble 
Hamel. 

The  next  house,  called  the  Abijah  Bliss  place,  was  occu- 
pied by  his  son,  William  C.  Bliss,  whose  wife  was  Laura 
Munson  of  Whately.  He  was  a  prosperous  brobmmaker. 
Both  died  in  Hatfield.  Afterward  this  place  was  owned  by 
Levi  L.  Pease,  who  came  from  Ludlow.  He  married  (1) 
Amelia  L.,  daughter  of  William  C.  Bliss,  and  (2)  Fidelia 
Murdock  of  Baltimore,  Md.  Both  wives  are  deceased. 
He  now  occupies  the  place.  He  was  a  member  of  the  46th 
Regiment,   M.V.M.,   during  the  Civil  war. 

The  next  house  was  owned  and  occupied  by  George 
W.    Smith,    who    married    Dolly    Bliss,    widow    of    Austin 


300  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Bliss.     Frank  Dugal  purchased  the  same  and  his  widow  and 
son,  Archie,  now  occupy  the  place. 

The  next  house  upon  King's  Hill  was  built  by  one  Wil- 
lard,  afterward  occupied  by  Joseph  Richards,  who  was  a 
member  *of  Co.  C,  27th  Regiment,  M.V.M.  He  died  at 
Andersonville.  The  next  occupant  was  Matilda  S.  Marsh. 
Marble  Hamel  lived  here  and  was  ferryman  to  Hadley. 
The  place  is  now  owned  by  John  J.  Breor,  who  married 
Emma,  daughter  of  Mr.  Hamel,  and  succeeded  him  as 
ferryman. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1909  by  John  Anabel  of 
Hadley,  who  married  John  J.   Breor's  daughter,  Irene. 

Main  Street,  East  Side. 

On  the  east  side  of  Main  Street  in  Little  Meadow,  so 
called,  is  a  house  built  by  Joseph  Celtka  in  1906.  He  sold 
it  in  1909  to  Peter  and  Franczika  Mazukaitis. 

The  next  house  is  now  the  home  of  Joseph  Levitre.  The 
building  was  formerly  the  north  center  district  schoolhouse 
and   once   stood   on   the  John   Brown   home   lot. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Anthony  Douglass,  who 
married  Lizzie  Bolac  of  West  Hatfield.  This  house  was 
once  the  northerly  wing  of  the  Alvin  L.  Sanderson  home- 
stead. 

The  next  house  was  the  site  of  the  Roger  Dickinson 
dwelling.  The  present  house  was  built  by  Charles  H. 
Jones,  who  married  Angelia,  daughter  of  William  C.  Bliss, 
and  removed  to  Northampton.  The  place  was  afterward 
occupied  by  George  L.  Marsh,  who  married  Bessie  Owen 
of  Belchertown,  then  by  Michel  Proulx.  His  widow,  Han- 
nah Twoniey,  and  her  son,  Alfred  B.  Proulx,  now  occupy 
the  same. 

The  next  house,  so  long  used  as  a  tavern,  w-as  built  by 
Dwight  Smith  about  1830,  and  enlarged  by  Solomon  Mosher. 
Orsamus  Marsh,  who  married  Harriet  Smith  of  Hadlev, 
kept  tavern  here  45  years.  He  was  also  a  ferryman  and 
had  a  horseboat :  afterward  a  wire  across  the  river.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Lemuel  S.  Bliss,  who  married  Martha 
E.  Claghorn ;  then  by  Michael  J.  Proulx  and  Frank  O. 
Rarchvell :   tlien   bv    John   T.   and   William   H.    Burke.     The 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  301 

place  is  now  owned  by  Levi  L.  Pease,  Benjamin  M.  Warner, 
and  Matthew  J.  Ryan.  The  hotel  barn  was  removed  in  1908. 
George  L.  Marsh,  son  of  Orsamus,  was  a  member  of  Co. 
K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Austin  Bliss  and  was  owned 
and  occupied  by  his  son,  Lemuel  S.  Bliss,  who  kept  a 
grocery  and  drug  store  in  the  ell  part  of  the  house.  He  was 
followed  by  Lemuel  A.  Waite  and  wife.  Their  daughter^ 
Myra  L.  Waite,  married  Horace  Shumway,  who  now  owns 
the  place.  It  is  occupied  by  John  Bitner,  who  married 
Margaret  Dea  of  Northampton. 

The  next  house,  which  was  built  by  Hiram  Marsh,  was 
long  the  home  of  William  Dougherty,  a  painter.  His  wife 
was  Elvira  B.  Osborn  of  Hadley.  Their  children  all  re- 
moved from  Hatfield.  The  place  is  now  occupied  by 
Edward  A.  Ryan  and  his  wife,  who  was  Kate  A.  Twomey 
of  Whately. 

The  next  house,  also  built  by  Hiram  Marsh,  was  the 
home  of  Alvin  L.  Sanderson,  who  married  Janette  Reed  of 
Whately.  Their  daughter,  Mary  Jane,  married  Frank  W. 
Prince,  and  they  now  live  on  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Caleb  Dickinson,  son  of 
Giles  Dickinson  of  Whately,  about  1861.  Caleb  married 
Almaria  L.,  daughter  of  Rodolphus  Rice  of  Conway.  The 
family  removed  from  Hatfield,  and  George  SaflFer,  who 
married  Mary,  daughter  of  Patrick  Boyle,  now  lives  on 
the  place. 

We  now  come  to  the  first  house  on  the  east  side  of 
Main  Street  spoken  of  by  Mr.  Partridge,  that  of  Jeremiah 
Bardwell,  whose  wife  was  Rosamond  Harris.  They  both 
died  in  Hatfield.  The  house  was  repaired  in  1907  by  John 
L.  Proulx,  who  now  lives  here  with  his  wife,  who  was 
Delvina  Parent  of  Hadley.  Charles  Smith  lived  some  years 
on  this  place. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Caleb  Dickinson,  was  occupied 
by  Caleb  D.  Bardwell;  afterwards  by  Albert  Webber,  and 
since  his  decease  by  his  widow,  who  was  Emma  D.  Sander- 
son of  Conway,  and  their  daughters. 

The  next  house  was  the  Elijah  Bardwell  house.  He  was 
known  as  Squire  Bardwell.  The  house  he  lived  in  was 
moved   to   North    Street   and   is   the   home   of   William    B. 


302  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Langdon.  One  wing  of  the  old  house  is  now  the  home  of 
Margaret  Hade  on  School  Street.  The  present  brick  house 
was  built  in  1864  by  Henry  F.  Bardwell,  who  married 
Alice  L.,  daughter  of  John  D.  Brown.  Mr.  Bardwell  was 
a  grandson  of  Squire  Bardwell  and  also  a  member  of  Co. 
F,  27th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  The  house  is 
now  occupied  by  Dr.  A.  J.  Bonneville  and  his  wife,  who  was 
Agnes  Gertrude  Hunt  of  Providence,  R.  I. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Nathaniel  Foot  allotment,  was 
the  home  of  William  H.  Dickinson,  who  married  Angeline, 
daughter  of  Justin  Waite.  The  old  house  was  removed 
to  North  Street  in  the  rear  of  Major  Shattuck's  lot.  Mr. 
Dickinson  and  his  son,  William  C.  Dickinson,  built  the  large 
new  house,  now  standing,  in  1875.  Both  William  H.  and 
William  C.  Dickinson  are  deceased  and  their  widows  now 
live  on  the  place.  Mrs.  William  C.  Dickinson  was  Clara 
L.,  daughter  of  Thaddeus  Graves. 

•The  next  house,  on  the  Philip  Russell  allotment,  was 
the  home  of  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith  and  the  birthplace  of  his 
son,  Oliver  Smith.  It  was  afterward  owned  by  William  H. 
Dickinson,  who  moved  the  house  to  North  Street,  where  it 
now  stands,  used  as  a  tenement.  The  hollow  buttonball 
tree  is  still  standing,  but  the  site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  house,  on  the  above  lot,  was  built  in  1901  by 
Emma  A.,  Mary  L.,  and  Ellen  A.,  daughters  of  James  O. 
Waite,  and  is  now  occupied  by  Webster  A.  Pease  and  his 
wife,  who  was  Anna  Hastings  of  Amherst. 

The  next  house,  Qn  the  Samuel  Gillett  allotment,  was 
occupied  by  James  Morton,  son  of  Ebenezer  Morton,  and 
repaired  after  Mr.  Morton  removed  from  town,  by  Charles 
G.  Waite.  I  think  Moses  Morton  and  Charles  N.  Coleman 
each  lived  a  few  years  in  the  house.  It  was  purchased 
by  Cordelia  A.,  wife  of  Elisha  Hubbard,  who  died  here. 
She  now  lives  on  the  place. 

The  next  house,  on  the  John  Wells  allotment,  w^as  owned 
by  Boswell  Controy  and  afterward  purchased  by  John 
McHu^h,  whose  wife  was  Mary  Kounalty.  Their  son, 
John  McHngli,  Jr.,  tore  down  the  old  house  in  1904  and 
rebuilt  on  the  same  place.  The  scroll  and  casing  of  the 
front  door  of  the  old  house,  supposed  to  have  been  built  by 
Sanniel    Hastings   before    the    French   and   Indian    war,   are 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  303 

preserved  in  Memorial  hall.  Mr.  McHugh  now  lives  on 
the  place  with  his  son,  John  McHugh,  Jr.,  who  married 
Helen  A.  Welch  of  Hadley. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  Smith  about  1820. 
He  married  Oritha  Morton,  daughter  of  Ebenezer  Morton. 
Both  died  in  Hatfield.  Afterward  William  P.  Allis,  who 
married  Amelia  Baker,  lived  here.  He  built  a  large  stock 
barn  on  the  site,  which  was. burned  in  1884.  The  family 
removed  from  Hatfield  and  John  Hervey  Howard,  whose 
wife  was  Emma  Bullard  of  Swanzey,  N.  H.,  purchased  the 
place  and  built  the  village  store,  which  he  now  occupies. 
Mr.  Howard  came  from  Easthampton  in  1879.  He  was 
a  member  of  Co.  C,  10th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil 
war. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Silas  Porter  place,  is  occupied 
by  Silas  Porter,  son  of  Theodore  Porter,  who  was  a  shoe- 
maker. His  shop  was  torn  down  in  1908.  The  large  elm 
tree  is  now  standing  in  front  of  the  house,  which  has  a 
very  old  appearance.  The  town  of  Hatfield  owns  the  place, 
subject  to  the  life  estate  of  the  occupant,  Silas  Porter.  A 
schoolhouse,  which  stood  on  the  north  corner  of  this  lot, 
burned  at  the  fire  of  William  P.  Allis's  barn  in  1884. 

In  1860  David  F.  Wells  built  a  store  north  of  his  house. 
This  was  burned  down  in  1878.  On  this  site  once  stood 
the  house  of  Frederick  Chapin,  in  which  he  lived  with  his 
sons,  Frederick  W.  and  Camilas.  The  house  was  torn' 
down  and  they  lived  on  the  Smith  Academy  lot.  On  this 
site  also  John  F.  Burke  built  a  new  house  in  1903  and  he 
now  lives  on  the  place  with  his  wife,  who  was  Nellie 
Whalen. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Dr.  Addison  S.  Peck  about 
1837.  He  removed  with  his  family  from  Hatfield.  David 
F.  Wells,  who  married  Harriet,  daughter  of  Solomon  Dick- 
inson, purchased  the  place.  Both  Mr.  Wells  and  his  w^fe 
died  in  Hatfield,  and  Samuel  H.  Dickinson,  Abby  H.  Dick- 
inson, and  George  W.  Hubbard,  who  married  Philura  T., 
daughter  of  Solomon  Dickinson,  all  lived  and  died  here. 
The  place  is  now  owned  by  George  Eberlein,  the  village 
blacksmith.     He  married  Maria  E.  Zoller. 

The  next  house,  the  Perez  Morton  house,  was  occupied 
by    his    son,    Edwin    Morton,    and    two    maiden    daughters. 


304  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Mary  and  Dorothy.  They  all  died  in  Hatfield.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  a  nephew,  Eugene  I.  Morton,  who  married 
Maria  L.,  daughter  of  Jonathan  D.  Porter. 

The  next  place,  the  Elijah  Bardwell  place,  is  now  occu- 
pied by  his  son,  Frederick  H.  Bardwell,  who  married  Maria 
I.,  daughter  of  Lucius  G.  Curtis.  The  barn  was  once  the 
old  meetinghouse.  There  was  a  country  store  just  south  of 
this  house,  kept  by  Moses  Morton.  This  was  moved  back 
from  the  street  by  Elijah  Bardwell  and  used  as  a  broom 
shop,  as  he  was  a  broom  maker.     This  has  been  torn  domi. 

The  house  south  of  this  was  built  in  1909  by  Jonaihtn 
E.  Porter  and  is  occupied  by  Mrs.  Myron  C.  Graves  >Biid 
her  stepmother,   Mrs.   Moses  C.  Porter.  :-*iT 

The  next  place,  the  Edward  Benton  allotment,  :«u 
owned  by  Oliver  Smith,  but  he  did  not  live  on  it.  JlfeMS 
Morton  purchased  it  and  sold  it  to  Hannah  W.  SHuth, 
widow  of  Joseph  Smith.  She  built  the  present  house  iit  1863. 
Joseph  S.  Wells,  who  married  Emma,  daughter  of  'Duid 
G.  Phelps  of  West  Lebanon,  N.  H.,  lived  on  the  phce 
for  thirty  years.  He  sold  it  in  1909  to  Malcolm  Crawford, 
who  married  M.  Antoinette  Morton.  He  came  from  Put- 
ney, Vt.  The  row  of  elm  trees  in  front  of  this  and  the 
Dr.  White  place  was  set  out  in  1862.  Edward  J.  MacLane, 
a  painter,  who  came  from  Vermont,  occupies  the  place  with 
his  wife,  who  was  Minnie  Sizer  of  Holyoke. 

The  next  house,  on  the  John  White,  Jr.,  allotment,  was 
occupied  by  Elisha  Wells,  who  remodeled  the  house  in 
1870.  His  son,  Daniel  W.  Wells,  now  lives  on  the  place. 
He  married  Hannah  A.,  daughter  of  Dea.  Reuben  H.  Belden 
of  Bradstreet,  who  died  Jan.  28,  1909.  He  was  a  member 
of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  Dr. 
Daniel  White,  who  kept  a  tavern  here,  was  the  first  post- 
master in  Hatfield.  His  widow,  Sarah  Fitch  Burt,  who 
survived  him,  lived  here  and  died  in  1870,  aged  91. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Sophia  Smith  in  1867.  She 
was  the  founder  of  Smith  College  and  Smith  Academy. 
She  died  here  in  1870.  The  place  was  occupied  afterward 
by  George  A.  Billings,  who  removed  to  his  father's  house, 
and  it  has  since  been  owned  by  Smith  Academy  and  occu- 
pied by  the  family  of  Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods,  D.D.,  who 
died  June  19,  1909.     His  wife  was  Anna  Fairbanks  daughter 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS. 


305 


of  Rev.  Samuel  Fairbank,  a  missionary  of  the  A.   B,  C.   F. 
M.  in   India,  where  she  was  born. 

The  next  house  is  the  one  Austin  Smith  occupied  with 
his  sisters.  Harriet  and  Sophia,  now  owned  by  Smith 
Academy.  Smith  College  alumnae  recently  placed  a  bronze 
tablet  on  the  house  to  mark  the  birthplace  of  Sophia  Smith. 
The  well-sweep  in  the  south  yard  was  the  last  in  the  village 


to  be  removed,  about  1860.  William  D.  Billings,  town  clerk 
from  1858  to  1905,  lived  here  for  several  years  and  his 
widow,  who  was  Mary  Warner,  daughter  of  James  W. 
W'arner,  now  rents  the  place. 

The  next  house,  the  Joseph  D.  Billings  place,  is  now 
occupied  by  his  daughter,  Mary  A.,  who  married  Edward 
B.  Dickinson.  The  house  has  the  same  appearance  as  of 
old.  having  been  kept  in  excellent  repair.  It  was  built  in 
1783  by  Lieut.  David  Billings. 

The  next,  which  was  the  Dr.  John  Hastings  place,  was 
afterward  occupied  by  his  son,  Chester  Hastings,  and  later 
owned  by  Joseph  D.  Billings.  It  was  torn  down  a  few 
years  ago  by  Edward  B.  Dickinson,  his  son-in-law.  and  the 
site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  house,  which  was  Dr.  Hastings'  office  remod- 
eled   into   a    dwelling,    was   occupied    for    a    time    by    Ohed 


306  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Hastings,  a  son  of  Chester  Hastings,  who  removed  from 
Hatfield.  The  place  was  afterward  purchased  by  Luman 
M.  Moore.  He  married  Melissa  L.,  daughter  of  Henr\' 
Wilkie,  2d.  Both  died  in  Hatfield.  It  was  sold  in  1909 
by  their  daughter,  Nellie  E.,  who  married  Theodore  Baggs, 
to  Dennis  E.  Holley.  His  wife  was  Hattie  Matson.  It 
was  occupied  for  a  few  years  by  David  I.  Mullany,  who 
married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Nelson  Allaire. 

The  next  lot  was  the  home  of  Hon.  John  Hastings,  and 
occupied  in  our  memory  by  tenants.  This  house  was 
removed  by  Samuel  F.  Billings,  whose  heirs  now  own  the 
land.  The  house  site  is  vacant,  while  the  house  is  now 
standing  on  the  Samuel  F.  Billings  place  and  used  as  a 
storehouse. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Hon.  John  Hastings  lot,  was 
built  by  Charles  J.  Abbott  in  1902.  He  married  Elizabeth 
Hastings,  daughter  of  Samuel  F.  Billings.  Mr.  Abbott 
died  in  Hatfield  and  his  widow  owns  the  place.  It  is 
occupied  by  Aurin  Wood,  who  married  Florence  Bullard. 
They  came  from  North  Grafton. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Samuel  Hastings,  son 
of  Hon.  John  Hastings;  afterward  occupied  by  John  A. 
Billings  and  then  by  Otis  C.  Wells.  It  is  now  owned  by 
Albert  W.  Morton  and  occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house,  across  Bridge  Lane,  was  Dwight  Par- 
tridge's home.  He  removed  to  New  York  state  and  it  was 
the  home  of  Moses  Morton,  who  married  Sophia,  daughter 
of  Dea.  Cotton  Partridge.  Both  died  in  Hatfield,  and 
their  son,  Dwight  P.  Morton,  lived  here  with  his  wife, 
Chloe  Cole.  Their  unmarried  son,  Albert  W.  Morton, 
is  now  upon  the  place.  Their  oldest  son,  Josiah  L.  Morton, 
was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the 
Civil  war,  and  afterward  removed  to  the  West. 

The  site  of  the  old  toll  house  at  the  bridge  is  now  in 
the  Connecticut  river.  It  is  not  known  when  the  old  bridge 
was  removed,  but  the  bridge  company  sold  the  toll  house 
and  site  to  l^eter  Ingram  of  Amherst  in  1823,  and  it  was 
probably  removed  before  that  date.  It  was  built  in  1807  by 
lottery  and  Dr.  Joseph  Lyman  preached  a  sermon  on  the 
openin£^  of  the  bridp^e. 

^J'ho  lioiise   standini^  at   the  head  of  Main  Street,  called 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  307 

the  Capt.  Thaddeus  Graves  house,  was  long  occupied  by 
his  widow,  who  was  Polly  Gerry,  a  daughter  of  Nathan 
Gerry.  Her  son,  Edwin  Graves,  was  first  sergeant  in  Co. 
F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war,  and  died  of 
wounds  received  in  the  Battle  of  the  Wilderness.  His 
widow,  who  was  Ursula  Moody,  was  made  postmistress 
and  for  many  years  kept  the  post  office  in  the  house.  The 
place  was  then  occupied  by  Edgar  P.  Lyman  with  his  cousin, 
Achsah  Lyman,  a  niece  of  Mrs.  Israel  Morton.  One  part 
of  the  house  is  occupied  by  Eugene  Bushee.  It  is  owned  by 
E.  Langdon  Graves. 

Valley  Street,  East  Side. 

The  next  house,  on  the  east  side  of  Valley  Street,  was 
built  by  the  maiden  daughters  of  Nathan  Gerry,  Martha 
and  Lucretia,  about  1836.  They  were  tailoresses  and  made 
clothing  for  the  youth  of  the  village.  Afterward  Mary 
Esther,  daughter  of  Capt.  Thaddeus  Graves,  who  married 
Sylvanus  Miller  of  New  York,  lived  here,  then  Edwin  M. 
Graves,  son  of  Sergt.  Edwin  Graves,  lived  here  with  his 
wife,  Carrie  L.,  daughter  of  William  B.  Langdon.  She 
survives  him  and  now  occupies  the  place  with  two  sons 
and  one  daughter. 

The  next  and  last  house  is  the  Erastus  Cowles  place, 
built  in  1831.  He  married  Olive,  daughter  of  Zebina  Dick- 
inson. Both  died  in  Hatfield.  Their  son,  Augustus  D., 
was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil 
war.  A  younger  son,  Edward  C.  Cowles,  was  a  member 
of  Co.  F,  27th  Regiment,  M.  V.  M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  Ernest 
Godin,  who  married  iVmelia,  daughter  of  Joseph  Smith,  now 
occupies  the  place. 

South  Street. 

Coming  back  to  the  East  Division  road  and  below  the 
meadow  gate  we  follow  the  building  of  recent  years.  The 
first  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  road  was  built  by  Joseph 
Viszaway  in  1903.  His  daughter  Theresa,  who  married 
John  Wesaloski,  was  the  first  girl  of  Polish  descent  to  be 
bound  out  under  the  will  of  Oliver  Smith. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Erastus  Billings  for  his  foreman, 
Gottlieb   Decker,   is   now   occupied   by   Charles    L    Stowell, 


308  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

who  married  I'^annie,  daughter  of  Dexter  and  Emeline 
JoneS. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1903  by  Michael  and  Mar}' 
Banasz. 

The  next  house,  on  the  west  side  of  the  road,  was  built 
by  Michael  and  Katie  Piwatka  in  1908. 

The  next  house  was  the  Windsor  Smith  store,  moved 
from  the  corner  of  the  Capt.  Thaddeus  Graves  place,  and 
was  long  the  livery  stable  of  Horace  Shumway.  It  is 
now  owned  by  John  Yarrow. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Frank  Zagrodnick. 

Maplf.  Strekt. 

Beginning  on  the  north  side  of  Maple  Street,  on  the 
Zechariah  l^^ield  allotment,  is  the  house  built  by  Pliny  Day. 
son  of  Joel  Day,  who  lived  on  School  Street.  Pliny's  wife 
was  Chloe.  She  afterward  married  Capt.  Samuel  PiLrsons 
of  Northampton.  They  had  no  children  and  aft^>'  his 
decease  in  1853  the  wagon  shop  on  the  opposite  side 'JJit the 
road  was  closed.  The  place  is  now  owned  by  Miss  €jjnielia 
A.  Billings,  a  daughter  of  Capt.  Silas  Billings.  \^E>- 

The  next  house,  the  Moses  Field  place,  was  piig|||tocd 
by  Alpheus  Cowles,  who  married  Sophia  Wells  of  I>^^en. 
A  new  house  was  built  in  1841  and  they  now  live'liherc 
at  an  advanced  age. 

Tlie  next  house  was  built  after  the  Deacon  Warner  liouse 
was  burned  in  1855,  by  his  son,  Moses  Warner,  who  lived 
here  with  his  sisters,  Mrs.  Mercy  Hubbard  and  Mrs.  Sarah 
Morgan.  They  all  died  in  Platfield  in  February,  1857.  The 
place  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  John  Firtch  and  wife, 
Anna. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  Maple  Street  is  the  house  built 
by  Hon.  (ieorge  W.  Hubbard,  who  married  Philura  T.. 
daughter  of  Solomon  Dickinson.  They  afterward  lived 
with  tlieir  brother,  Sanniel  H.  Dickinson,  on  Main  Street. 
Both  died  in  Hatfield.  Thev  had  no  children.  E.  Seward 
Warner  purchased  the  place  and  married  Mary  Julia  Hunt 
of  Xew  York.  She  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-seven.  Mr. 
Warner  and  his  two  daughters  now  live  on  the  place. 

The  brick  house  next  was  the  home  of  James  \V.  Warner. 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  309 

who  married  Louisa  Longley.  The  place  is  now  owned  by 
his  son,  E.  Seward  Warner,  and  occupied  by  tenants. 
Jonathan  D.  Warner,  brother  of  James  \V..  was  a  member 
of  Co.  C,  10th  Regiment,  M.V.M,,  in  the  Civil  war. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Baltazar  John  Goetoski  in 
1903.  This  man  is  called  Joe  Belden.  He  now  occupies 
the  place. 

Elm  Street,  Sol'th  Side. 

Now  crossing  Hill  bridge,  going  up  Elm  Street,  is  the 
Edward  Church  place,  owned  and  occupied  by  Dea.  James 
Porter,  who  married  Sarah  Randall  of  Belchertown. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Col.  Oliver  Partridge,  was  the 
home  of  Levi  Graves,  Jr..  who  married  Tabitha,  daughter  of 
David   Field  of  Conway.     He   removed   to  Springfield   with 


his  family  and,  at  his  decease,  willed  the  use  of  his  Hatfield 
farm  to  the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign 
Missions,  the  Congregational  Home  Missionary  Society, 
and  the  American  Bible  Society.  It  has  since  been  called 
the  "Missionary  Farm"  and  for  many  years  has  been  occu- 
pied by  Alfred  E.  Breor  as  tenant.  He  married  Catherine 
Dalton. 


310  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  next  house,  called  the  Levi  Graves  house,  was,  after 
his  decease,  occupied  by  his  son,  Dea.  Jonathan  S.  Graves, 
whose  wife  was  Caroline  Smith,  followed  by  his  son,  Alfred 
H.  Graves,  who  married  Anna  H.  Breed  of  New  York. 
Their  son,  Murray  B.  Graves,  and  his  wife,  who  was  Emma 
B.,  daughter  of  Charles  A.  Jones,  live  with  them. 

Next,  on  the  Ebenezer  Fitch  lot,  Benjamin  M.  Warner 
built  a  new  house  in  1898.  He  married  Ella  E.,  daughter 
of  George  C.  Fitch.  They  now  live  on  the  place  w^ith  their 
three  daughters. 

The  old  Fitch  house  on  the  same  lot  was  occupied  by 
John  T.  and  George  C.  Fitch  and  afterward  by  Benjamin 
M.  Warner.  It  is  now  occupied  by  tenants.  The  house 
has  been  kept  in  good  repair. 

The  next  house,  also  on  the  Fitch  lot,  was  built  and 
occupied  by  John  T.  Fitch  in  1843,  and  also  occupied  by 
George  C.  Fitch.  It  was  long  the  home  of  William  M. 
Jones,  whose  first  wife  was  Julia  Packard  of  Pellmm,  and 
second,  Nancy  F.  Rhoades.  After  their  decease  it  was  used 
by  Benjamin  M.  Warner  as  a  tenement. 

The  next  house  was  the  Henry  Hitchcock  place  and  was 
occupied  by  Silas  and  Leonard  Hitchcock.  Eldad  Stebbins 
and  his  son,  Giles  Stebbins,  lived  here  a  few  years: 
afterward  it  was  occupied  by  Charles  L.  Graves,  who  mar- 
ried (1)  Fanny  Hamilton,  and  (2)  Susan  Wing.  His 
widow  now  lives  here  with  her  son,  Edward,  and  daughter, 
Eva. 

The  next  house  was  occupied  by  widow  Bethia  Packard 
and  son,  George.  Both  died  in  Hatfield  and  the  house  was 
torn  down.  The  site  is  vacant  and  is  now  a  part  of  the 
Charles  L.  Graves  home  lot.  Seth  Kingsley,  father  of 
Moses  W.  Kingsley,  once  occupied  this  house. 

llie  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  E.  Kingsley  about 
1857.  His  wife  was  Chloe  Dane  of  Whately.  The  place 
is  now  owned  by  Thaddeus  Graves,  and  used  as  a  tene- 
nient. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Solomon  Graves  place,  is  owned 
and  occupied  by  his  son,  Thaddeus  Graves,  who  married 
Mary  A.,  daughter  of  John  Hubbard.  The  two  small 
houses  on  this  lot  were  built  bv  Thaddeus  Graves  and  used 
by  him   as  tenements. 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  311 

The  next  house,  which  was  once  the  home  of  Elijah  N. 
Sampson  and  stood  on  the  corner  of  the  lot  of  Isaac  B. 
Lowell,  was  removed  to  this  lot  by  Mack  LaMountain,  who 
came  from  Canada.  It  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Henry 
LaMountain,  who  married  Fosine,  daughter  of  Alfred 
Jubinville. 

The  next  house,  built  bv  Thomas  Whalen  about  1860, 
is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Dennis,  and  occupied  by  Thomas 
W.  Ryan,  who  married  Hannah,  daughter  of  Thomas 
Whalen. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  a  Mr.  Rowe,  who  was  a 
blacksmith  and  soon  left  town.  It  was  owned  afterward 
by  Henry  S.  Porter,  then  by  Jonathan  D.  Porter,  now  by 
Patrick  T.  Boyle.     It  is  occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house  is  the  Richard  Fitzgerald  place.  He  mar- 
ried Mary  Brown  and  built  the  house  about  1863.  His  wife 
died  in  Hatfield.  He  now  occupies  the  place  with  his 
daughter,  Mary,  who  married  Edward  Burke. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Peter  Pianker  and  wife  in 
1904. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Ryan  and  is  now 
occupied  and  owned  by  Homer  Raboin. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  Joseph  Bush,  who  removed 
from  town.  Afterward  Louis  Raboin  moved  the  house  to 
the  east  and  used  it  as  a  shop  and  built  a  new  two-story  house 
on  the  old  site.  His  son,  Israel  Raboin,  now  occupies  the 
place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Walter  William  Crump  in 
1898.  He  married  Eva,  daughter  of  Joseph  Patrick,  and 
removed  from  town. 

The  next  house,  the  Mary  Dunn  place,  was  occupied  by 
Joseph  Patrick.  He  removed  from  town.  This  and  the 
Crump  house  are  now  owned  by  Benjamin  M.  Warner  and 
occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house,  opposite  Banks  corner,  which  at  one  time 
was  the  Samuel  Graves  cornhouse,  was  removed  by  Mack 
LaMountain  to  the  present  site  and  converted  into  a  dwell- 
ing, where  he  lived  until  he  removed  to  his  later  place  on 
Elm  Street.  His  son,  Henry  LaMountain,  now  owns  the 
place  and  it  is  occupied  by  tenants. 

The  John  Wilson  house,  near  the  Northampton  line,  was 


312  HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 

torn  down  by  Charles  L,  Warner,  who  now  owns  the  land. 
This  was  called  by  Mr.  Partridge  the  Kelly  house. 

On  the  northerly  side  of  this  road  the  Tom  Banks  house 
has  disappeared. 

Banks  Corner  Road. 

The  Ebenezer  Dwight  house,  on  the  road  leading  to  the 
railroad  station,  was  burned,  and  Alvin  L,  Strong  owns  the 
farm.  Mr,  Dwight  died  in  Hatfield.  The  family  removed 
from  town. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Col,  Israel  Chapin  place,  was  built 
by  Aniariah  Strong;  afterward  owned  by  Jacob  Carl  and 
now  owned  by  Henry  A.  Wade,  who  married  Kate  Par- 
tenheimer.  He  enlarged  and  repaired  the  house  and  it  is 
now  occupied  by  him  with  his  son,  Charles  W.,  who  married 
Nellie,  daughter  of  Henry  W.  Bardwell  of  Whately. 

The  next  house,  opposite  the  railroad  station,  was  buiil 
by  William  Curtis  and  afterward  occupied  by  John  Vaile. 
John  Denlein  now  owns  the  place.  He  married  Mary, 
daughter  of  Henry  Stenglein. 

Elm  Street,  North  Side. 

Returning  to  the  Northampton  road  we  find  the  cabins 
of  the  negro  settlement  are  now  destroyed  and  the  five 
houses  recently  built  are  owned  as  follows :  John  and  Nellie 
Pelc,  built  in  1904;  Jorko  Watoszn,  built  in  1905;  John 
and  Agnes  Kosior,  built  in  190fi,  now  owned  by  Syniko  ami 
Katie  Karkut;  John  and  Margaret  Karakula,  built  in  190i; 
John  Vachula,  built  in  1903.  The  negro  cabins  were  for 
many  years  a  picturesque  feature  on  the  road  to  Northamp- 
ton. They  were  occupied  by  descendants  of  some  of  the 
slaves  owned  in  Hatfield  in  colonial  times. 

The  next  house  wa.s  built  by  Michael  Larkin  about  ISS4. 
He  married  -Ann  Mack,  The  house  was  occupied  by 
Daniel  E.  Cahill  for  some  years.  He  moved  to  Holyoke 
and  sold  the  place  to  Patrick  Fitzgerald  and  Thomas  Fitz- 
gerald, Jr. 

The  next  three  one-story  houses  were  built  by  John  T. 
and  George  C.  Fitch.  The  first  on  the  westerly  side  is 
owned  by  Thomas  l'"itzger;iUl,  the  next  by  Mary  A,  Graves. 
and  the  next  by  Joseph  Raboin. 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS. 


313 


The  next  house  was  built  by  Francis  Dunikin  about  1860. 
It  was  afterward  owned  by  Mary  King,  then  by  Mary 
Esther  Miller,  and  is  now  owned  by  Nelson  Allaire,  who 
married  Mary  Callahan  of  Whately. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Joseph  Douyard,  who  married 
Lena,  daughter  of  Mack  LaMountain.  is  now  occupied  by 
him.  A  house  was  burned  on  this  site,  owned  by  Patrick 
Mullany. 

The  next  house  is  owned  and  occupied  by  John  Gendron 
and  his  wife,  who  was  Kate  Callahan  of  Whately. 


The  next  house  was  first  the  shoemaker's  shop  of  Henry 
Childs  and  stood  where  S.  W.  Kingsley's  house  now  is. 
Austin  Abels  moved  it  to  its  present  location  and  occupied  it 
with  his  wife,  who  was  Aleatha  Jones.  He  built  the  two- 
story  addition  now  attached  to  the  old  shop.  Afterward 
Moses  W.  Kingsley  and  wife,  who  was  Rachel  Curtis, 
lived  here.  It  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Mack  La- 
Mountain,  who  married  Evelina,  daughter  of  Alfred  Jubin- 
ville.  Dwight  G,  Abels,  son  of  Austin,  was  a  member  of 
Co.    K.  52d  Regiment,   M.V.M..   in   the  Civil  war. 


314  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Lorenzo  P.  Dole,  who 
married  (1)  Abigail  Packard,  (2)  Anna  Dunikin.  He  had 
one  daughter,  who  died  young,  and  one  son,  Benjamin, 
who  now  lives  in  Hatfield.  The  place  is  now  owned  by 
Valentine  Porado. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Ashley  Graves,  who  removed 
to  the  West.  It  was  the  home  for  about  forty  years  of 
Jonathan  D.  Porter  and  after  him  of  his  son,  Frank  K. 
The  former  married  Phila  E.,  daughter  of  Jeremy  Morton. 
She  sold  the  place  in   1909  to  Patrick  T.  Boyle. 

The  next  house,  the  Timothy  Graves  place,  is  now  owned 
by  Charles  L.  Warner  and  used  as  a  tenement.  The  large 
elm  trees  mentioned  by  Mr.  Partridge  are  now  standing 
in  front  of  the  house. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Samuel  Graves.  It  was 
afterward  owned  and  occupied  by  Fred  Allaire  and  now  by 
Patrick  J.  Whalen,  who  married  Catharine  A.  Mahar  of 
Easthampton. 

The  next  place,  the  Ebenezer  White  tavern,  was  moved 
to  the  rear  by  John  T.  Fitch  and  used  as  a  tobacco  ware- 
house. He  built  in  1861  the  large  two-story  house  on  the 
same  site.  His  widow,  who  was  Julia  A.  White,  lived, 
until  her  death  in  1909,  in  this  house  with  Charles  L.  War- 
ner, who  married  her  daughter,  Maria  L.  Fitch.  Charles 
E.  Warner,  son  of  Charles  L.,  who  married  Myra,  daughter 
of  Henrv  H.  Field  of  North  Hatfield,  now  lives  here  also. 

The  next  house,  the  Chester  Porter  place,  was  occupied 
for  many  years  by  Lewis  S.  Dyer,  who  married  Mary, 
daughter  of  Chester  Porter.  The  family  removed  from 
Hatfield.  The  place  is  now  owned  by  Dennis  Whalen,  who 
married   Marg-aret  Sheehan  of  Hatfield. 

The  next  house,  the  Henry  S.  Porter  place,  is  owned  by 
Fred  Wenzel,  who  married  Hannah  S.  Hor.  The  house 
standing  before  this  one  was  burned  while  the  familv  were 
at  tlic  Sunday  service  and  was  rebuilt  in  the  winter  season, 
a  thini^  unusual  at  that  period. 

The  next  place,  the  Roswell  Hubbard  home,  descended 
to  his  nei)he\v,  Dea.  Henry  S.  Hubbard,  who  married  Mary 
Houi^Hiton  of  Putney.  Vt.  Mr.  Hubbard  died  in  1908.  Hi^ 
widow  and  sons,  Silas  G.  and  Claude  H.,  and  one  daughter. 
Olive,  now  live  on  the  ])lace. 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  315 

The  next  house,  on  the  Silas  D.  White  place,  was  built  by 
Dea.  Jonathan  Graves  in  1868.  The  old  house  was  moved 
in  the  rear  to  the  Mill  pond  and  since  then  has  burned. 
Alfred  H.  Graves  first  occupied  the  new  house,  now  owned 
and  occupied  by  Isaac  B.  Lowell,  who  came  from  West 
Springfield.  His  wife  was  Annie  Addie  Streeter  of  Chico- 
pee  and  their  daughter,  Annette,  married  Ashley  H.  Thorn- 
dike,  principal  of  Smith  Academy  1893  and  1894,  and  now 
a  professor  in  Columbia  University. 

The  next  house,  on  the  corner  of  this  lot,  was  the  home 
of  Elijah  N.  Sampson  and  was  removed  to  the  Mack 
LaMountain  place  as  already  mentioned.  Mr.  Sampson 
removed  to  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  where  one  of  his  sons  is  now 
living. 

The  next  house,  the  M.  N.  Hubbard  place,  was  built  in 
1863.  Mr.  Hubbard  married  Julia  Bodman  of  Williams- 
burg. After  his  decease  the  place  was  owned  by  Eli  A. 
Hubbard.  He  was  a  prominent  instructor  and  a  member 
of  the  Massachusetts  Board  of  Education.  The  place  was 
bought  by  John  S.  Carl,  who  married  Mary  Augusta,  daugh- 
ter of  Thaddeus  Graves.  He  died  Dec.  29,  1909.  Thaddeus 
Graves,  Jr.,  who  married  Cora  King  of  Sandusky,  Ohio, 
occupies  a  part  of  the  house.  The  old  house  on  this  place 
was  moved  farther  east  and  used  as  a  tenement  till  it  burned 
in  the  winter  of  1910. 

On  the  site  of  the  tenement  was  once  a  house  occupied 
by  Ebenezer  Boynton.  He  died  in  Hatfield  and  his  widow 
and  son  removed  from  Hatfield  to  South  Hadley,  and  the 
house  was  torn  down.  Before  this  the  house  was  the  home 
of  Capt.  John  White. 

The  next  house,  on  the  John  Hubbard  lot,  descended 
to  Roswell  Hubbard,  2d.  He  married  Fanny,  daughter  of 
Sergt.  Edwin  Graves.  Both  are  now  living  on  the  place. 
The  elm  trees  spoken  of  by  Mr.  Partridge  were  removed 
for  the  street  railway  in  1898.  The  old  cemetery  on  the 
east  of  this  lot  is  kept  fenced  and  well  cared  for  by  the 
tow^n.     Few  stones  are  broken. 

The  brick  schoolhouse  was  built  in  1869,  an  old  two-story 
schoolhouse  having  been  moved  to  the  south  end  of  what  is 
now^  Porter  Avenue. 


316  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

School  Street,  South  Side. 

Beginning  on  the  south  side  of  School  Street  the  first 
building  is  the  schoolhouse  before  mentioned,  built  in  1871. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Oliver  Warner  in  1874.  Mr. 
Warner  died  in  Hatfield  and  the  family  removed  from  town. 
He  was  a  member  of  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the 
Civil  war.  The  place  was  afterward  occupied  by  Joseph  S. 
Wells,  and  is  now  owned  by  Dr.  Chester  M.  Barton,  who 
married  (1)  Clara  Whitman,  and  (2)  Jennie,  daughter  of 
George  Stearns  of  Conway. 

The  next  house  is  the  rectory  of  St.  Joseph's  Church, 
built  in  1906.  The  church  was  built  in  1892-.  It  has  since 
been  enlarged  and  is  now  the  place  of  public  worship  of  1300 
people. 

The  next  place  was  the  Zebina  Dickinson  home.  The 
brick  house  now  standing  was  built  by  Dr.  Alonzo  Lewis, 
who  died  in  1873.  It  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Hugh 
McLeod,  who  married  Helen,  daughter  of  Jonathan  E. 
Porter. 

Next,  the  Jabez  Belden  place,  is  owned  and  occupied  by 
Miss  Mary  A.  Dickinson  with  her  sister,  Fanny  M.,  who 
married  Marshall  H.  Burke.     He  died  in  Hatfield  in  1906. 

The  next  place  was  occupied  by  Richard  Smith.  It  is 
now  owned  and  occupied  by  Jacob  Carl,  who  built  the 
present  house.  He  married  Abby  Partenheimer.  Their 
son,  Henry  W.,  who  married  Fanny  Stearns  of  Galesbiirg. 
III.,  lives  with  them.  The  house  occupied  by  Richard  Smith 
was  removed  to  the  side  of  the  lot.  He  died  here  in  1854, 
and  the  house  was  then  removed  to  another  site,  where  it 
was  burned.  Obadiah  Smith,  son  of  Richard,  was  a  mem- 
ber of  Co.  G,  31st  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  w^ar. 

The  house  of  Abraham  Billings  was  occupied  by  Silas 
Bardwell  and  his  son  Oliver.  It  was  torn  down  by  Elijah 
P.  Dickinson,  who  rebuilt  upon  the  site.  The  place  is  now 
occupied  by  his  widow,  who  was  Phebe  Hemmingway,  and 
her  niece,  Julia,  who  married  William  W.  Gore. 

The  next  is  the  Joel  Day  place,  now  occupied  by  Joseph 
Smith,  who  came  from  Canada  with  his  wife,  Betsey  Good- 
child. 

I^he  next  house  is  occupied  by  Patrick  McGlynn,  who 
married    Rose    Lawler   in    1892. 


i 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  317 

The  next  house  is  occupied  by  WilHam  P.  Boyle,  who 
married   Annie,   daughter  of  John   B.    Ryan. 

The  next  house,  owned  by  Margaret  Hade,  widow  of 
Michael  Hade,  was  once  the  wing  of  Squire  Bardwell's 
house  on  Main  Street,  moved  to  this  location  in  1868. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Benjamin  Morton  lot,  was  torn 
down  and  a  dwelling  built  by  Alfred  Jubinville  on  the  same 
site.  Mr.  Jubinville  removed  from  Hatfield  and  Smith  E. 
Briggs  now  lives  on  the  place  with  his  sister,  Mary  E. 
Briggs. 

School  Street,  North  Side. 

Crossing  to  the  northerly  side  of  School  Street,  the  first 
house"  is  on  the  Nehemiah  Waite  home  lot.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  George  Sulick.     The  house  was  built  in   1900. 

On  the  Xehemiah  Waite  place,  where  Lewis  Dickinson 
and  sisters  lived,  the  dwelling  which  Mr.  Partridge  called 
the  Richard  Morton  house  remains  standing  and  for  many 
years  was  occupied  by  Joseph  Godin,  who  married  Emily, 
daughter  of  Joseph  Smith.  It  is  now  owned  and  occupied 
bv  Michael  \V.  Kilev,  who  married  Armena  Rohoda  of 
Florence. 

On  the  site  of  the  Jonathan  Dickinson  house,  William 
Hayes  built  a  new  house  in  1898.  He  married  Nellie, 
daughter  of  Nicholas  and  Margaret  Powers.  His  widow 
now  lives  on  the  place. 

The  Elisha  Hubbard  place  is  owned  and  occupied  by 
Michael  Hayes,  who  married  Margaret  A.  Ryan  of  North- 
ampton. A  part  of  the  house  is  rented  to  Thomas  Mul- 
lany,  who  married  Katherine  Higgins  of  Gloucester. 

The  next  house  is  occupied  by  Charles  K.  Morton  and 
his  wife,  who  was  Mary  W.  Kellogg  of  South  Hadley.  He 
was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the 
Civil  war.  The  old  sycamore  tree  is  still  standing  in  front 
of  the  house. 

On  the  Elijah  White  place  was  the  home  of  his  son, 
Daniel,  who  married  Lucy  Elvira,  daughter  of  Josiah  Rice 
of  Conway.  After  his  decease  his  brother,  Quartus,  who 
married  Julia  Ann  Wilkie,  lived  here.  The  widow,  of 
Quartus  also  occupied  the  place.  She  married  (2)  E.  L. 
Dickinson  and  died  in  Hatfield.     Jonathan  E.   Porter  pur- 


318  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

chased  the  place,  tore  clown  the  old  house,  and  built  a  fine 
new  one  in  1907.     He  married  Mary  D.  Smith  of  Hadley. 

The  next  house,  the  home  of  Alpheus  Longley,  was 
occupied  by  Quartus  White  before  he  lived  on  the  last  men- 
tioned place.  Dexter  Jones  afterward  occupied  the  place. 
His  widow,  Emeline  Jones,  now  lives  here. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Silas  Porter  tan  yard,  was  built 
by  his  son,  Theodore  Porter,  in  1824,  and  purchased  by 
Josiah  Allis,  who  married  (1)  Salome  Osborn  of  Hadley, 
(2)  Louisa,  daughter  of  Seth  Bardwell.  Josiah  Allis  had 
by  his  first  wife  Augusta  S.,  who  married  John  D.  Brown, 
and  Harriet,  who  married  James  Morton.  John  Bury  now 
lives  here. 

The  next  is  the  market  and  a  tenement  built  bv  Graves  & 
Pellissier.  It  is  now  owned  by  Louis  J.  Pellissier,  who 
came  from  Hadlev.  He  carries  on  a  successful  meat 
market. 

The  next  and  last  house  on  School  Street  was  built  bv 
Harry  E.  Graves,  who  married  Ella,  daughter  of  Philip 
Carl.  They  now  occupy  the  same.  This  house  stands  on 
the  home  lot  formerlv  of  Dexter  Allis,  deceased. 

Prospf-ct  Street,  East  Side. 

Beginning  on  the  easterly  side  of  Prospect  Street  after 
crossing  Hill  bridge  was  the  home  of  Moses  W.  Kingsley, 
who  married  Rachel  Curtis.  The  house  he  lived  in  has 
been  removed  to  the  foot  of  the  hill  and  is  now  a  part  of 
the  blacksmith  shop.  This  was  once  occupied  by  Henry 
Childs,  a  shoemaker,  who  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  David 
Field  of  Conwav.  A  new  house  was  built  on  the  site  bv 
Scth  \\\  Kingsley,  who  married  Mary  E.,  daughter  of 
Quartus  White.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regi- 
ment, M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war  and  now  occupies  the  place. 

'Jlie  next  house,  on  the  above  home  lot,  was  built  bv 
Herbert  D.  Smith,  who  came  from  Hadley.  He  married 
Lida,  daughter  of  Seth  \\\  Kingsley.  They  now  occupy 
the  place. 

The  next  house,  on  the  same  lot,  was  built  by  Harry  N. 
Hunt,  who  came  from  Hadley  and  married  Harriet,  daugh- 
ter of  Seth   W.    Kingsley.     After   Mr.   Hunt's  decease  the 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  3 19 

widow  returned  to  her  father  and  Henry  F.  Kingsley,  a 
son  of  Moses  W.  Kingsley,  occupies  the  place. 

The  gas  house,  next  to  this  place,  was  built  in  1895. 

The  next  place  was  the  home  of  Lucius  G.  Curtis,  whose 
wife  was  Maria  Frary.  He  was  a  prosperous  broom  maker. 
Both  died  in  Hatfield.  The  place  is  now  owned  and  occu- 
pied by  Lewis  H.  Kingsley,  the  town  clerk  of  Hatfield.  He 
married  Lizzie  J.,  daughter  of  Jonathan  W.  Dickinson  of 
Whately. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Stephen  G.  Curtis,  who  mar- 
ried Mary  Reed  of  Whately.  They  had  two  children,  who 
both  died  in  Hatfield.  It  was  the  home  of  John  E.  Doane 
for  many  years.  His  widow,  Sarah  E.  Sanderson,  married 
John  H.  Sanderson  and  they  lived  there  until  their  death. 
The  place  iS  now  occupied  by  Sanford  L.  Sanderson.  He 
married  Martha,  daughter  of  Chauncey  Davis  of  North 
Amherst.  John  E.  Doane  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d 
Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war. 

The  next  house  was  once  a  store  built  by  Fitch  Brothers 
and  afterward  the  home  of  Edward  Curtis.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  is  a  brick  store  built  by  John  T.  and  George  C. 
Fitch.     It  is  now  occupied  as  such  by  Matthew  J.   Ryan. 

The  next  is  the  lathe  shop  of  J.  E.  Porter  and  Hugh 
McLeod,  and  the  gristmill  of  H.  D.  Smith  on  the  site  of 
the  first  mill  of  Thomas  Meekins.  Harvey  Moore  once  had 
a  gristmill  here,  which  was  burned. 

Across  the  mill  bridge  is  the  gun  shop  of  Maj.  C.  S. 
Shattuck  and  a  storehouse  a  little  to  the  north  of  the  shop. 
This  is  also  the  site  of  the  Prescott  pistol  shop,  which  was 
burned  a  number  of  years  ago.  Before  this  Harvey  Moore 
had  a  sawmill  here  as  did  also  the  Fitch  Brothers  and  it  was 
probably  the  site  of  the  first  sawmill  built  by  Thomas 
Meekins.  The  Bay  State  Screw  Company  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  automobile  supplies  here  in  1909. 

The  next  house,  built  bv  Fred  Cleval,  is  now  owned  bv 
Michael  Wiskjewjcz. 

The  next  is  the  shop  of  Henry  Wilkie,  who  was  a  wheel- 
wright. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Lewis  Dickinson  home  lot,  was 
built  by  William  Szastowickv  in   1905. 


320  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Gabryel  Toezko  and 
Walenty  Jielenski. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1904  by  Patrick  Brennan, 
who  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Thomas  McGrath,  and 
is   now  owned  and  occupied  by  John  Wesaloski. 

Crossing  Chestnut  Street  is  the  site  on  the  corner  of 
Obed  Smith's  store,  which  was  moved  from  the  Alpheus 
Longley  lot  and  remodeled  into  a  dwelling.  It  was  long 
the  home  of  James  Sykes  and  family.  The  house  now  on 
the  lot  is  owned  by  Martin  Wilk. 

The  next  house,  formerly  owned  by  Michael  Boyle,  who 
married  Mary  Ryan,  is  occupied  by  their  son,  James  L. 
Boyle,  who  married  Mary  Donovan  of  Northampton. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  James  Buckley  and  after- 
ward occupied  by  Michael  O'Dea,  whose  wife  was  Mary 
Fitzgerald.  Their  son,  James  L.  Day,  sold  the  place  to 
James  \\  elch,   who  married   Elizabeth  Garvey  of  Hatfield. 

Prospect  Strket,  West  Side. 

On  the  westerly  side  of  Prospect  Street  is  the  home  of 
John  and  Ricka  Wenzel. 

The  next  house,  to  the  south,  was  built  by  John  Sheehan. 
He  died  in  Hatfield.  His  widow,  Ellen,  and  her  son,  Daniel 
P.  Sheehan,  who  married  Mary  Holdfelder,  now-  live  on  the 
place. 

The  next,  a  brick  house,  was  built  by  Anthony  Allaire 
and  afterward  occupied  by  Dennis  P.  McGrath  and  is  now 
owned  and  occupied  by  John  Sheehan,  wdio  married  Mary, 
daughter  of  John  and  Margaret  Ryan. 

The  house  on  the  corner,  occupied  by  negroes,  has  passed 
away  and  the  old  house  on  the  Henry  Wilkie  place,  once 
occupied  by  John  Curtis,  was  burned. 

The  next  house,  built  bv  Henrv  Wilkie,  2d.  who  married 
Sybil  Graves,  was  long  the  home  of  Charles  E,  Wilkie  and 
his  sister,  Charlotte.  After  their  decease  it  was  occupied 
by  the  widow  of  Henry  Wilkie,  3d,  and  her  grandson, 
r^rank,  who  married  Mary  D.  Dwyer  of  Hadley. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Thomas  Frarv,  whose 
wife  was  Sarah  Morton  of  Whately.  Their  son,  Thomas, 
was  a  member  of  Co.  D,  27th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the 
Civil  war  and  died  at  Morehead  Citv,  X.  C.     The  house  is 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  321 

now    owned    by    Frank    Lovett,    who    married    Margaret, 
daughter  of  Nicholas  and   Margaret   Powers. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Lewis  Covell,  whose 
wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Calvin  Marsh  of  Whately. 
■They  had  three  sons  in  the  Civil  war:  Calvin  L.,  Emerson 
L.,  and  Elihu,  all  of  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.  Elihu 
died  of  wounds  received  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  in 
1863. 

The  next  house,  just  north  of  the  brook,  is  the  home  of 
George  Doppmann  and  his  wife,  who  was  Eva  Zollar. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  David  Chapman,  a 
blacksmith.  His  shop,  together  with  a  cider  mill,  was  on 
the  common  in  front  of  the  house  and  was  torn  down.  The 
house  is  now  the  home  of  Frank  Newman. 

The  next  house  across  mill  bridge  was  built  by  Harvey 
Moore  and  was  the  home  of  Levi  Moore  and  John  W. 
Field,  who  was  sergeant  in  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M., 
and  was  killed  in  the  Battle  of  the  Wilderness.  The  place 
is  now  ow^ned  by  John  W.  Kiley,  who  married  Lizzie, 
daughter  of  John  B.  Ryan.  Horace  Shumway  lives  in  a 
part  of  the  house.  His  wife  was  Myra  L.,  daughter  of 
Lemuel  A.  Waite. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Daniel  Lynch,  is  occupied  by 
Lawrence  B.  Waltz,  who  married  Elizabeth  G.  Mulcare  of 
Northampton. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  William  Murphy,  who 
married  Agnes  G.  Mulcare  of  Northampton. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  Arthur  F.  Curtis,  and  after 
his  decease  was  owned  by  Alfred  Breor.  It  is  now  owned 
and  occupied  by  Karol  and  Peter  Zimnowski. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Anthony  Penkoski  and 
wife. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Samuel  P.  Billings  after 
the  old  house  of  Israel  Billings  was  burned.  The  new  house 
was  burned  March  23,  1910.  It  was  owned  and  occupied  by 
Allen  W.  Houghton. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Lemuel  B.  Field,  who 
removed  from  town.  The  place  was  purchased  by  Charles 
E.  Hubbard,  whose  wife  was  Julia  Dayton  of  Northampton. 
He  was  a  member  of  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M. ,  in  the 
Civil  war.     His  widow  still  lives  on  the  place. 


322  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

On  Porter  Avenue,  which  runs  off  from  Prospect  Street, 
the  following  houses  are  owned  by  the  Porter  Machine 
Works:  first  house,  occupied  by  L.  A.  Dube;  second  house, 
by  Albert  Matthews ;  third  house,  by  Joseph  Fox  and  Frank 
Takubiel;  fourth  house,  by  Julius  Kociela  and  William  Fox; 
fifth  house,  by  L.  A.  Schmitter  and  B.  L.  Graves. 

The  house  on  the  other  side  of  Porter  Avenue  was  built 
in  1904  by  Charles  Winter  and  he  occupies  it. 

North  Street. 

Beginning  on  the  northerly  side  of  North  Street,  formerly 
called  Canada  Lane  after  Canada  Waite,  the  redeemed  cap- 
tive, the  first  house  on  the  rear  of  the  Elijah  Dickinson 
home  lot  was  built  in  1906  by  Peter  Celtka  and  John  Jack- 
owski   and   is   now  occupied  by  them. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Justin  Waite.  He 
was  followed  by  his  son,  James  O.  Waite,  who  married 
Louisa  Lyman  of  Easthampton.  Both  died  in  Hatfield. 
The  place  was  afterward  owned  by  John  Burke  and  is  now- 
occupied  by  his  widow,   Mary  Burke. 

The  next  house  is  the  Squire  Bardwell  house,  moved  from 
Main  Street  and  now  occupied  by  William  B.  Langdon,  who 
married  Sarah  Gibbs  of  Ware.  Before  the  house  was  placed 
on  this  lot  Edwin  Brainerd  lived  l\ere  in  a  small  cottage 
house,  and  later  Christian  Carl  and  family  occupied  the 
place.     The  cottage  was  burned. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Charles  Morton,  son  of 
Chester  Morton.  It  was  a  small  house  and  looked  old. 
but  was  not  mentioned  by  Mr.  Partridge.  It  stood  just 
south  of  the  corner  of  King  Street  and  has  been  torn  down. 
Before  this  Benjamin  Morton  had  a  small  house  on  this 
site. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Justin  Hastings.  James 
Breor,  who  married  Bridget  Curtis,  repaired  the  house,  and, 
since  the  decease  of  Mrs.  Breor,  Lawrence  A.  Powers,  who 
married  Mary  A.,  daughter  of  James  Breor,  has  lived  with 
Mr.  Breor. 

'JMic  next  house  was  the  home  of  Arnold  M.  Peck.  The 
house  was  l)urnc(l  and  the  site  is  vacant.  Joseph  Rypka 
now   owns   the   land. 

Just   north   of  tliis  on  tlie  Cow  Bridge  road  w-as  a  small 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  323 

brown  house  occupied  by   Eleazer  Allis  and  afterward  by 
John  Vaile.     This  house  was  torn  down  in  1892. 

The  next  house,  long  the  home  of  William  Bardwell,  who 
married  Sabra  Swift  of  Whately,  was  occupied  by  John  B. 
Ryan.     His  widow  and  son,  John  C.  Ryan,  now  live  here. 

There  is  a  house  on  the  top  of  Clay  hill  built  by  Patrick 
Russell,  which  has  had  many  tenants.  It  is  now  owned 
by  John  C.  Ryan. 

At  the  foot  of  Clay  hill  on  the  southerly  side  of  North 
Street  is  a  small  cabin,  which  was  occupied  by  William 
Boyle,  on  land  of  the  heirs  of  William  H.  Dickinson.  It 
is  now  occupied  by  Polish  tenants. 

The  house  opposite  the  Langdon  place  was  the  hom.e  of 
Chester  \forton  and  was  occupied  by  Edwin  Brainerd, 
whose  mother  married  Chester  Morton,  as  his  second  wife. 
Afterward  the  place  was  purchased  and  repaired  by  Fred- 
erick Carl,  who  married  Mary  Partenheimer.  They  now 
live  here. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  George  Waite.  He 
married  Melissa  Preston  of  Granby.  Both  died  in  Hat- 
field. Their  son,  Henry  L.,  lived  here  until  he  removed 
to  Hadley.  Edwin  Brainerd  lived  here  until  his  decease, 
as  did  his  widow,  Julia,  the  daugter  of  Russell  Waite.  The 
place  is  now  occupied  by  James  L.  Bardwell,  who  married 
Grace  Webber,  daughter  of  Albert  and  Emma  D.  Webber. 
Two  sons  of  George  Waite  were  in  the  Civil  war:  Charles 
P.  Waite  in  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  who  died  at 
White  Oak  Church,  Va.,  and  John  E.  in  Co.  K,  52d  Regi- 
ment, M.  V.  M. 

The  next  house  is  a  tenement  belonging  to  the  heirs  of 
William  H.  Dickinson,  occupied  by  John  Merrick,  who  mar- 
ried Annie  Heafey  of  Whately. 

The  next  house  is  the  birthplace  of  Oliver  Smith,  and 
formerly  stood  on  Main  Street.  It  is  now  occupied  by  Jacob 
and  Charlotte  Geis. 

The  next,  the  old  home  of  William  H.  Dickinson,  is  now 
owned  by  his  heirs  and  occupied  by  tenants. 

King  Street. 
Beginning  on   the  northerly  side  of   King  Street  at  the 


324  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

corner  of  Main  Street,  the  first  house  was  built  by  Frank 
Lampron  and  is  now  the  home  of  James  and  Mary  Ryan. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Eldric  Gongeou;  afterward 
purchased  and  repaired  by  Edward  Proulx.  It  is  now  used 
as  a  tenement. 

The  next  place  was  the  home  of  John  Leary.  This  was 
a  part  of  the  old  town  hall  moved  from-  Main  Street.  The 
place  was  burned  in  1900,  and  his  son,  John  F.  Leary,  built 
the  present  house  the  next  year,  and  now  occupies  it.  He 
married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Richard  Phillips  of  Whately. 

John  O'Neil  built  the  next  house  and  after  his  decease 
it  was  occupied  by  John  J.  Breor,  who  sold  it  to  Alfred  H. 
Breor.     It  is  now  used  as  a  tenement. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  John  Goodchild  and  after- 
ward rebuilt  by  Hamilton  Dickinson.  It  is  now  occupied 
by  Louis  Murray  and  his  son,  Louis  Murray,  Jr. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  George  Gowash  in  1909. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Louis  Murray  and  is  now 
owned  by  Joseph  Gowash,  who  married  Mr.  Murray's 
daughter. 

On  the  southerly  side  of  King  Street  the  first  house  was 
the  home  of  Joseph  Pockett,  who  removed  from  Hatfield. 
It  was  long  the  home  of  John  and  Mary  Burke.  It  is  now 
owned  by  Alex  and  Agnes  Koziasz. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  William  Burke  and  is  now 
the  home  of  William  F.  Boyle,  who  married  Anna  Quinn 
of  Whately. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  William  Boyle  and  is  now 
the  home  of  Patrick  J.  Boyle,  who  married  Mary,  daughter 
of  Marble  Hamel. 

Bridge  Street. 

Beginning  on  the  northerly  side  of  Bridge  Street  in  front 
of  the  Shattuck  gun  shop,  the  first  house  w-as  built  by 
Thomas  Dinsmore  and  his  son,  Almeron  L.  Both  removed 
from  Hatfield  and  this  place  was  long  the  home  of  John 
Smith.  After  his  decease  his  widow  and  sons,  John  and 
Adam,  occupied  the  place.  Alvin  D.  Dinsmore,  son  of 
Thomas,  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.. 
in  the  Civil   war. 

The  next   house   was  built  by  Anthony  Allaire,   a   brick- 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  325 

maker,  and  it  is  now  the  home  of  John  H.  and  Ellen 
Ryan. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Henry  Wade  and  is  now  the 
home  of  Joseph  E.  Stoddard,  who  married  Margaretta 
Doppmann. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Jewski  in  1905.  This 
is  just  before  the  mill  swamp  is  crossed. 

Crossing  the  Connecticut  River  Railroad,  the  first  house 
was  the  home  of  Thomas  Cutter,  who  was  followed  by 
his  son,  James  Alonzo  Cutter.  Both  died  in  Hatfield. 
The  place  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  William  R.  Cutter,  who 
married  Mary  A.  Dickinson  of  Hadley. 

The  next  house,  a  double  one,  was  built  by  Alvin  L. 
Strong  for  his  sons,  Edson  W.,  who  married  Harriet  Bard- 
well,  and  Eugene  S.,  who  married  Anna  Knight. 

Crossing  the  street  to  the  southerly  side  in  returning,  the 
first   building   is    the    West    Hatfield    chapel. 

The  next  house,  built  by  J.  D.  Cutter,  was  purchased 
by  Chester  Hastings,  who  lived  here  with  his  son,  Ephraim. 
After  this  it  was  the  home  of  Philip  Carl,  who  married  Min- 
nie, daughter  of  John  Smith,  and  their  son,  John  S.  CarL 
It  is  now  occupied  by  J.  M.  Towne  and  his  wife,  Magdelene. 

The  next  house  is  the  tenement  of  the  Connecticut  River 
Railroad  Company,  which  was  the  Alonzo  Dennis  house. 

Across  the  bridge  is  the  house  built  by  Frederick  Wagner, 
now  the  home  of  John  S.  Denlein,  who  married  Margaret 
Lohr.  A  short  distance  east  of  this  house  is  the  road  which 
formerly  ran  to  the  south  on  the  line  of  the  Charles  E. 
Wilkie  land,  where  the  house  of  Henry  Wilkie,  Sr.,  stood, 
and  ran  into  the  present  road  on  the  John  Allis  lot. 

The  next  house,  the  home  of  John  Allis,  was  purchased 
by  Horatio  Strong,  who  married  Sarah  Elwell  of  West- 
hampton;  he  was  a  soldier  in  the  War  of  1812.  His  son, 
Parmenus  Strong,  lived  here  with  him  until  they  removed 
to  West  Hatfield.  The  old  house  has  been  torn  down  and 
a  new  one  built  by  the  present  owner,  Michael  W.  Boyle, 
who  married  Annie  MuUaly  of  Whately. 

Chestnut  Street. 

Beginning  at  the  foot  of  Stone  Pitts,  on  the  northerly 
side  of  Chestnut  Street  is  the  house  once  stawdm^  oxv  \Jcv^ 


326  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

site  of  Smith  Academy,  once  the  home  of  Camilas  and 
Frederick  Chapin,  and  then  of  Daniel  W.  Allis.  It  was 
afterward  moved  to  the  lot  of  St.  Joseph's  Church  and  used 
as  a  rectory,  and  again  moved  to  the  present  site  by  E.  S. 
Warner  and  used  as  a  tenement. 

The  next  house,  on  the  top  of  Stone  Pitts  hill,  was  built 
by  Jacob  Jandziejszki  in  1907,  and  is  now  occupied  by  him. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  David  Landry  in  1904. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Frank  J.  Safler  in  1905, 
and  is  now  occupied  by  him.  He  married  Connie  Dopp- 
mann. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Peter  Tolpo. 

The  next  house  across  the  Deerfield  road  is  now  occupied 
by  Margaret  O'Neil. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Samuel  Osley  and  was  the 
old  Pratt  house  owned  by  James  Mullins  and  moved  to  this 
site. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  John  and  Anna  Foosick. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Joseph  Schepp,  who  married 
Elizabeth  Merte.  The  place  is  now  occupied  by  Fred  \V. 
Schepp,  their  son. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  B.  Schepp  and  is  now 
owned  and  occupied  by  Paul  and  Beningna  Wirgilewicz. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Antoine  Wickles  in  1908 
and  is  now  the  home  of  his  family. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Peter  Balise.  He  now  lives 
here  with  his  son,  Paul  Balise,  who  married  Selina  Rohoda 
of   Florence. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Robert  McGrath.  He  died 
in  Hatfield  and  his  widow  and  two  son?>  now  live   here. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Michael  Whalen,  who  re- 
moved from  town,  was  the  home  of  John  Holdfelder 
and  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Frank  Vollinger, 
who    married     Mary    Lokary    of    Northampton. 

The  next  house  northerly  from  the  above  on  the 
old  road  to  the  depot  was  built  by  James  Ormand. 
It  was  afterward  the  home  of  John  May,  who  married  Marv, 
daughter  of  Henry  Stcnglein.  He  died  in  Hatfield  and  his 
widow  married  John  F.  Betsold.  They  now  occupy  the 
place. 

The  next  house,  on  the  old  depot  road  was  built  by  Henry 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  327 

Stenglein.  He  and  his  wife  both  died  in  Hatfield.  His  son. 
John  J.  Stenglein,  who  married  Margaret  Sitz  of  Northamp- 
ton, now  occupies  the  place.  The  road  across  the  Hastings 
pasture  is  of  recent  date.  The  shop  on  this  place  was  once 
the  home  of  John  Betsold. 

Coming  back  to  the  new  road  is  the  home  of  George 
Vollinger  at  the  crest  of  Mill  Swamp  hill.  The  road 
through  the  swamp  has  been  known  from  earliest  times  as 
"Middle  Going  Over."  The  bridges  are  old  but  the  fill 
is  of  comparatively  recent  date. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Vollinger  and  is  now 
occupied  by  himself  and  son,  John,  who  married  Elizabeth 
Sitz  of  Northampton. 

The  next  house  across  the  railroad  was  built  by  Patrick 
Boyle.  He  died  in  Hatfield.  His  sons,  John  L.  and  Wil- 
liam E.,  now  live  on  the  place.  John  L.  married  Bridget, 
daughter  of  Jerry  Heafy  of  Whately.  There  was  once  a 
pail  factory  on  this  site,  also  a  steam  sawmill. 

Crossing  to  the  southerly  side  of  the  street,  the  first 
house  was  built  by  Pliny  Billings,  son  of  Abraham;  later 
owned  by  George  I.  Dickinson,  who  married  Sophia,  daugh- 
ter of  Moses  Morton.  It  was  afterward  owned  by  Adam 
Doppmann,  who  died  in  Hatfield.  The  present  occupant 
is  his  son,  Lorenze  Doppmann,  who  married  Eva  Betsold. 
On  this  lot  near  the  railroad  Adam  F.  Doppmann  built  a 
new  house  in  1907.  He  married  Carrie  Hilbert  of  Hat- 
field. 

On  the  easterly  side  of  the  railroad  formerly  stood  the 
Hatfield  depot  until  removed  farther  south  to  its  present 
location. 

The  next,  the  EInathan  Hastings  place,  was  purchased  by 
Patrick  Daly,  and  was  his  home  for  several  years.  It  is 
now  occupied  by  Peter  Denlein,  who  married  Margaret, 
daughter  of  Adam  Doppmann.  Peter  Denlein  built  a  house 
on  the  site  of  the  old  one. 

The  next  place,  called  the  Pratt  house,  was  purchased 
of  William  Hurley  by  James  MuUins,  who  married  Kate, 
daughter  of  Patrick  Boyle.  The  old  house  was  removed 
by  Samuel  Osley  and  Mr.  Mullins  built  the  new  house  and 
now  lives  here. 

The  next  house  was  built  bv  Matthew  Xolan.     He  died. 


328  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

and    his    widow    and    daughter,    Mary    A.,    who    married 
Michael  O'Dea,  now  occupy  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Janies  Nolan,  whose  wife 
was  Mary  Fitzgerald.  Both  died  in  Hatfield.  The  place 
is  now  owned  by  their  son,  Thomas  A.  Nolan,  who  built 
the  new  house  just  east  of  the  old  one.  He  married  (1) 
Bridget  Boyle,  and  (2)  Annie  L.  Keefe  of  Hadley.  The 
old  house  is  occupied  by  Joseph  Schepp,  who  married  Mary 
Hilbert. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Kiley.  It  is  now 
occupied  by  his  widow  and  her  family. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Nicholas  Powers,  who  mar- 
ried (1)  Margaret  Cooney,  and  (2)  Margaret  Ryan,  widow 
of  John  Ryan.  Nicholas  Powers  died  in  Hatfield,  and  his 
widow  now  lives  on  the  place. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  John  Wilk  and  wife. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Sebastian  Meyer  and  wife. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Koskrete  Kiakoski  and 
wife. 

The  next  house  is  the   home  of  John   Lizork  and  wife. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Eugene  Bushee  and  pur- 
chased by  Anthony  Nowak. 

West  Street,  West  Side. 

Beginning  on  the  west  side  of  West  Street,  or  Pantry 
road,  at  the  Northampton  line,  the  first  house  was  the 
home  of  Nathan  Gould,  a  member  of  Co.  C,  52d  Regiment, 
M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war;  afterward  the  home  of  James 
Sykes  and  purchased  later  by  David  B.  Curtis  of  Co.  F, 
37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  Lewis  Sykes, 
son  of  James,  was  a  member  of  the  1st  Connecticut  Battery 
in  the  Civil  war.  The  house  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by 
Melvin  Dennis,  who  came  from  Northampton. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  F.  Fitch;  afterward 
occupied  by  E.  A.  Dickinson  and  Austin  Abels  and  his  son, 
Nathaniel.  Mary  A.  Abels,  daughter  of  Austin,  married 
Alonzo  Sweet  and  lived  here.  The  place  was  then  pur- 
chased by  Melvin  P.  Bradford,  who  married  Louisa,  daugh- 
ter of  E.  S.  Munson  of  Whately.  They  now  live  on  the 
place. 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  329 

Turning  westerly  on  the  road  to  the  sawmill  of  Alvin 
L,  Strong  once  stood  the  home  of  Lorenz  Seitz  on  what 
is  now  Mr.  Bradford's  land.  Mr.  Seitz  was  a  member  of 
Co.  F,  37th  Regimtent,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  He 
removed  to  Amherst  and  the  house  is  no  longer  standing. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  near  the  sawmill  is  the 
house  built  by  Daniel  Gould ;  afterward  the  home  of  Joseph 
Stadter,  who  died  in  Hatfield.  Lewis  Casten,  who  married 
Emma  Steele,  lived  here  and  it  is  now  owned  by  Alexander 
Donnis. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  William  Miller  and  is  now 
the  home  of  William  Casten,  who  married  Ricka  Miller. 

On  what  is  now  the  home  lot  of  John  M.  Strong  was 
a  small  house  that  Parmenus  Strong  lived  in  when  he 
removed  from  the  John  Allis  house.  On  the  corner  of 
West  Street  is  the  house  built  by  E.  Phelps  Billings,  who 
was  killed  by  an  accidental  discharge  of  his  gun  at  the 
corner  of  the  sawmill  yard.  Parmenus  Strong,  who  mar- 
ried Miranda,  daughter  of  Thomas  Frary,  purchased  the 
place  and  greatly  repaired  the  house.  His  son,  John  M. 
Strong,  who  married  (1)  Olive  Bardwell  of  Whately,  and 
(2)  Addie  Cleveland,  now  occupies  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Lorenzo  D.  Cutter;  after- 
ward occupied  by  C.  C.  P.  Bardwell,  then  Amariah  Strong, 
then  J.  C.  Melendy,  then  E.  A.  Howard,  and  now  owned 
by  John  J.  and  Eva  Betsold. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Albert  Pease;  next, 
owned  by  Henry  Dwight,  who  married  Flora  Field.  He 
built  a  new  house  on  the  site  and  it  was  occupied  for  many 
years  by  his  son,  Silas  S.  Dw^ight,  who  married  Isabelle 
L.  Parsons. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Mrs.  Alonzo  Dennis. 
Alonzo  Dennis  was  a  member  of  Co.  B,  31st  Regiment, 
M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  He  died  at  Fort  Jackson,  La. 
He  lived  in  the  Abraham  Billings  house  on  the  corner,  on 
the  chapel  site. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Isaac  Sampson  in  1840; 
afterward  the  home  of  James  Howes  from  Ashfield;  then 
owned  by  Anthony  Bolack,  a  member  of  Co.  B,  31st  Regi- 
ment, M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  He  died  at  Brasche  City, 
La.     This  place  was  for  some  time  the  home  of  Johu  Sva\\.Vv 


330  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

and  wife,  Minnie.  He  died  in  Hatfield  and  .the  family 
removed  to  Springfield.  The  place  is  now  owned  by  Joseph 
Gollier. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  Casten.  It  was 
later  occupied  by  Andrew  Hilbert  and  is  now  the  home  of 
his  widow,  Margaret  Hilbert.  A  small  schoolhouse  was 
once  on  or  near  this  site. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  C.  P.  Bardwell  near  the  mill 
pond  and  afterward  moved  to  its  present  location  by  Frank 
Newman.  It  is  now  owned  by  Lorenze  Doppmann  and  used 
as  a  storehouse. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  Miller  and  sold  to 
the  Casten  family.  It  is  now  owned  and  occupied  by 
George   Stenglein,   who  married   Margaretta  Steele. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Smith,  and  is  now  the 
home  of  Joseph  Kleasner,  who  married  Anna  Merte. 

The  next  house  at  the  foot  of  "The  Rocks"  was  built  by 
Frank  Steele.  His  widow,  Mary,  and  their  son,  John,  who 
married  Grace  Mayer,  live  on  the  place.  The  next  house 
was  built  by  Rowland  Stebbins,  who  married  Marilla  W. 
Harris.  His  sons,  Judson  and  Segar,  were  in  the  Civil  war. 
Judson  was  in  Co.  C,  10th  Regiment,  M.V.M.  He  died  at 
Alexander,  Va.  Segar  was  in  Co.  G,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M. 
This  place  was  afterward  the  home  of  Oliver  Graves  of 
Whately,  who  married  (1)  Electa  Frary,  and  (2)  Lusylvia, 
daughter  of  Ebenezer  Clapp.  It  is  now  owned  and  occupied 
by  George  Bitner,  who  miarried  Anna  Chandler. 

The  next  house,  supposed  to  have  been  built  by  Samuel 
Bartlett,  was  occupied  by  Charles  D.  Bartlett  and  his  father, 
Samuel;  afterward  by  John  Ryan.  It  was  then  repaired 
and  occupied  by  Joseph  S.  Newman,  who  married  Emma 
M.,  daughter  of  Peter  Saffer. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Thomas  Frary,  and  then  owned 
by  Patrick  Ryan,  who  removed  to  Hadley,  has  been  torn 
down   by   the   heirs   of   Edmund   Powers. 

The  next  house  was  built  and  is  now  occupied  by  Charles 
Casten,  wlio  married  Anna  Chandler. 

W'kst  Strkkt,  East  wSide. 

Crossinj^  to  the  easterly  side  of  the  street  the  first  house 
is  t]ic  K()(lolj)hus  (iraves  place.     He  married  Luthera  Par- 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  33  J 

tridge  of  Rockingham,  Vt.  The  place  was  afterward  pur- 
chased by  Patrick  Ryan,  who  sold  it  to  Edmund  Powers, 
who  married  Mary  Ryan.  They  both  died  in  Hatfield. 
Their  daughter  Kate,  who  married  Peter  J.  Donovan  of 
Whately,  and  her  sister,  Mary  A.  Powers,  now  live  on  the 
place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Ebenezer  Clapp  who  came 
from  Deerfield  before  1830.  He  married  (1)  Sally  Clapp 
of  Deerfield  and  (2)  Abigail  Anderson.  The  place  was 
purchased  by  Peter  SafTer,  one  of  the  first  Germans  to  settle 
in  Hatfield.  With  his  wife,  Johannah,  he  now  lives  on  the 
place. 

The  next  house  built  by  Lyman  Hastings,  was  afterward 
the  home  of  Erasmus  Orcutt,  then  of  John  Betsold.  It  is 
now  owned  by  his  son,  Frank  J.  Betsold,  who  married 
Emma   Denlein. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Lawrence  Vollinger,  is  now  the 
home  of  George  Steele,  who  married  Mary  Betsold.  The 
property  is  owned  by  the  New  Haven  and  Northampton 
Company. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  Chandler  and  is 
occupied  by  his  sons,  George  Chandler,  who  married  Bar- 
bara Rosecup,  and  Joseph  Chandler,  who  married  Minnie 
Maher  of  Florence. 

The  next  house,  built  by  John  Kempkes,  was  the  home  of 
Adam  Doppmann,  who  married  Barbara  Vollinger.  This 
house  was  burned  and  the  site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  house  was  formerly  the  home  of  George  Vol- 
linger and  his  widow,  Sidonia.  It  is  now  the  home  of 
Lawrence  Vollinger  and  his  son,   Lawrence,  Jr. 

The  next  place  was  the  home  of  Daniel  Downing,  who 
removed  to  Goshen;  afterward  owned  by  Austin  Abels  and 
his  son,  Nathaniel ;  also  by  Frank  J.  SafTer.  It  is  now  occu- 
pied by  George  Dippolt,  who  married  Connie  GolHer.  On 
this  same  lot  was  once  a  house  built  by  Lyman  Hastings. 
The  building  was  burned  and  the  site  is  vacant. 

The  next  is  the  schoolhouse  built  in  1861.  The  second 
story   was   built   at    a    later   date. 

The  next  house,  built  by  A.  M.  Richmond  and  afterward 
occupied  by  John  M.  Strong,  is  now  owned  by  John  J. 
Betsold  and  occupied  by  tenants. 


322  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD, 

The  next  house,  on  the  corner,  was  built  by  one  Crandall; 
afterward  the  home  of  George  W.  Smith.  Obed  Smith 
also  lived  here.  Dea.  Alvin  L.  Strong,  who  married  Anna 
B.  Searle  of  Huntington,  next  owned  and  repaired  the 
place.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M., 
in  the  Civil  war,  and  now  occupies  the  place. 

The  next  house,  where  the  chapel  now  stands,  was  the 
home  of  Abraham  BilHngs.  Alonzo  Dennis  moved  the 
house  across  the  railroad  where  it  is  now  the  railroad 
tenement,  occupied  by  the  station  agent,  Silas  S.  Dwight. 

The  River  Ro^vd  in  Bradstreet. 

Beginning  on  the  easterly  side  of  the  Deerfield  road  in 
Bradstreet,  at  the  southerly  end  of  the  street,  the  first  house 
was  built  by  Reuben  Belden  of  Whately  about  1845.  His 
son,  Dea.  Reuben  H.  Belden,  who  married  Sarah,  daughter 
of  J.  C.  Loomis  of  Whately,  lived  with  him.  They  all  died 
in  Hatfield.  The  son  of  Dea.  Reuben  H.  Belden,  William 
H.  Belden,  who  married  Emma  Eaton,  now  occupies  the 
place. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Reuben  Belden,  was  occupied 
by  Austin  S.  Jones,  who  married  Electa,  daughter  of  Reu- 
ben Belden.  Since  their  decease  their  daughters,  Anna  B., 
who  married  (1)  Dr.  Alonzo  Lewis,  and  (2)  Edwin  H. 
Eldridge,  and  Emma  L.,  who  married  Rudolph  Weber,  have 
occupied  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Francis  Mosher.  He  mar- 
ried Jane,  daughter  of  Herrick  Anderson.  His  widow  and 
daughter,  Mary  Mosher,  now  live  here.  Miss  Mary  Mosher 
is  postmistress  and  keeps  the  office  in  the  dwelling.  There 
is  a  small  tenement  house  on  the  lot  just  south  of  the  house. 

On  the  road  leading  into  the  meadows  there  is  a  house 
built  by  Charles  W.  Marsh  used  as  a  tenement. 

East  of  this  is  a  house  built  by  Oscar  Belden  and  sons  and 
used  as  a  tenement. 

The  next  place  on  the  Deerfield  road  belonged  to  Solo- 
mon Mosher,  where  he  built  a  two-story  house.  He  mar- 
ried (1)  Elvira  Belden  of  Whately  and  (2)  Lucy,  daughter 
of  Reuben  Belden.  This  place  was  once  occupied  by  Mrs. 
James  Fisk,  and  was  burned.  .  The  site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  place  was  the  Gkkow  Dickinson  house.     A  new 


REMINISCENXES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  333 

house  was  built  here  by  Solomon  Mosher;  afterward  occu- 
pied by  Leander  Cooley ;  next  by  John  W.  Field ;  then  by  John 
W.  Morton  and  Horace  W.  Field.  It  is  now  occupied  by 
Reuben  Belden,  who  married  Nellie,  daughter  of  Leonard 
Stearns  of  Conway. 

On  the  next  lot  is  a  tenement  house  set  back  from  the 
street,  owned  by  Gilbert  E.  Morton,  There  is  also  another 
tenement  owned  by  Sarah  R.  Wight,  and  to  the  north  a 
shop  which  stood  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  and 
was  the  home  of  Lewis  Harris  before  Joseph  E.  Wight 
bought  the  farm. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  street,  beginning  at  the  Whately 
line,  is  the  home  of  the  last  survivor  of  the  Revolutionary 
war  who  lived  in  Hatfield,  Joseph  Guild.  This  was  the 
home  of  Aretus  Scott;  afterward  occupied  by  Richard  T. 
Morton,  2d.  It  is  now  occupied  by  his  daughter,  Mrs. 
Celia  Duesler. 

The  next  place  is  the  David  Turner  house,  once  occupied 
by  John  W.  Field,  who  married  Julia  Warren  of  Williams- 
burg; afterward  the  home  of  Henry  G.  Moore,  who  married 
(1)  Electa,  daughter  of  Austin  S.  Jones,  and  (2)  Myra, 
daughter  of  Lyman  Parsons  of  Northampton. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  O.  Stanley  Graves,  who 
married  Martha,  daughter  of  Abel  W.  Nash  of  Whately. 
This  house  was  moved  to  its  present  location  from  the 
Calvin  B.  Marsh  place  at  the  south  end  of  the  street  and 
repaired  by  Mr.  Graves. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Mrs.  Adeline  A.  Marsh  and 
after  her  decease  owned  by  John  Foley. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Archie  P.  Graves  in  1900. 
He  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Alfred  H.  Harris.  They 
now  live  on  the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Edwin  Harris,  who  came 
from  Dover,  N.  H.  He  was  a  carpenter.  He  married 
Caroline  E.,  daughter  of  Aretus  Scott.  Both  died  in  Hat- 
field and  their  son,  Arthur,  lived  here  until  killed  by  a  bolt 
of  lightning  while  in  the  hay  field.  He  was  followed  by  his 
son,  Alfred  H.,  whose  widow,  Estelle  S.  Harris,  and  family 
now  occupy  the  place. 

The  next  place,  the  Thaddeus  Scott  place,  was  occupied 
by   James   Scott,   who   married   Lucy,   daughter   of   Aretus 


334  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Scott.  He  was  followed  by  Samuel  Graves;  then  by  Euro- 
tas  Morton,  who  married  ( 1 )  Anna  Stockbridge  of  VVhately. 
and  (2)  Fidelia  Adkins.  Their  son,  Gilbert  E.  Morton,  who 
married  Nellie,  daughter  of  Charles  A.  Jones,  now  lives  on 
the  place. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1868  by  Joseph  E.  Wight, 
who  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Rodolphus  Rice  of  Con- 
way. He  died  in  Hatfield,  and  his  widow  still  lives  on  the 
place  with  her  son,  Leland  H.  Wight,  who  married  Blanche 
Howard  of  Putney,  Vt.  Lewis  Harris  had  a  home  here 
in  the  old  house,  now  across  the  street. 

The  next  house  was  built  in  1905  by  Charles  D.  Harris, 
who  married  Estelle  Eastman  of  Amherst.  It  is  now  occu- 
pied by  Howard  E.  Belden,  son  of  William  H.  Belden. 
who  married  Anna  E.,  daughter  of  Howland  Belden. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  A.  Jones  in  1867. 
He  married  (1)  Mary  Smith  of  Hadley,  and  (2)  Carrie 
Phillips  of  Ashfield.  After  his  decease  the  place  was  pur- 
chased by  Clarence  E.  Belden,  who  married  Nellie  Maud 
Snow  of  Providence,  R.  I. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Reuben  Belden  and  was  the 
home  of  Joseph  H.  Knight,  who  married  (1)  Diana,  daugh 
ter  of  Reuben  Belden,  and  (2)  Caroline  Warren  of  Wil- 
liamsburg. The  place  was  afterward  the  home  of  Reuben 
Belden,  2d.  The  house  was  burned  and  the  site  is  now 
vacant. 

The  next  place  had  a  house  built  by  Reuben  Belden  and 
occupied  by  Calvin  B.  Marsh,  who  married  (1)  Hannah, 
daughter  of  Reuben  Belden,  and  (2)  Eliza  W.  Graves  of 
Whately.  Mr.  Marsh  sold  the  first  house  to  O.  Stanley 
Graves  and  built  a  large  new  house.  He  was  followed  bv 
his  son,  George  C.  Marsh,  who  married  (1)  Maria  Russell 
of  Hadlev  and  (2)  Tulia  Clark  of  Easthampton.  The  house 
was  burned  and  the  site  is  now  vacant.  The  land  is  owned 
hv   Frank   P.    Jones. 

Dkpot  Road  ix  Bradstreet. 

On  the  rc^ad  leading  to  the  railroad  station  on  the  south- 
erly side  is  the  Sanford  S.  Belden  place,  occupied  by  his 
son,  Dea.  Oscar  Belden.     He  built  the  present  house  in  1863 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL  W.   WELLS.  335 

and  married  Harriet,  daughter  of  George  Stearns  of  Con- 
way. Mrs.  Oscar  Belden  died  in  Hatfield  and  a  son, 
George  S.  Belden,  who  married  (1)  Nellie  Carl  and  (2) 
Emma  Adams  of  Wilmington,  Vt.,  now  occupies  the  place 
with  his  father. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  Leslie  R.  White.  The  house 
was  burned  and  rebuilt  by  Dea.  Oscar  Belden  and  used 
as  a  tenement. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  Austin  S.  Jones.  This  was 
burned  and  rebuilt  by  Charles  A.  and  Frank  P.  Jones,  and 
is  now  occupied  by  tenants. 

On  the  next  lot  was  a  tenement  made  of  the  ell  of  the 
Dea.  Reuben  H.  Belden  house  in  1865.  This  was  burned 
and  the  site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Oscar  E.  Belden  in  1900. 
He  married  Emma  Luce  of  Northampton.  They  now 
occupy  it. 

The  next  place  was  the  Solomon  Morton  place,  occupied 
by  his  son,  Richard  T.  Morton.  It  was  afterward  the  home 
of  Alvin  Hall,  who  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Reuben 
Belden;  then  the  home  of  Charles  D.  Bartlett,  who  married 
Lavinia,  daughter  of  Amaziah  Langdon.  The  house  has 
been  torn  down.  The  land  is  now  owned  by  Ashley  L. 
Cooley  of  Orange,  who  married  Alice,  daughter  of  Charles 
D.  Bartlett. 

The  house  on  the  road  to  the  plain  was  the  home  of 
Eli  Thayer;  then  of  one  Dane;  then  of  David  Powers,  who 
rebuilt  the  house  after  it  had  been  burned.  He  now  occu- 
pies the  place. 

James  Cronan  once  had  a  house  on  the  top  of  the  hill, 
on  the  plain.     It  has  been  removed. 

The  next  house  built  by  Walter  Field,  who  came  from 
Leverett,  was  afterward  occupied  by  his  son,  Horace  W. 
Field,  who  married  (1)  Elizabeth  M.  Hillman  and  (2) 
Caroline  Harris.  Edwin  W.  Field,  son  of  Horace  and 
Elizabeth,  who  married  Sarah  Hall  of  Pittsfield,  now  occupies 
the  place  with  his  son.  Samuel  H.  Field,  who  married  Alice 
Clark  of  Northampton. 

The  next  is  the  Dennis  Cooley  place.  He  married  (1) 
Melvina  Moore  and  (2)  Rosilla  Howes.  He  removed  to 
Springfield,  and  the  place  was  afterward  occupied  by  Martin 


336  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Lyons.  It  is  now  owned  by  Harry  W.  Marsh- and  used  as 
a  tenement.  Myron  D.  Cooley,  son  of  Dennis,  was  a  mem- 
ber of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war. 

The  next  house  was  occupied  by  Lysander  Cooley,  who 
married  Rhoda  Dennis  of  Woodstock,  Vt.  Their  adopted 
son,  Whitney  F.  Cooley,  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regi- 
ment, M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  The  place  is  now  occupied 
by  Charles  H.  Waite,  who  married  Lucy  Sanderson  of 
Whately. 

The  next  is  the  Eleazer  Cooley  house.  He  died  in  Hat- 
field and  the  place  is  now  occupied  by  his  widow,  who  was 
Melissa  J.   Stoddard   of   Templeton. 

On  the  northerly  side  of  the  street  is  the  brick  house, 
the  home  of  Lemuel  Cooley.  After  his  decease  it  was 
occupied  by  his  son,  Leander,  who  married  Louisa  Beebe. 
The  place  is  now  owned  by  John  Brennan. 

The  next  place  is  the  Abner  Field  home.  He  removed 
to  Leverett,  and  was  followed  by  William  Field.  The 
place  is  now  owned  by  Edwin  W.  Field  and  occupied  by 
George  Englehart. 

The  next  place,  the  old  red  house,  was  the  first  home  of 
Walter  Field  and  family;  afterward  the  home  of  Franklin 
Field,  who  married  Alma  Scott.  The  place  is  now  owned 
by  Edwin  W.  Field. 

The  next  house  is  a  tenement  built  by  Edgar  H.  Field. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Edwin  Eaton ;  afterward 
of  Foster  C.  Anderson,  who  married  Clara  Vining.  It  is 
now  owned  by  Henry  H.  Field,  who  married  Myra  Wade 
of  Northampton.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  H,  37th  Regi- 
ment, M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  His  son,  Edgar  H.  Field, 
who  married  Jessie  Ingram  of  South  Deerfield,  now  occu- 
pies the  place. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Albert  H.  Marsh,  who 
married  (1)  Emma,  daughter  of  Caleb  Dickinson  and  (2^ 
Clarissa  J.,  daughter  of  Hiram  Anderson.  It  is  now  occu- 
pied by  him. 

The  next  place  was  the  Capt.  Calvin  Marsh  home,  in  a 
one-story  red  house.  The  present  house  was  built  by  his 
sou,  Elihu  Marsh,  who  married  (1  )  Mary  Ann  Warren,  and 
(2)  Elvira  Ehvell,  and  (3)  Adeline  A.  Eaton.  All  died  in 
Hatfield,    and    his    son,    Charles    W.    Marsh,    who    married 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  337 

Alice,  daughter  of  Chester  K.  Waite  of  Whately,  followed 
him.  It  is  now  occupied  by  Harry  W.,  son  of  Charles  W., 
who  married  Minnie,  daughter  of  George  A.  Billings. 

On  the  next  lot  was  the  old  house  of  Capt.  Calvin  Marsh, 
which  was  burned.  Reuben  Mosher  also  lived  here.  Frank 
P.  Jones  built  the  present  house  and  now  occupies  it  with 
his  wife,  who  was  Fanny,  daughter  of  Samuel  B.  White 
of  Whately. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Dwight  D.  Bartlett,  who  married 
Louisa,  daughter  of  Lemuel  Cooley,  is  now  the  home  of 
Walter  H.  Langdon,  who  married  Cora,  daughter  of  Edwin 
Eaton.  On  this  lot  is  a  tenement  which  was  once  the 
wood  house  on  the  Sanford  S.  Belden  place. 

The  next  is  the  brick  schoolhouse  built  in  1874,  after  the 
wooden  one  was  burned. 

West  Brook. 

On  the  plain  road  toward  West  Brook  is  the  home  of 
John  Karen,  who  now  occupies  the  same  with  his  son,  John. 

On  the  westerly  side  of  the  street  in  West  Brook  is  the 
house  built  by  James  and  Michael  Clancy.  Both  are 
deceased,  and  the  place  is  owned  by  John  J.  Slattery  and 
occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Edmond  Bird.  It  was 
afterward  occupied  by  his  son,  Niles  Bird;  later  the  home 
of  John  Fitzgibbon.  After  his  decease  it  was  occupied,  by 
his  sons,  John  T.  and  Dennis,  with  their  sister,  Margaret 
Fitzgibbon. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Horace  Waite,  who  married 
(1)  Julia  Robinson  and  (2)  Mary  Bridgman.  His  son, 
William  R.  Waite,  was  a  member  of  Co.  B,  32d  Regiment, 
M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war,  and  was  killed  before  Petersburg. 
The  place  is  now  occupied  by  John  J.  Slattery,  who  married 
Anna,  daughter  of  John  Fitzgibbon. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  W.  Wolfram  and 
is  occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Joseph  R.  Abbott,  who 
married  Minerva  Frary.  He  was  killed  by  the  cars  while 
attending  to  his  duties  as  station  agent  at  North .  Hatfield. 
Three  of  his  sons  were  soldiers  in  the  Civil  war:  James  H. 
Abbott  in  Co.  C,   10th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  killed  at  Spott- 


338  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

sylvania,  Va. ;  Lyman  R.  Abbott  in  Co.  A,  27th  Regiment, 
M.V.M.;  Richard  B.  Abbott  in  Co.  A,  27th  Regiment,  M.V.M. 
This  place  was  afterward  the  home  of  Philip  Jubenville. 
He  was  a  blacksmith  and  his  shop  now  stands  a  short 
distance  south  of  the  house.  This  was  the  old  schoolhouse 
moved  to  this  place.  The  Abbott  house  is  the  one  near 
the  railroad.  Mr.  Jubenville  built  a  large  new  house, 
which  was  burned.  He  removed  from  Hatfield,  and  Henrv 
W.  Wolfram,  who  married  Bertha,  daughter  of  Theodore 
Baggs,  built  the  house  now  standing  on  the  site. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Elijah  A.  Graves  and  his 
widow,  who  was  Julia  A.  Hart,  married  Heman  Belden  and 
lived  there.  It  is  now  the  home  of  Luman  S.  Crafts,  who 
married  Lavinia,  daughter  of  Herrick  Anderson.  She  is 
deceased  and  he  lives  with  his  son,  Edson  S.  Crafts,  who 
married  Lisette  Schneider  of  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Carlton  H.  Crafts,  who 
married  Cora  L.,  daughter  of  Charles  R.  Crafts.  They  now 
occupy  the  place. 

The  next  place  was  built  by  Sylvanus  Crafts,  who  married 
Caroline  A.,  daughter  of  Henry  Smith.  It  was  then  occu- 
pied by  J.  Wesley  Waite,  who  married  Fanny  O.,  daughter 
of  Theodore  Morgan;  afterward  by  Charles  Potter,  who 
married  Frances  Wrisley.  They  are  both  deceased.  Wil- 
liam P.  Connelly,  who  married  Mary  Lee  of  South  Deer- 
field,  now  occupies  the  place. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  was  a  house  built 
by  Rufus  M.  Swift  and  occupied  by  Edward  C.  Waite,  which 
was  burned,  and  a  new  house  built  by  Charles  R.  Crafts, 
who  married  Lizzie  C,  daughter  of  Reuben  Crafts  of 
Whately.  Charles  R.  Crafts  was  captain  of  Co.  G,  21st 
Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war,  and  he  and  his  wife 
now   occupy   the   place. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Daniel  Vining,  who  married 
Clarissa,  daughter  of  Lemuel  Cooley.  Bojh  are  deceased. 
The  next  occupant  was  Thomas  Hanrahan,  who  removed 
from  town.     The  place  is  now  owned  by  Frank  Sadovvsky. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Leavitt  and  Orphronia 
Vining.  They  had  two  sons  who  were  soldiers  in  the  Civil 
war;  John  H.  Vining  in  Co.  F,  37th  Regiment,  M.V.M. , 
who  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  from  wounds  received  at 


REMINISCENCES   OF    DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  339 

Cold  Harbor,  Va.,  in  1864;  and  Oliver  S.  Vining  of  Co.  F, 
37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.  The  place  was  afterward  occupied 
by  Henry  Manchester,  whose  wife  was  Susan  Vining;  then 
by  Stephen  Knapp,  Sylvanus  Crafts,  and  Henry  Wedemeier. 
It  was  later  the  home  of  Edward  Flynn  from  Whately. 
After  his  decease  it  became  the  home  of  his  widow,  who 
was  Catherine,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Margaret  M.  Gar- 
vey. 

The  next  house  is  now  the  home  of  John  Natovitz.  This 
is  the  J.  R.  Abbott  house,  moved  to  this  place  by  Philip 
Jubenville,  where  he  lived  a  short  time  after  his  dwelling 
was  burned. 

Across  the  railroad  is  the  house  formerly  occupied  by 
Lemuel  A.  Waite,  who  married  Louisa  Dickinson  of 
Whately.  They  removed  to  Main  Street  and  were  followed 
by  one  Hosford,  then  by  John  and  Christiana  Wenzel.  It 
is  now  occupied  by  John  Bokum. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  W.  Wolfram  and 
occupied  by  his  daughter,  who  married  John  K.  Holt.  On 
this  lot  was  a  small  house,  the  home  of  Dwight  Morton, 
who  was  a  member  of  Co.  C,  10th  Regiment,  M.V.M. ,  in 
the  Civil  war.     The  house  has  been  torn  down. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Justus  Morton,  son  of 
Dea.  Levi  Morton  of  Whately.  He  married  Lydia  Allis 
of  Whately.  They  died  in  Hatfield.  The  place  was  after- 
ward occupied  by  Jerome  E.  King,  a  member  of  Co.  F, 
37th  Regiment,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war;  then  owned  by 
Harvey  Moore,  Charles  W.  Wolfram,  and  Smith  E.  Briggs, 
and  now  by  Leon  Zaksesky. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Charles  W.  Wolfram  and 
is  now  occupied  by  his  daughter  Mary,  who  married  George 
O.    Whitcomb. 

The  next  house  was  built  bv  Charles  W.  Wolfram  and 
occupied  by  E.  S.  Wayne,  who  removed  from  town.  It  is 
now  owned  by  Stephen  Omasta,  who  married  Christine 
A'damec. 

Pantry  Road  ix  West  Brook. 

On  the  easterly  side  of  the  Pantry  road  is  a  house  built 
by  Herrick  Anderson  for  his  son,  Charles:  afterward  owned 
by  Josephus  Crafts  and  occupied  by  J.  Wesley  Waite,  Rich- 


340  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

ard  B.  xAbbott,  and  John  C.  Field,  then  owned  by  Willis 
Holden,  now  by  his  son,  Harry  R.  Holden,  who  married 
Anna,  daughter  of  Charles  W.  Wolfram. 

Across  the  street  to  the  south  was  the  home  of  LeW 
Graves,  who  married  Bathsheba,  daughter  of  Jeremiah 
Graves  of  Whately.  Their  son,  Henry  R.  Graves,  married 
Laura,  daughter  of  Benjamin  Tufts.  Henry  R.  Graves 
rebuilt  the  house  on  the  same  site.  His  daughter,  Hattie 
M.,  married  George  M.  Donalson  and  they  now  live  on  the 
place. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Herrick  Anderson. 
He  married  Clarissa  Bisbee.  Both  died  in  Hatfield.  The 
place  w-as  afterward  purchased  by  Daniel  Garvey,  who  mar- 
ried Margaret,  daughter  of  Patrick  Daly  of  Hatfield.  It 
is  now  owned  by  Stephen  Vachula. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Ebenezer  C.  Anderson, 
son  of  Herrick.  He  married  Minerva  N.  Belden  of  Ash- 
field.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment,  M.V.M., 
in  the  Civil  war  and  died  at  Baton  Rouge,  La.  His  w^dow 
made  this  her  home  until  her  decease.  It  is  now  occupied 
by  their  son,  George  Anderson. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Luther  Wells,  who  mar- 
ried Elizabeth  Smith  of  Greenfield.  Their  sons,  Charles 
and  Luther,  both  died  here,  leaving  large  estates.  Eliza- 
beth and  Augusta,  daughters  of  Luther  Wells,  Sr.,  made 
their  homes  here  until  their  decease.  The  place  is  now 
owned   bv   Paul    Holic. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Charles  W.  Wolfram,  is  his 
home,  with  his  son,  William  W.,  who  married  Alida  Maew- 
right.  Across  the  street  is  a  tenement  of  Charles  W. 
Wolfram,  and  to  the  south  of  it  is  the  two-story  brick 
schoolhouse  built   in   187L 

Across  the  West  Brook  bridge  was  the  Phineas  Bennett 
home,  afterwMrd  called  the  Larrabee  place.  This  has  been 
torn  down.     Edward  N.  Dickinson  now  occupies  the  land. 

The  next  house,  called  the  Nathaniel  Frary  house,  was 
occupied  by  his  cliildren.  The  daughter,  Sophronia,  who 
was  the  widow  of  David  D.  Gardner,  was  the  survivor. 
After  her  decease  the  place  was  ])urchased  by  Timothy  J. 
Slattery    of    Northampton;    then    occupied    by    Edward   N- 


REMINISCENCES   OF   DANIEL   W.   WELLS.  341 

Dickinson  and  followed  by  George  McKeon.  The  house 
was  burned  in  1908  and  the  site  is  now  vacant. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Aaron  and  Caleb  Cooley 
Dickinson.  After  the  decease  of  Caleb  Cooley,  who  founded 
the  Dickinson  Hospital  in  Northampton,  his  brother  David, 
who  married  Dorothy,  daughter  of  John  Brown  of 
Whately,  lived  and  died  here.  His  son,  Champion  B., 
followed.  He  married  Martha  Richtmyre.  He  was  fol- 
lowed by  his  son,  Edward  N.  Dickinson,  who  married 
Elvira  McKeon.  The  house  was  burned  and  a  new  one 
built  by  Edward  N.  in   1907. 

The  next  house  on  the  location  of  the  sawmill  and  husk- 
mill  was  built  by  Edward  Waite;  then  owned  by  Lemuel 
Cooley,  Solomon  Mosher,  Kitridge  and  Dutton,  Andrew 
Dutton,  George  and  Dwight  Dickinson  and  Francis  G. 
Bardwell,  who  married  Martha  E.,  daughter  of  Otis  Moore 
of  Whately.  He  built  the  present  dwelling,  the  former 
house  having  burned.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  D.,  52d 
Regt.,  M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war.  His  widow  now  lives  on 
the  place. 

Across  the  bridge  on  the  Whately  line  is  the  house  built 
by  Russell  Waite,  who  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Daniel 
Morton  of  Whately.  After  their  decease  the  place  was 
owned  by  David  Fitzgerald,  who  removed  to  Boston,  and 
it  is  now  occupied  by  tenants. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  Harris  Waite  for  Oliver 
Vining;  afterward  the  home  of  George  Russell,  who  mar- 
ried Mary  O.,  daughter  of  Harris  Waite.  Later  it  be- 
longed to  Reuben  Mosher,  who  married  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Herrick  Anderson.  It  is  now  the  home  of 
Cornelius   and   Kate   Murphy. 

Across  the  railroad  is  the  store  and  dwelling  built  by 
Ezra  M.  Martin,  and  now  occupied  by  George  H.  Danforth. 
The   North   Hatfield  post  office  is  kept  here. 

The  next  house  is  owned  by  the  Connecticut  River  Rail- 
road company  and  is  occupied  by  the  station  agent,  Wil- 
liam  1,   Bishop,  who   married   Mary  Parsons. 

Straits  Road. 

The  next  house,  on  the  Straits  road,  is  the  home  of  Wil- 
liam Coffey  and  family. 


342  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

The  next  house  was  the  home  of  Thomas  O'Hara.  He 
removed  from  town.  The  house  was  burned  and  the  site 
is  now  vacant.     The  land  is  owned  by  Luman  S.  Crafts. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  George  PfeiflFer  and 
family. 

The  next  house  is  the  home  of  Dennis  Reagon  and 
family.     This  was  formerly  the  home  of  John  Saverzopf. 

South  of  the  Aaron  Dickinson  house  on  the  Pantry  road, 
the  first  house,  built  by  Henry  Knights,  is  now  owned  and 
occupied  by  George  P.  Graves,  who  married  Nellie  M.. 
daughter  of  Edward  E.  Sanderson  of  Whately.  On  this 
site  Edward  A.  Stockbridge  built  a  house,  which  was 
burned. 

The  next  house  was  built  by  John  H.  Vining,  w^hose  wife 
was  Clarissa  Wilcox.  It  was  afterward  occupied  by  Fred 
Vining,  who  married  Laura  C.  Manchester,  and  it  is  now 
the  home  of  Hiram   Graves. 

The  next  house,  built  by  Reuben  Mosher,  was  the  home 
of  Morris  Fitzgibbons  until  his  decease.  His  daughters 
now  live  on   the  place. 

The  next  house,  on  the  easterly  side  of  the  highway, 
called  the  Michael  Tobin  place,  was  afterward  occupied 
by  William  Richtmyre,  who  married  Jane  GrifTeth,  later 
by  Henry  A.  Wilder,  and  is  now  owned  by  Albert  A. 
Xickerson. 

DANIEL    W.    WELLS. 


III.— THE    HISTORY   OF    THE    RELIGIOUS 

SOCIETIES. 

The  Congregational  Society. — Freedom  from  division. — The  pastors. — 
The  deacons. — Missionary  spirit. — The  present  church  building. — The  revival 
of   1850. — Changes  in  the  manner  of  worship.— Organizations. — Statistics. 

St.  Joseph's  Parish. — Difficulties  of  the  Catholic  pioneers. — Holding  of 
services  in  Hatfield. — The  first  altar. — Building  the  church. — The  pastors. 

The  Congregational  Society. — Much  of  the  early  history  of 
the  Congregational  Church  has  already  been  given  in  con- 
nection with  the  growth  of  the  town.  Hatfield  has  had  only 
one  Protestant  church  and  that  has  fortunately  been  free 
from  strife  that  led  to  divisions.  The  spread  of  Unitarianism 
in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century  caused  a  few  to 
**sign  off"  from  support  of  the  church,  but  no  attempt  was 
made  to  form  another  society  and  many  whose  views  were 
Unitarian  continued  to  worship  under  Dr.  Lyman  and  his 
successors.  The  church  has  had  as  attendants  many  who 
were  allied  with  other  denominations  and  not  a  few  of  them 
have  united  with  it.  In  1844-1846  meetings  were  held  by 
some  Methodists  in  the  town  hall,  but  no  society  was 
formed. 

The  first  records  of  the  church  that  have  been  preserved 
date  back  only  to  1772 — the  church  book  of  Dr.  Lyman. 
No  book  of  parish  records  separate  from  those  of  the  church 
was  kept,  at  least  none  has  been  preserved,  till  1876,  the 
time  when  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods  began. 
The  first  parish  was  organized  in  1830  and  thereafter  the 
church  received  no  aid  from  the  town.  The  ministers  of  the 
church  have  been  as  follows : — 

Rev.  Hope  Atherton,  ordained  1670;  died  June  8.  1677. 

Rev.  Nathaniel  Chauncey,  installed  1683;  died  Nov.  4,  1685. 

Rev.  William  Williams,  ordained  1686;  died  Aug.  31,  1741. 

Rev.  Timothy  Woodbridge,   ordained  as  colleague    Nov.   14,    1739;   died 

June  3,  1770. 
Rev.  Joseph  Lyman,  D.D.,  ordained  Mar.  4,  1772;  died  Mar.  27,  1828. 
Rev.  Jared  B.  Waterbury,  installed  as  colleague  Jan.  10,  1827;  dismissed 

Feb.  24,  1829. 
Rev.  Levi  Pratt,  ordained  June  23,  1830;  dismissed  May  9,  1835. 
Rev.  Henry  Neill,  ordained  Apr.  16,  1840;  dismissed  Apr.  15,  1846. 
Rev.  Jared  O.  Knapp,  installed  Dec.  11,  1850;  dismissed  Apr.  10,  1855. 
Rev.  John  M.  Greene,  D.D.,  ordained  Oct.  20,  1857;  dismissed  Feb.  17, 

1868. 


344  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Rev.  William  L.  Bray,  installed  Jan.  12,  1869 ;  dismissed  Nov.  22,  1869. 
Rev.  John  P.  Skeele,  installed  May  4,  1870;  dismissed  Apr.  29,  1873. 
Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods,  D.D.,  ordained  Nov.  21,  1877;  died  June  19,  1909. 
Rev.  Irving  A.  Flint,  engaged  as  stated  supply  Feb.  1,  1910. 

The  list  of  deacons  is  as  follows,  probably  not  complete 
for  the  first  one  hundred  years,  as  the  names  have  to  be 
gathered  from  incidental  reference  to  them  in  the  town 
records : — 

Edward  Church,  appointed  (probably)  1670;  died  Sept.  19,  1704. 

John  Coleman,  appointed  (probably)  1670;  died  Jan.  22,  1712. 

Samuel  Marsh,  appointed  (probably)  1704;  died  Sept.  7,  1728. 

John  White,  appointed  (probably)  1712;  died  Nov.  13,  1750. 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  appointed  (probably)   1726;  died  1745. 

Nathaniel  White,  appointed  (probably)  1/35 ;  died  Feb.  IS,  1742. 

Samuel  Bodman,  appointed  (probably)   1735. 

John  Hubbard,  appointed  (probably)   1746;  died  Sept.  4,  1778. 

John  fielding,  appointed  (probably)   1746;  died  1758. 

John  Smith,  appointed  (probably).  1750. 

Simeon  Waite,  appointed  (probably)  1764;  became  deacon  in  the  Whately 

church  in  17/1. 
Elijah  Morton,  elected  Nov.  25,  1772;  died  Oct.  5,  1798. 
William  Williams,  Esq.,  elected  Nov.  25,  1772;  died  Mar.  1,  1808. 
Obadiah  Dickinson,  elected  Apr.  8,  1773 ;  died  June  24,  1788. 
Jonathan  Porter,  elected  May  23,  1785 ;  died  Apr.  25,  1833. 
Lemuel  Dickinson,  elected  May  23,  1785;  left  town  about  1806. 
Cotton  Partridge,  elected  Feb.  28,  1799;  died  Nov.  13,  1846. 
Benjamin  Morton,  elected  Jan.  7,  1807 ;  died  Feb.  4,  1810. 
Moses  Warner,  elected  Mar.  1,  1810;  died  Aug.  1,  1828. 
Joseph  fiillings,  elected  Oct.  30,  1817;  died  May  23,  1850. 
Rufus  Cowles.  elected  Aug.  31,  1827;  died  Feb.  6,  1840. 
George  W.  Hubbard,  elected  July  10,  1849 ;  resigned  Aug.  30.  1870. 
Erastus  Cowles,  elected  Aug.  28,  1850;  resigned  Sept.  11,  1861. 
James  Porter,  elected  Sept.  11,  1861 ;  resigned  Apr.  4,  1875. 
Alpheus  Cowles,  elected  Oct.  21,  1869;  resigned  Apr.  4,  1875. 
Caleb  Dickinson,  elected  Oct.  21,  1869;  resigned  Apr.  4,  1875. 
James  Porter,  re-elected  Apr.  8,  1875;  resigned  Dec.  18y  1889.  ^ 
Alpheus  Cowles,  re-elected  Apr.  8,  1875;  resigned  Dec,  29,  1886. 
Jonathan  S.  Graves,  elected  Apr.  8,  1875;  di^  Feb.  27,  1883.^' 
Daniel  W.  Wells,  elected  Apr.  8,  1875 ;  resigned  Dec.  29i  1891..  • 
Oscar  Belden,  elected  Apr.  5,  1883. 

George  A.  Billings,  ejected  Dec.  29,  1886;  resigned  Dec  19,  1894.' 
Henry  S.  Hubbard,  elected  Dec.  18,  1889;  died  Aug.  26,  1908. 
Joseph  S.  Wells,  elected  Dec.  29,  1891 ;  resigned  Dec.  21,  1892. 
Daniel  W.  Wells,  re-elected  Dec.  21.  1892. 
Alvin  L.  Strong,  elected  Dec.  30.  1896. 
George  A.  Billings,  re-elected  Dec.  30,  1908. 

The  church  has  long  been  Jcnown  as  a  missionary  church. 
Dr.  Lyman  was  one  of  the  first  presidents  of  the  American 
Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign  Missions,  1823-1826. 
Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods  was  connected  by  marriage  with  the 
Fairbank  family,  which  has  furnished  many  members  who 
have  devoted  their  lives  to  service  in  India.  During  his 
pastorate  $38,000  were  expended  in  benevolences.     Contri- 


THE   RELIGIOUS   SOCIETIES.  345 

»utions  for  both  home  and  foreign  missionary  work  have 
Iways  been  generous. 

The  present  house  of  worship  was  built  in  1849,  while  the 
hurch  was  without  a  pastor.  In  1867  the  vestry  was  added 
nd  an  organ  loft  built  and  the  present  organ  put  in  place. 
The  parlors  were  built  in  1891.  The  next  year  extensive 
aterior  repairs  were  made,  the  galleries  were  changed  and 
lew  seats  and  stained-glass  windows  were  put  in.  The 
lock  was  placed  in  the  belfry  in  1898.  The  Woods  memo- 
ial  window  was  placed  in  the  front  of  the  church  in  1909. 
t  is  a  copy  of  Hoffmann's  celebrated  painting  "Behold  I 
itand  at  the  Door  and  Knock."  The  south  memorial  win- 
ow  is  to  Dr.  Joseph  Lyman,  whose  services  extended  over 

period  of  56  years.  On  the  window  opposite  are  inscribed 
he  names  of  the  other  ministers  who  died  at  their  posts, — 
lev,  Hope  Athertpn,  Rev.  Nathaniel  Chauncey,  and  Rev. 
Villiam  Williams. 

A  great  revival  occurred  in  the  church  in  1850  under  the 
reaching  of  the  evangelist,  Rev.  J.  D.  Potter.  The  church 
/as  at  that  time  without  a  settled  pastor.  At  the  August 
ommunion  one  hundred  stood  in  the  broad  aisle  to  be 
eceived  into  the  fellowship  of  the  church.  It  was  the  most 
owerful  revival  in  all  its  history.  At  its  beginning  in  the 
pring  people  said,  "It  is  impossible  to  have  a  revival  now, 
»^hen  planting  time  is  coming  on."  Nevertheless,  the  whole 
3wn  was  soon  deeply  stirred  and  the  services  were  largely 
ttended. 

The  Scriptures  were  not  read  in  meeting  during  the  first 
)ur  pastoratejs.  The  custom  was  introduced  by  Dr.  Lyman 
1  1812.  The  weekly  "lecture  day,"  usually  Thursday,  was 
digiously  observed  by  all  the  church  members  from  the 
rst  organization  of  the  church.  It  was  an  afternoon  service 
t  which  the  people  listened  to  the  exhortation  of  the  pastor; 
2ed  time  and  harvest  were  no  excuse  for  non-attendance, 
^rayer  and  conference  meetings  in  which  laymen  took  part 
id  not  appear  till  about  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
)r.  Lyman  found  them  helpful  in  his  work,  though  at  the 
eginning  of  his  ministry  he  was  opposed  to  the  movement 
nd  said,  "I  will  not  allow  such  wild  fire  in  my  parish." 
'here  was  no  responsive  reading  of  the  Psalms,  no  repeating 
i  the  Lord's  Prayer  or  of  the  Apostles'  Creed  till  the  nine- 


346  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

teenth   century.     Regular   midweek   prayer  meetings   were 
instituted  by  Mr.  Neill  about  1840. 

The  Sunday  school  was  started  about  1830  and  the  Young 
People's  Society  of  Christian  Endeavor  in  1885.  The  La- 
dies' Benevolent  Society  was  started  in  the  '40's  and  has  been 
very  helpful  in  organizing  and  directing  the  charitable  work 
among  the  women  of  the  parish.  It  became  an  auxiliary 
of  the  Women's  Home  Missionary  Association  in  1881.  The 
Real  Folks,  organized  in  1869,  is  an  important  factor  in  the 
social  and  benevolent  activities  of  the  church.  A  Men's 
Club  was  formed  in  1904.  The  women  of  the  church  are 
organized  for  foreign  missionary  work  as  an  auxiliary  of  the 
Woman's  Board  of  Missions.  The  children  were  interested 
in  missionary  work  in  the  '60's  by  the  formation  of  a  band 
of  Gleaners,  which  later  became  the  Wide-Awakes. 

The  statistics  of  membership  reported  by  the  clerk  at  the 
annual  meeting  in  December,  1909,  were:  Males,  102;  fe- 
males, 162;  total,  264;  non-resident,  i7.  The  membership 
has  been  well  kept  up,  though  the  native  American  popula- 
tion of  the  town  has  shrunk  25  per  cent,  or  more.  The 
largest  number  on  the  rolls  of  the  church  in  recent  years  was 
in  1892,  when  there  were  319. 

St.  Joseph's  Parish. — The  first  settlers  of  the  Catholic  faith 
in  Hatfield  labored  under  extreme  difficulties.  There  were 
no  churches  or  priests  of  their  order  nearer  than  Greenfield 
and  manv  times  when  sick  calls  came  it  was  necessarv  for 
some  one  to  walk  to  that  town  to  secure  assistance.  An 
instance  is  recorded  where  a  man  set  out  at  eleven  o'clock  at 
night  to  secure  the  services  of  a  priest.  He  covered  the 
distance  of  sixteen  miles  in  less  than  two  hours,  so  it  is  said. 
It  was  in  the  spring  and  a  flood  was  running  high.  On  the 
trip  from  Greenfield  the  priest  had  to  drive  through  water  so 
deep  that  it  reached  the  body  of  the  carriage,  but  he  reached 
the  bedside  in  time  to  administer  the  rites  of  the  church. 

As  the  Catholic  population  increased  after  the  immigra- 
tions of  the  '40's,  churches  became  more  numerous.  The 
Hatfield  Catholics  belonged  at  first  to  St.  Mary's  parish  in 
Northampton.  They  were  faithful  in  their  attendance  at 
the  services,  though  many  were  obliged  to  make  the  trip  on 
foot.  By  1879  there  were  over  500  French,  German,  and 
Irish  \n  the  town  of  Hatfield  and  thev  desired  to  have  serv- 


THE   RELIGIOUS    SOCIETIES.  347 

ices  held  in  their  midst.  Those  who  were  most  active  in  the 
matter  were  Michael  Larkin,  Bridget  Kelly,  and  Mrs.  Lorenz 
Doppmann.  In  the  fall  of  1879  an  entertainment  was  given 
in  the  town  hall  to  raise  funds,  in  charge  of  a  committee 
consisting  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  J.  Ryan,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Thomas  Nolan,  Mrs.  Peter  Denlein,  and  Mary  Proulx.  It 
was  so  successful  that  about  $200  was  cleared.  The  Protes- 
tants of  the  town  also  took  great  interest  in  the  entertain- 
ment and  the  efforts  of  their  fellow-townsmen  to  have  a 
place  of  worship  for  themselves.  Academy  Hall  was  placed 
at  their  disposal. 

One  cold,  stormy  night  in  December,  Michael  Larkin 
brought  up  from  Northampton  an  altar,  and  with  the  help 
of  neighbors  set  it  up  in  Academy  Hall.  The  next  day, 
which  was  Christmas,  mass  was  said  by  Rev.  Michael  J. 
Barry  of  Northampton,  and  thereafter  once  each  month  a 
service  was  held  in  the  hall.  After  him  Rev.  John  Kenney 
of  Northampton  was  in  charge  of  the  parish,  holding  services 
in  Hatfield  twice  a  month,  attended  by  between  two  and 
three  hundred  people. 

A  subscription  fund  for  a  church  building  was  started  in 
1891.  It  was  a  propitious  time,  as  that  year  and  the  next 
were  among  the  most  prosperous  years  that  the  Hatfield 
farmers  had  enjoyed.  By  that  time  many  of  the  Catholics 
had  acquired  farms  of  their  own  and  were  successful  in  the 
management  of  them.  Nearly  $2,000  were  raised.  The 
subscription  committee  was  John  McHugh,  Jr.,  treasurer; 
John  Doppmann,  Michael  Boyle,  Peter  Saffer,  and  John  T. 
Slattery.  Labor  for  grading  and  laying  the  foundations  was 
given  by  the  parishioners  to  the  amount  of  about  $600,  the 
comrnittee  in  charge  of  this  work  being  John  McHugh,  Jr., 
chairman;  James  Mullins,  and  Peter  Saflfer.  St.  Joseph's 
Church  was  built  in  1892,  the  first  service  was  held  in  it  New 
Years  day,  1893,  and  it  was  dedicated  the  next  day  by 
Bishop  Beaven  of  Springfield.  It  was  considerably  enlarged 
in  1905.     The  parish  house  was  built  in  1907. 

In  the  summer  of  1895  Hatfield  and  Deerfield  were  made 
one  parish  under  the  care  of  Rev.  R.  S.  J.  Burke  of  South 
Deerfield,  who  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  M.  O'Sullivan.  Dur- 
ing the  pastorate  of  Father  Burke  two  fairs  were  held,  in 
1896   and    1897.    to    reduce    the   debt,   about   $1,200    U^\w% 


348  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

cleared.  In  January,  1899,  Hatfield  was  made  a  separate 
parish  and  Rev.  Charles  J.  Boylan  was  settled  as  the  first 
resident  pastor.  He  had  previously  held  pastorates  in  Ox- 
ford and  Pittsfield.     Under  him  the  parish  had  a  remarkable 


growth  in  numbers,  wealth,  and  influence.  In  April.  1909, 
he  was  transferred  to  All  Souls'  Church  in  Springfield  and 
was  succeeded  by  Kev.  William  1'".  l'"oley.  who  had  previ- 
ously been  pastor  in  Wiliiamstown  and  in  Springfield.     The 


THE   RELIGIOUS    SOCIETIES.  349 

latter  has  made  many  improvements  in  the  buildings  and 
grounds,  has  installed  a  new  altar,  and  is  raising  funds  for 
a  new  organ.  There  are  two  choirs,  senior  and  junior,  under 
the  direction  of  Miss  Maude  E.  Boyle.  The  parishioners 
number  nearly  1,300.  A  great  change  has  come  over  the 
membership  of  the  parish  in  the  last  ten  years  or  more.  The 
first  communicants  were  Irish,  French,  and  German,  but  of 
late  the  number  of  Poles  has  greatly  increased,  so  that  they 
comprise  nearly  half  of  the  parish,  and  are  desirous  of  having 
a  house  of  worship  of  their  own  and  a  priest  who  speaks 
their  own  language. 

An  interesting  event  in  the  history  of  St.  Joseph's  Church 
was  the  celebration  of  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  Father 
Boylan's  elevation  to  the  priesthood,  which  was  held  Jan.  5, 
1904.  After  the  entertainment  at  dinner  at  the  church  of 
thirty  visiting  clergymen,  public  exercises  were  held  in 
Academy  Hall,  largely  attended  by  Protestants  as  well  as 
Catholics.  Music  was  furnished  by  Jackson's  orchestra  and 
the  choir  of  St.  Joseph's  Church.  The  history  of  the  parish 
was  related  by  John  McHugh,  Jr.,  and  addresses  were  made 
by  Rev.  John  Kenney  of  Northampton ;  for  the  town  and  its 
officers  by  Matthew  J.  Ryan,  Daniel  W.  Wells,  and  Charles 
L.  Graves;  in  behalf  of  the  young  people  by  William  E. 
Ryan ;  and  by  Rev.  Robert  M.  Woods,  pastor  of  the  Congre- 
gational Church.  In  the  absence  of  Dennis  P.  McGrath, 
who  was  ill,  Mr.  Woods  presented  to  Father  Boylan  a  large 
purse  and  silverware  as  a  token  of  the  regard  of  those  the 
latter  had  ministered  to. 


1V._THE    SMITH    FAMILY    AND    THE    INSTITU- 
TIONS   FOUNDED    BY    THEM. 

Two  members  of  the  Hatfield  Smith  family,  descendants 
of  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Hadley, 
have  become  famous  through  the  legacies  they  left  for  char- 
itable and  educational  purposes. 

Oliver  Smith,  youngest  son  of  Lieut.  Samuel  and  Mary 
(Morton)  Smith,  was  born  in  Hatfield,  Jan.  20,  1766.  His 
mother  was  left  a  w^dow  when  he  w^as  but  a  year  and  a  half 
old.  The  family  was  in  only  moderate  circumstances.  It  is 
said  that  Oliver  received  on  coming  of  age  land  valued  at 
$500  as  his  share  of  his  father's  estate.  He  was  shrewd  and 
frugal  and  before  he  was  thirty  had  acquired  a  comfortable 
fortune.  He  never  married.  He  had  only  limited  educa- 
tional opportunities,  but  was  possessed  of  a  good  deal  of 
native  w  it.  He  was  a  thoughtful  and  taciturn  man,  not  very 
popular  with  his  neighbors,  who  called  him  eccentric.  His 
integrity  was  unquestioned.  His  religious  sentiments  were 
Unitarian.  In  politics  he  was  at  first  a  Jefferson  Democrat, 
but  after  the  election  of  Levi  Lincoln  as  governor  of  Massa- 
chusetts, a  Whig.  His  sympathy  was  with  the  middle  class 
and  he  had  a  democratic  contempt  for  pomp  and  parade. 
He  was  not  a  seeker  after  public  office,  but  he  twice  repre- 
sented his  town  in  the  state  Legislature,  1827-1828,  and  was 
a  member  of  the  convention  that  in  1820  revised  the  consti- 
tution of  Massachusetts.  He  w^as  a  presidential  elector  in 
1824  and  voted  for  John  Quincy  Adams. 

As  a  business  man,  Oliver  Smith  was  unusually  successful. 
He  was  economical  to  the  point  of  parsimony.  His  first 
accumulations  were  made  in  the  business  of  fattening  cattle. 
As  Ills  wealth  increased  he  invested  in  mortgages,  but  never 
lield  title  to  large  amounts  of  real  estate.  He  always  pre- 
ferred safe  investments  at  a  small  profit  to  great  risks  with 
tlie  ho])e  of  larj^e  gains.  In  later  life,  taught,  so  it  is  said, 
l)y  Austin  Smith,  he  was  highly  successful  in  operations  in 
the  New  ^'ork  stock  market,  which  he  visited  in  person 
often.  He  was  lonj.;  a  director  of  "the  old  bank"  in  Xorth- 
nnijnon. 


SMITH   FAMILY   INSTITUTIONS.  35] 

At  his  death,  Dec.  22,  1845,  he  left  an  estate  valued  at 
nearly  $400,000.  His  will,  of  which  extracts  are  given  in  the 
Appendix.  Note  11.  was  a  most  remarkable  document.  It 
provided   for  a   unique   charity  which   has   grown   into   the 


institution  known  as  the  Smith  Charities,  the  resources  of 
which  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  April  30,  1909,  were 
$1,470,806  and  which  distributes  annually  over  $50,000  for 
the  various  charities  named  in  the  will.  The  heirs-at-law 
made  a  contest  on  the  ground  that  one  of  the  witnesses. 


352  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Theophilus  Parsons  Phelps,  was  incompetent  on  account  of 
insanity.  They  engaged  Rufus  Choate  as  their  lawyer,  while 
the  will  was  defended  by  Daniel  Webster  in  one  of  the  most 
renowned  legal  controversies  ever  witnessed  in  the  Connecti- 
cut valley.  The  case  came  up  before  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court  at  Northampton,  July  6,  1847.  Two  days  w;ere  occu- 
pied in  hearing  the  arguments.  The  courthouse^  Wi9,s  crowded 
to  overflowing.     The  verdict  sustained  the  will. 

The  system  of  charities  devised  by  Oliver  Smith  was  put 
in  operation  in  1859/  .  The  iutld  for  the  Agfricultural  School 
became  available  fbr  that  lise^^in  1905  arid  $50,000  were 
turned  over  to  the  city  of  Northampton  for  the  purchase  of 
land  for  the  purpose.  The  Smith's  School  was  opened  for 
students  in  1908  along^ the  lines  laid  down  by  the  founder. 
$261,000  of  the  AgricultUfal  Fund  remain  in  the  hands  of  the 
trustees  of  the  Smith  Charities/ the  income  of  which  is  used 
for  the  maintenance  qf  .the  school. 

Sophia  Smith,  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Lois  (White) 
Smith,  was  born  in  Hatfield,  Aug.  27,  1796.  She  was  a  niece 
of  Oliver  Smith. ,  In  her  youth  the  education  of  girls  was 
considered  of  slight  importance.  They  were  not  allowed  to 
recite  with  the  boys,  but  might  sit  on  the  doorstep  of  the 
schoolhouse  to  hear  them  recite.  In  this  way  Sophia  Smith 
picked  up  crumbs  of  knowledge  beyond  what  the  Vdanie 
school''  she  attended  bestowed.  She  had  as  a  child  a  thirst 
for  knowledge,  a  studious  and  teachable  disposition.  At 
fourteen  she  attended  school  for  a  term  of  twelve  "Weeks  in 
Hartford,  Conn.,  and  at  eighteen  was  enrolled  as  a  student 
at  Hopkins  Academy  in  Hadley,  but  did  not  x^mplete  the 
course. 

Dr.  Joseph  Lyman  had  a  gjeat  influence  upon  the  early, 
formative  years  of  her  life.  She  had  an  unbounded  admira- 
tion for  his  character  and  received  help  and  inspiration  from 
his  teaching.  Though  she  considered  that  she  became  a 
Christian  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  she  did  not  unite  with  the 
church  till  she  was  thirty-eight  because  most  of  her  family 
were  l^niiarians,  though  they  attended  Dr.  Lyman's  church, 
and  differed  also  from  the  minister  in  political  faith.  Sophia 
Smitli  was  of  a  sensitive  nature  and  she  shrank  from  becom- 
ing out  of  syni])athy  with  the  other  members  of  the  house- 
hold.    She  had   three  brothers  and  three  sisters,  onlv  one 


SMITH    FAMILY    INSTITUTIONS.  353 


354  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

of  whom,  Joseph,  was  married.  Elihu,  Miranda,  and  Louisa 
died  between  1828  and  1831.  Austin,  Harriet,  and  Sophia 
continued  to  occupy  the  homestead,  the  house  on  which  was 
built  by  their  father.  There  Sophia  Smith  lived  an  unevent- 
ful life  till  her  brother  Austin  died  in  1861,  leaving  her  an 
estate  of  about  $450,000.     Harriet  had  died  in  1859. 

The  care  and  disposal  of  this  large  fortune  had  the  effect 
of  deepening  and  strengthening  her  character.  She  was  un- 
used to  business  affairs  and  the  responsibility  weighed  heav- 
ily upon  her.  As  the  least  robust  of  the  family  she  had 
been  shielded  all  her  life,  for  her  sister  Harriet  assumed 
most  of  the  responsibilities  of  the  management  of  the  house- 
hold. Hon.  George  W.  Hubbard  was  her  financial  adviser. 
She  also  sought  the  advice  of  her  pastor,  Rev.  John  M. 
Greene,  D.D.  With  a  deep  faith  in  her  sex  and  a  vision  of 
the  possibilities  of  higher  education  for  women,  which  had 
been  denied  her,  the  idea  of  a  college  for  women  became 
firmly  fixed  in  her  mind  under  the  guidance  of  her  advisers. 
Other  objects  to  which  she  considered  giving  part  of  her 
funds  were  a  deaf-mute  institution  to  be  located  in  Hatfield, 
an  academy  for  Hatfield,  and  a  scientific  school  in  connec- 
tion wnth  Amherst  College.  She  was  troubled  with  the 
infirmity  of  deafness.  The  need  of  a  deaf-mute  institution 
was  supplied  by  a  donation  by  John  Clarke  in  1867.  Then 
the  plans  for  the  woman's  college  became  the  most  absorb- 
ing topic  with  her.  There  was  a  time  when  she  wished  to 
leave  all  her  money  to  it,  but  Mr.  Hubbard  insisted  that  the 
part  of  her  plans  that  related  to  the  establishment  of  an 
academy  in  Hatfield  should  not  be  given  up.  Regarding  the 
plans  for  the  college,  Dr.  Greene  has  said: — 

"It  required  arguments  and  some  pleading  to  make  her  willing  to  have  the 
college  bear  the  name  of  Smith.  She  was  afraid  the  people  would  call  her 
selfish.  She  rose  above  self  and  prayerfully  and  conscientiously  aimed  at  the 
most  good  to  the  greatest  number.  The  college  became  to  her  a  delightful 
subject  of  thought,  of  private  conversation  and  study. 

*'It  was  decided  at  first  to  locate  the  college  in  Hatfield.  *  ♦  ♦  gut 
the  aim  of  Miss  Smith  was  not  to  build  up  her  native  town.  ♦  *  *  Wlierc 
will  the  college  do  the  most,  and  do  it  best,  was  her  only  question.  It  is 
not  strange  tliat  when  this  came  to  be  carefully  considered,  Northampton, 
by  reason  of  its  ease  of  access,  its  literary  and  social  attractions,  its  church 
accommodations  for  pupils  of  different  religious  denominations,  as  well  as 
its  comely  natural  sites  that  seem  to  have  been  designed  at  creation  for 
colleges  to  stand  on,  should  have  the  precedence.  After  long  deliberation, 
and  advice  from  many  and  varied  sources,  she  decided  to  change  the 
location  from  Hatfield  to  Northampton. 

"There  never  was,  in  Miss  Smith's  design  of  a  college,  any  hostility  to 


SMITH    FAMILY    INSTITUTIONS.  355 

any  existing  institutions  for  the  education  of  young  women.  She  aimed  at 
a  real  college,  where  women  should  be  educated,  according  to  their  nature 
and  needs,  in  the  most  perfect  manner.  She  intended  to  furnish  something 
above  and  beyond  the  ordinary  ladies'  school,  more  generous  and  extensive 
in  culture,  more  self-reliant  and  spontaneous  in  government,  more  homelike 
and  natural  in  watch  and  discipline,  more  thorough  and  comprehensive  in 
its  instruction,  with  the  greatest  elegance  and  refinement  of  manners,  del- 
icacy and  purity  of  taste,  as  well  as  benevolence  and  consecration  of  spirit, 
yet  not  unnecessarily  restrictive  and  repressive,  not  gregarious.  She  did  not 
think  the  atmosphere  of  crowded  halls  was  healthy.  Well-ordered  Christian 
homes  were  the  places  where  young  ladies,  especially,  should  spend  their 
formative  years.  She  would  not  set  up  a  rival  to  any  institution.  She 
thought  there  were  many  young  women  who  desired  to  prosecute  their 
studies  further  than  any  existing  schools  for  ladies  would  carry  them.  As 
writers,  as  teachers,  as  translators  of  books,  as  home  missionaries  and 
foreign,  and  in  whatever  position  the  providence  of  God  should  place  them, 
the  usefulness  and  happiness  of  women  would  be  greatly  increased  by  a 
more  liberal  education.  She  believed  in  the  divine  injunction  that  we  should 
'add  to  virtue  knowledge.'  She  thought  that  'knowledge  is  power*;  that 
'virtue  is  an  angel,  but  she  is  a  blind  one,  and  must  ask  of  knowledge  to 
show  her  the  pathway  that  leads  to  her  goal.* 

**She  would  have  this  college  create  a  new  era  in  woman's  education,  and 
always  occupy  the  van  to  lead  up  the  steeps  of  knowledge  higher  and 
explore  the  fields  wider.  Its  spirit  should  be  progressive.  It  should  teach 
not  only  what  has  been  discovered,  but  *such  other  studies  as  coming  times 
may  develop  or  demand  for  the  education  of  women  or  the  progress  of  the 
race.* 

•'The  aim  of  the  college,  in  her  mind,  was  not  the  deification  of  culture. 
Culture  is  only  a  means,  not  the  end,  of  life.  It  was  not  the  ideal  perfec- 
tion of  woman  that  she  aimed  at,  but  her  perfection  in  service,  according  to 
the  words,  'whosoever  will  be  chief  among  you,  let  him  be  your  servant.* 
She  claimed  that  all  culture  and  accomplishment  are  naught  unless  the  heart 
and  life  are  united  to  God  and  Christ.** 

Sophia  Smith  spent  the  last  years  of  her  life  in  a  new  house 
which  she  built,  standing  just  north  of  her  birthplace,  both 
now  owned  by  the  trustees  of  Smith  Academy.  A  memorial 
tablet  has  been  placed  on  the  old  house  by  the  alumnje  of 
Smith  College. 

After  her  death,  June  12,  1870,  it  was  found  that  she  had 
left  $75,000  in  trust  to  endow  an  academy  in  her  native 
town.  Her  will  appointed  as  trustees  of  this  fund  Joseph  D. 
Billings,  George  W.  Hubbard,  Jonathan  S.  Graves,  Alpheus 
Cowles,  Silas  G.  Hubbard,  Frederick  D.  Billings,  William  H. 
Dickinson,  and  Daniel  W.  Wells.  Death  has  removed  all  of 
these  except  Mr.  Cowles  and  Mr.  Wells  and  their  places 
have  been  taken  by  Eli  A.  Hubbard  and  Rev.  Robert  M. 
Woods,  both  also  deceased,  and  by  Charles  K.  Morton, 
Thaddeus  Graves,  Alfred  H.  Graves,  David  Billings,  Fred- 
erick H.  Bardwell,  and  Clarence  E.  Belden. 

Smith  Academy  w^as  opened  Dec.  4,  1872,  with  an  attend- 
ance of  32  boys  and  25  girls.  The  founder  in  her  will  gave 
directions  that  the  school  should  be  co-educational  and  that 


356 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


the  female  teachers  should  be  equal  in  numbers  or  be  within 
one  of  the  number  of  male  teachers  and  that  the  former 
should  have  a  voice  in  the  management  of  the  institution. 
During  the  first  years  of  its  existence  it  had  a  number  of 
pupils  from  out  of  town,  but  with  the  growth  of  high  schools 
in  the  neighboring  towns  or  provision  by  them  for  secondary 


education  their  numbers  grew  less  and  Smith  Academy  has 
come  to  supply  the  place  of  a  high  school  for  the  town  of 
Hatfield,  which  pays  for  the  tuition  of  Hatfield  pupils  who 
are  enrolled.  The  management  of  the  school  is  in  the  hands 
of  the  board  of  trustees,  which  is  self-perpetuating. 


Pri.s-cipai 
Wililcr  B.  Harding, 
William  Orr. 
Saiiford  L.  Cutler, 
Ashley  H.  Tlioriidikc, 
Howard  W.  Dickinson, 
Clayton  R.  Saunders. 
Albert  J.  Chidesttr. 
Artlnir  L.  Harris. 


m? 

1S«S 

ISHS 

IKKS 

MW 

1H<)3 

]m 

IWS 

1W 

lOOl 

]'»\S 

igtki 

1WI6 

1<X)S 

iyo8 

Preceptresses. 
Mrs.  Wilder  B,  Harding. 
Mary  Houghton   (Hubbard). 
Miss  Anna  Billings. 
Miss  Emma  Hubbard, 
Miss  Edith  Ayres, 
Mabel  G.  Bacon  (Ripley). 
Miss  Carrie  A.  Oarke. 


SMITH   FAMILY   INSTITUTIONS.  357 

Other  Instructors.  i 

William  B.  Russell,  Clara  L.  Graves  (Dickinson), 

Louisa  Graves  (Tead),  Miss  Margaret  Miller, 

Nellie  Eggleston  (Dizer),  Cora  King  (Graves), 

Miss  Ellen  Miller,  Miss  Bertha  Dillow, 

Emma  E.  Porter  (Billings)^  Ruby  Bardwell  (Chidester), 

Charlotte  Pettis  (Orr),  Miss  Marian  C.  Billings. 

The  Graduates  of  Smith  Academy. 

Class  of  1876. 

E.  Graves,  studied  at  Tilden  Seminary,  West  Lebanon,  N.  H. ;  taught 
in  public  schools  in  Hatfield ;  married  Roswell  Billings. 

M.  Antoinette  Morton,  married  Malcolm  Crawford. 

Emma  E.  Porter,  taught  in  public  schools  in  Hatfield  and  in  Smith  Academy ; 
married  David  Billings;  died  1909. 

Rcr.  Charles  A.  Wight,  graduated  from  Yale  University  in  1882;  editor  Yale 
Literary  Magazine;  member  'Varsity  crew ;  studied  theology  at  Yale, 
1883-1834;  ordained  to  the  Congregational  ministry  May  19,  1885; 
pastor  of  churches  in  Detroit,  Mich.,  Anthony,  Kan.,  St.  Louis,  Mo., 
Platteville,  Wis.,  Hallowell,  Me.,  and  Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.;  author 
of  **Doorways  of  Hallowell,"  "The  Hatfield  Book,"  and  frequent 
magazine  articles;  resides  in  Chicopee  Falls. 

Famiie  £.  Woodard,  died  1888. 

Class  of  1S77. 

Qarence  E.  Belden,  trustee  of  Smith  Academy. 

Dsvid  Billings,  trustee  of  Smith  Academy. 

Hattie  A.  Brown,  married  (George  B.  Barnes. 

Maria  I.  Curtis,  married  Frederick  H.  Bardwell. 

Albert  L.  Dyer,  studied  at  Yale  University;  resides  in  Northampton. 

Lilla  H.  Peck,  married  Frederick  P.  Pease. 

Mary  Lb  Waite,  taught  in  die  public  schools  in  Hatfield  and  Minneapolis, 

Minn.;  died  1904. 
Carrie  L.  Warner,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield  and  Minneapolis, 

Minn. ;  married  Arthur  Holt ;  resides  in  Minneapolis,  Minn. 

Class  of  1879. 

Anna  H.  Billings,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1891 ;  Ph.D.  from  Yale, 
1898;  taught  in  Smith  Academy,  University  of  Southern  California, 
Riverside,  Cal.,  Redlands,  Cal.,  Long  Beach,  Cal.,  and  State  Normal 
School,  San  Diego,  Cal. ;  resides  in  San  Diego,  Cal. 

Mary  E.  Dodge,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Westhampton ;  resides  in 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Carrie  S.  Porter,  taught  in  public  schools  in  Springfield;  married  Nathaniel 
B.  Wade;  resides  in  Springfield. 

Nellie  A.  Waite,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Mil  ford  and  in  Minneapolis, 
Minn.;  resides  in  Minneapolis,  Minn. 

Class  of  1880. 
Bertha  M.  Forbes. 

Clara  S.  Hawkes,  married  Eros  Blakeslee. 

N.  Gertrude  Hubbard,  married  William  Smith;  resides  in  Northampton. 
Alice  Woodard,  married  Frank  Montague ;  resides  in  Westhampton. 

Class  of  1881. 

Hmily  G.  Billings,  graduated  from  Music  Department,  Smith  College,  in  1885; 

teacher  of  music;  died  1894. 
P'annie  I.  Bennett,  died  1903. 
I^te  A.  (ThaflFee,  married  William  Hall;  died  1895. 


358  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Henry  A.  Cutter,  resides  in  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

Myra  L.  Howes,  married  Cooley  Dickinson;  resides  in  Whately. 

Lovisa  J.  Montague,  resides  in  Westliampton. 

Margaret  Miller,  taught  in  Smith  Academy;  author  of  "My  Saturday  Bird 

Class";  resides  in  Deerfield. 
Charles  Porter,  resides  in  Northampton. 
Amy  E.  Stebbins,  married  Henry  A.  Cutter;  resides  in  St.  Louis,  Mo. 

Class  of  1882. 

George  Douglass,  resides  in  Leeds. 

Albert  Holcomb. 

L.  lola  Pearl,  taught  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  and  Quincy;  resides  in  Chesterfield. 

Cora  B.  Delano,  married Shipman ;  died  1892. 

Emma  L.  Wartield,  married Eldredge. 

Frank  E.  Wing,  studied  at  Yale  University. 

Class  of  1883. 

Mary  A.  Whipple,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Belchertovvn  and  Pelham; 
resides   in  Amherst. 

Class  of  1S84. 

Arthur  H.  Beers,  resides  in  Whately, 

Elsie  E.  Elder,  married  Edward  F'rary :  resides  in  South  Deerfield. 

Lulu  E.  Field,  married  Ernest  Frary;  resides  in  South  Deerfield. 

Sarah  G.   Langdon,  taught  in   the   public   schools  in  Whately;   married  (1) 

Arthur  Jenny;  married  (2)  Samuel  F.  Billings. 
Charlotte  A.  Porter,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Springfield ;  engaged  in 
Y.   W.  C.   A.   work  in   Chicago,   111..   Detroit,   Mich.,   and   hi  Xew 

York,  N.  Y. 
Herbert  L.  Richardson. 

Class  of  1885. 

Charlotte  W.  Billings,  resides  in  Redlands,  Cal. 
Arthur   S.   Damon. 
Thomas   Powers. 

Class  of  1887. 

Hattic  A.  Carl,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  Wilbur  L 

Davis;  resides  in  Amherst. 
Carrie  C.  Field,  married  Charles  Cobb:  resides  in  Boston. 
Clara    L.    Graves,    studied    at    Mount    Holyoke    College;    taught    in    Smith 

Academy ;  married  William  C.  Dickinson. 
Laura  H.  Graves,  studied  music  in  Germany;  resides  in  New  York,  N.  Y'. 
Sarah  \L.  Kingslcy,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  George 

Carleton. 
Grace  H.  Marsh,  resides  in  Easthampton. 
l-^lizahcth  D.  Porter,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield  and  Springfield; 

j^radiiatod  from  Boston  I'niversity  in  1887  and  Springfield  Training 

School  in  1892;  instructor  in  physical  culture  in  the  Y.  W.  C.  A.  in 

Lowell:   M.l).  at   Boston   L'niversity  in  1901;  married  Dr.  F.   Mason 

Padclford -.  resides  in  Fall  River. 

Nelhc  I'-.  Powers,  married  Collins. 

Grace-  IC.  Wchbcr,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  James  D. 

Bard  well. 
CharK's   ( ).  Wells,  j^^raduated   from  Amherst  College  in   1891 ;   prominent  in 

ailik'tics;  bolder  of  records  in  one  and  two  mile  runs,  N.  E.  I.  A.  A.; 

president  of  X.   R.  I.  A.  A.;  died  1892. 
M.  Anna  Writfht,  resides  in  Wallingford.  Conn. 

Class  of  1S88. 

Geortie  I'.   IJartcMi.  Kradnated  from  Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute  in  1891; 
re.sides   in   Millville,   N.   J. 


SMITH    FAMILY    INSTITUTIONS.  359 

Mary  J.  Breor,  taught  in  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  Laurence  A. 

Powers. 
Nellie  A.  Carl,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  George  S. 

Belden;  died  1898. 
Hattic  S.  Marsh,  resides  in  Boston. 
Lizzie  E.  Ryan,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  John  W. 

Kiley. 

Class  of  i88g. 
George  S.  Belden. 

Jennie  M.  Barnes,  married  William  G.  Keating;  resides  in  Manchester,  N.  H. 
Bridget  C.  Day,  teacher  in  business  school  in  Springfield. 
Elizabeth  Fairbank,  graduated  from  Mount  Holyoke  College  in  1893;  taught 

in    Arms    Academy,   Shelbume    Falls;    married    William   W.    Hast- 
ings, Ph.D. ;  resides  in  Springfield. 
Myra  J.  P'ield,  married  C.  Edward  Warner. 
M.  Augusta  L.  Graves,  married  John  S.  Carl. 
Howard  M.  Graves,  resides  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
George  W.  Hubbard,  graduated  from  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons, 

Baltimore,  Md.,  in  1894;  physician  in  South  Hadley  and  Springfield; 

resides  in  Springfield. 
Mary  J.  Mosher,  postmistress  at  Bradstreet. 

Class  of  1891. 
Carrie  M.  Allaire,  died  1892. 
C.    Louise   Bardwell,   taught  in   Deerfield   and   Minneapolis,   Minn.;   married 

Charles  Crosby;  resides  in  Minneapolis,  Minn. 
C.   Mabel   Barton,  studied  at  Bridgewater   Normal   School ;  graduated   from 

Springfield  Training  School  in   1901 ;   teacher   in  the  public   schools 

in  Hatfield;  also  taught  in  West  Springfield. 
Mabel  L.  Billings,  married  H.  L.  Howard. 

Alice  De  Riemer,  studied  at  Smith  College ;  taught  in  Illinois ;  died  1903. 
Rose  Fairbank,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1895;  M.D.  at  Johns  Hop- 
kins  University   in   1900 ;   missionary   in   India ;   married   Dr.  Lester 

Beals;  resides  in  India. 
Anna  M.  Graves,  married  Howard  W.  Dickinson ;  resides  in  Springfield. 
Hattie  W.  Kingsley,  married  Harry  Hunt. 
Lida  A.  Kingsley,  married  Herbert  D.  Smith. 
Annette  M.  Lowell,  graduated   from  Smith  College  in  1895;  married   Prof. 

Ashley  H.  Thorndike;  resides  in  Yonkers,  N.  Y. 
Ethel  Moffette,  married  Leslie  R.  Smith ;  resides  in  Hadley. 
William  A.  Morton,  killed  by  the  cars  in  1891. 
Bertha   B.   Thayer,  graduated    from   Smith   College   in   1897;    married   Rev. 

Eugene  Lyman ;  resides  in  Bangor,  Me. 

Class  of  1892. 

Lena  M.  Douglas,  trained  nurse. 

Thaddeus    Graves,   graduated    from    Massachusetts    Agricultural    College    in 

1901. 
Harr\'  L.  Howard, 
Mabel   Marsh,  taught  in   the  public   schools  in   Springfield;   married   Porter 

Hemenway;  resides  in  Springfield. 

Class  of  1895. 

Mabel  Bradford,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Springfield  and  Hatfield. 

Edith  B.  Cooke,  resides  in  New  York.  X.  Y. 

Katherine  W.  Day,  teacher  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield. 

Mary  D.  Fairbank,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1899;  taught  in  Utica, 

X.    Y.,    Brooklyn,    N.    Y.,    and    Jersey    City,    N.    J.;    missionary    in 

Jhansi,   India. 
S.  Marion  Field,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Leverctt ;  married  Julius  \\. 

Trott;  resides  in  Amherst. 
Hannah  Leary,  married  George  Doppmann. 


360  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Class  of  1896. 
Oscar  E.  Belden. 
Mary  E.   Breor,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield;  married  George 

Pellissier;  resides  in  Orange,  N.  J. 
Ella  M.  Carl,  married  Harry  E.  Graves. 

Emma  L.  Carl,  married  Dr.  George  Johnson;  resides  in  Morristown,  N.  J. 
M.  Reba  Graves,  married  Robert  L.  Belden. 
Edith  A.  Howard. 

Alice  E.  Marsh,  married  Walter  Thayer;  resides  in  Williamsburg. 
Helen  L.  Porter,  married  Hugh  McLeod. 
Mabel  M.  Strong. 
Carrie  H.  Warner,  taught  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield  and  Allston. 

Class  of  1897, 

Marian  C.  Billings,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1901 ;  taught  in  the 
public  schools  in  Springfield  and  Warren  and  in  Smith  Academy. 

Margaret  D.  Harris,  married  Archie  P.  Graves. 

Minnie  C.  Riis,  graduated  from  Pratt  Institute,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  taught 
domestic  science  in  New  York  city,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  and 
Spokane,  Wash. ;  married  Harry  W.  Olney ;  resides  in  Spokane,  Wash. 

Reuben  F.  Wells,  graduated  from  Amherst  College  in  1901 ;  studied  at 
Bridgewater  Normal  School;  taught  in  South  Jersey  Institute, 
Bridgeton,  N.  J. 

Class  of  1898. 

Clarence  M.  Bradford,  resides  in  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
William  R.   Cutter. 

Monda  M.  La  Mountain,  resides  in  South  Hadley  Falls. 
Clara  A.  Wade,  married  Roscoc  L.  Bartlett;  resides  in  Portsmouth,  N.  H. 
E.    Edward   Wells,    graduated    from   Amherst    College   in    1903;    resides  in 
New  York  city. 

Class  of  1899. 

H.  Louisa  Billings,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1905;  taught  in  the 
public  schools  in  Deerfield,  Hatfield,  and  Newton;  demonstrator  in 
physics  in  Smith  College,  1906-1908;  appointed  assistant  in  phvsics, 
1908. 

Alice  L.  Day. 

Ursula  G.  Graves. 

Clara  A.  Harris,  married  Herbert  E.  Carter;  resides  in  Baldwinsville. 

Anna  E.  Harris,  married  John  C.  Burrington;  resides  in  Charlemont. 

Viola  P.  Larkin,  resides  in  Springfield. 

William  H.  Leary,  graduated  from  Amherst  College  in  1903  and  from  the 
law  school  of  the  University  of  Chicago  in  1907;  resides  in  Salt  Lake 
City,  Utah;  clerk  of  District  Court,  1904-1905;  secretary  of  Bryan 
Club,  1908. 

William  E.  Ryan,  resides  in  Springfield. 

Class  of  1900. 

Ruby  I.  Bardwcll,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1904;  taught  in  Smith 
Academy;  married  Albert  J.  Chidester;  resides  in  Simsbur>',  Conn. 

Anna  C.  Day. 

C.  Edward  Graves,  graduated  from  Wesleyan  University  in  1908;  studied  in 
Paris,  France;  professor  of  Romance  languages  in  Wesleyan  Uni- 
versity. 

Lillian  I.  Proulx,  studied  music  and  art  in  Smith  College,  1901-1904; 
married  Charles  Ilalligan ;  resides  in  East  Lansing,  Mich. 

Margaret  A.  Ryan,  graduated  from  Wcstfield  Normal  School  in  1903; 
teacher  in  the  public  schools  in  Hatfield. 

M.  Arvilla  Sampson,  graduated  from  North  Adams  Normal  School ;  taught 
in  A.  M.  A.  schools  in  Kentucky,  Georgia,  Porto  Rico,  and  Hawaii; 
married  Frederick  Dyer ;  resides  in  Amherst. 


SMITH   FAMILY   INSTITUTIONS.  361 

Charles  S.  Thayer,  drowned  1905. 

Josiah  B.  Woods,  studied  at  Phillips  Andover  Academy;  graduated  from 
Amherst  College  in  1905;  resides  in  Baltimore,  Md. 

Class  of  1901, 

Laura  F.  Billings. 

G.  Raymond  Billings. 

William  L.  Belden,  studied  at  Massachusetts  Agricultural  College. 

Helen  E.  Boyle,  married  John  Heafey;  resides  in  Whately. 

Bernice  N.  Cutter. 

£.  Langdon  Graves,  studied  at  Massachusetts  Agricultural  College;  post- 
master at  Hatfield. 

Rupert  D.  Graves. 

Ethel  P.  Moore,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1906;  taught  in  the  public 
schools  in  Island  Pond,  Vt.,  and  Hatfield. 

Theresa  M.  Nolan,  studied  at  Smith  College. 

Howard  A.  Strong. 

Louisa  B.  Wells,  studied  at  the  Capen  School,  Northampton,  and  at  Smith 
College;  married  C.  Edward  Cowan;  resides  in  Holyoke. 

Class  of  1902. 

Leonard  C.  Allaire,  graduated  from  Amherst  College  in  1907;  member  of 

'Varsity  baseball  team. 
Arthur  C.  Bardwell,  studied  at  Amherst  College. 
Roswell  G.   Billings,  graduated   from  Amherst  College   in  1907;   resides  in 

Boston. 
Frank   H.   Breor,   graduated   from   Purdue  University   in   1907;   resides   in 

Cleveland,  Ohio. 
Barbara    Doppmann,   graduated    from    Westfield    Normal    School    in    1905; 

teacher  in  the  public  schools  in  New  Jersey. 
Robert  E.  Fitzgerald. 
Alpheus  Godin,  resides  in  Springfield. 
John   H..  Hubbard,   studied  at   Kimball  Union   Academy;   graduated   from 

Amherst  College  in  1907;  captain  of  the  football  team;  captain  of 

the  track  team;  resides  in  Pelham. 
M.  Larkin  Proulx. 
Maude  F.  Warner. 
Katherine  Woods,  graduated   from   Smith   College  in  1907;   nurses'  course 

at  Massachusetts  General  Hospital. 

Class  of  1903. 

Eva  W.  Graves,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1908;  teacher  in  the  public 

schools  in  Danbury,  Conn. 
Pearl  R.  Kingsley. 
Sarah  V.  Kiley,  graduated  from  Westfield  Normal  School  in  1906;  teacher  in 

the  public  schools  in  Hatfield. 
Katherine  A.  Lovett. 

Class  of  1904. 

Ruth  E.  Billings,  studied  at  Northfield  Seminary. 

Olive  H.  Hubbard,  graduated  from  Smith  College  in  1909 ;  teacher  in  Sander- 
son Academy,  Ashfield. 

Louis  A.  Webber. 

Charlotte  Woods,  graduated  from  Mount  Holyoke  College  in  1909;  supervisor 
of  music  in  the  towns  of  Hatfield,  Hadley,  and  Bernardston. 

Class  of  1905. 

Homer  F.  Bardwell,  resides  in  Hartford,  Conn. 
J.  Leonard  Day,  student  in  Syracuse,  University. 
Mary  A.  Levitre,  resides  in  Springfield. 
K.  Helen  Murphy,  married  Rupert  D.  Graves. 


HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 


CloM  of  1907. 
Isabel  S.  Warner. 
John  Stenglein,  studied  at  Amherst  College. 

Class  of  igoS. 
Maude  E.  Boyte. 

Vivian  Bowman,  student  in  Boston  University. 
Claude  H.  Hubbard,  student  in  Atnherst  College. 
Arthur  La  Mountain. 
Margaret  Woods,  student  in  Mount  Holyoke  College. 

Chis  of  1909. 
Frank  Bean,  resides  in  Boston. 
R.  Harrison  Belden,  resides  in  Springfield. 
George  Ebcrlein,  student  in  Syracuse  University. 


Agricultural  College. 


The  following  list  contains  the  names  of  Hatfield  students 
who  have  been  college  graduates  in  addition  to  those  given 
among  the  students  of  Smith  Academy.  It  was  prepared 
by  Samuel  D.  Partridge  and  is  taken  from  the  sketch  of 
Hatlield  in  the  "History  of  the  Connecticut  Valley," 


Rev.  Samuel  Allis, 

Harvard. 

1724. 

ohn  Hastings. 

Vale.  1«15 

Edward  Billings, 

Harvard, 

1731. 

onathan  H.  Lyman, 

Yale,  1802 

Joseph  Billings, 

Vale, 

1797. 

oseph  L.  Morton, 

Vale.  IBS 

Edward  C,  Billings, 

Yale. 

1853. 

ohn  Partridge, 

Hanard,  ITDS 

Charles  M,  Billings, 

Amherst, 

1863. 

)liver  Partridge, 
Samuel  Partridge, 

Vale,  173U 

Arthur  W.  Billings, 

Vale,  1767 

Yale  (Sheffield  Scientific  SdiooH. 

Samuel  D.  Partridge,  Amherst;  1837 

Nathaniel  Chauncey, 

Yale. 

1702. 

Joseph  L.  Partridge,  Williams,  I8ffl 

Yale. 

1706. 

George  C.  Partridge, 

,  Amherst.  IWJ 

Moses  Dickinson. 

Yale. 

1717. 

Charles  Smith, 

-\mlierst.  IStl 

Benjamin  Dickinson. 

Harvard, 

1723. 

William  Williams, 

Harvard.  VQS 

Azariah  Dickinson, 

Vale, 

1730, 

Elisha  Williams, 

Harvard.  1711 

Josiah  Dwighl, 

Vale. 

1715. 

Solomon  Williams, 

Harvard,  1719 

Joseph  Dwight, 

Harvard, 

1722, 

John  Williams, 

Harvard,  1751 

William  Graves, 

Yale, 

1785. 

Israel  Williams. 

Harvard.  1729 

Thaddeus  Graves. 

.\mherst, 

1856. 

Israel  Williams. 

Vale.  1762 

Jonathan  Hubbard. 

Vale, 

1724. 

George  W.  Waite, 

Amherst,  186L 

John  Hubb-ird, 

\A 

e.  1747. 

v.— THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF  THE  MAXUFACTUR- 
IXG    INDUSTRIES    SINCE    THE    CIVIL    WAR. 

After  the  Civil  war  the  Fitch  Brothers  and  Porter  (John 
T.  and  George  C.  Fitch  and  Henry  S.  Porter)  bought  the 
sawmills  previously  operated  by  Henry  Wilkie,  on  Broad 
Brook,  and  Harvey  Moore,  on  Mill  river,  and  did  a  business 
of  considerable  magnitude  at  both  mills  for  several  years. 
The  Wilkie  mill  was  bought  in  1890  by  AWin  L.  Strong  and 
is  still  operated  by  hini.     Another  sawmill  was  operated  by 


Thb  Lathe  Smop. 

the  Dickinson  Brothers  at  West  Brook  till  about  1890,  when 
it  was  bought  by  Francis  G.  Bardwell,  whose  heirs  have 
continued  the  business  till  the  present  time.  Seth  W.  Kings- 
ley  also  makes  use  of  a  water  power  on  Mill  river  at  the  Hill 
bridge,  in  connection  with  his  wagon  shop  and  to  run  a 
cider  mill. 

These  were   all   comparatively   small   establishments   em- 
ploying only  a  few  men.  but  the  water  power  from  Mill 


364  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

river  has  been  developed  to  sustain  two  flourishing  manu- 
facturing concerns  located  close  by  the  spot  where  Thomas 
Meekins  set  up  his  sawmill  in  the  early  days.  About  1874 
the  Crescent  Pistol  Company  was  organized  by  Henry  S. 
Porter,  Edward  Preston,  and  Jonathan  E.  Porter,  who  com- 
menced to  manufacture  pistols  in  the  old  Moore  sawmill,  on 
the  site  of  the  so-called  "pistol  shop."  In  February,  1877, 
Andrew  Hyde  and  Maj.  Charles  S.  Shattuck  brought  up  from 
Springfield  their  pistol  manufacturing  business  and  went  into 
partnership  with  Mrs,  Mary  D.  Porter.  A  year  later  Mrs. 
Porter  withdrew  and  the  business  was  continued  by  Hyde 
and   Shattuck.      In    1880   Major   Shattuck   bought    out  his 


g 

^IniTT 

partner  and  conducted  the  factory  alone,  turning  out  many 
revolvers.  Soon  after  he  began  to  make  single-barreled, 
breech-loading  shotguns  and  a  few  years  later  double-bar- 
reled guns  also.  Large  quantities  of  both  were  made,  aver- 
aging for  a  time  15.000  guns  per  year. 

Tile  old  factory  was  burned  Jan.  29,  1881.  It  was  imme- 
diately rclmilt  on  the  same  .'^ite.  The  present  concrete  dam 
was  built  in  1905.  The  manufacture  of  guns  was  temporarily 
abanclotKMl  in  I'lO'l,  the  only  arms  now  turned  out  being  a 
new  model  fonr-sliot  ])istol.  The  bulk  of  the  business  con- 
sists of  the  manufacture  of  automatic  screw  machine  prod- 


INDUSTRIES   SINCE   THE   WAR.  355 

ucts,  principally  spark  plugs  for  automobiles.  Allen  W. 
Houghton  is  associated  with  Major  Shattuck,  the  firm  name 
being  the  Bay  State  Screw  Company.  Mr.  Houghton  was 
engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  these  products  in  Springfield 
before  coming  to  Hatfield. 

About  1882  Jonathan  E.  Porter  hired  part  of  the  upstairs 
floor  space  in  the  Shattuok  shop  for  the  manufacture  of 
lathes.  The  product  found  a  good  market  and  larger  quar- 
ters became  necessary.  The  present  lathe  shop  was  built  in 
1886  and  has  been  enlarged  several  times  since  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  a  growing  business.  From  1886  to  1892 
Mr.  Porter  was  in  company  with  Lewis  Warner  of  North- 
ampton. Then  Mr.  Warner  withdrew  and  Mr.  Porter,  with 
his  son-in-law,  Hugh  McLeod,  has  continued  the  manufac- 
ture of  a  full  line  of  engine  lathes  under  the  name  of  the 
Porter  Machine  Company. 

The  growth  of  these  manufacturing  establishments  has 
given  employment  to  a  large  number  of  Hatfield  men  of  a 
mechanical  turn  of  mind,  so  that  the  town  has  not  diminished 
in  size  to  the  extent  that  many  agricultural  communities 
have.  Some  skilled  mechanics  from  outside  places  have  been 
attracted  to  the  town.  The  Porter  Machine  Company  owns 
several  houses  to  rent  to  operatives. 


PART  III. 


FAMILY  GENEALOGIES. 


GENEALOGIES. 


The  descent  of  the  families  of  twenty-eight  of  the  early 
settlers  of  Hatfield  is  here  given.  Further  information  con- 
cerning the  heads  of  families  in  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury— residents  or  their  descendants  who  came  later — ^will 
be  found  in  Part  II.  A  careful  search  of  town  and  family 
records  and  gravestone  inscriptions  has  been  made,  but  no 
claim  is  put  forward  that  all  dates  are  correct.  Where 
the  records  do  not  agree,  as  is  often  the  case,  the  town 
records  have  been  followed  closely,  and  some  divergence 
from  previously  published  lists  will  be  noted.  Before  Sept 
3,  1753,  all  dates  are  old  style,  after  that  date  new  style, 
which  will  explain  the  year  in  some  cases. 


ABBREVIATIONS. 


a. — aged. 

abt. — about. 

Amh. — Amherst. 

b. — born. 

bap. — baptized. 

ch.— child  or  children. 

chh. — church. 

Con. — Conway. 

d.— died. 

dau. — daughter. 

Dfd.— Deerfield. 

Gfd. — Greenfield. 

Had.— Hadley. 

Hart. — Hartford,  Conn. 

Hat— Hatfield. 


k.— killed, 
m. — married. 
Nfd.— Northfield. 
Nhn. — Northampton, 
prob. — ^probably. 
rem. — removed, 
res. — resided, 
s. — son. 

sett. — settler  or  settled. 
Sp  f  d. — Springfield. 
Sund. — Sunderland, 
unm. — ^unmarried. 
Wfd.— Westfield. 
What.— Whately. 
wid. — widow. 


GENEALOGIES. 


THE  ALLIS   FAMILY. 

LIEUT.  WILLIAM  ALLIS  came  from  England  abt.  1635. 
St  knowledge  we  have  of  him  was  the  taking  the  freeman's 

Braintree,  May  13,  1640.     He  m.  (1)  Mary ,  who  d. 

9,  1677;  m.  (2)  June  25,  1678,  Mary,  dau.  of  John  Bronson 
i.  of  John  Graves.  She  was  also  the  wid.  of  John  Wyatt  of 
n.  Conn.,  before  she  m.  John  Graves  of  Hat.     After  the 

of  William  Allis,  she  m.  Capt.  Samuel  Gaylord,  Mar.  16, 

n,  b.  Mar.  5,  1642.  Hannah,  b.   1654 ;  m.  June  28,  1670, 

b.  Feb.  24,  1647.  William  Scott. 

).  1649;  d.  Oct.  15,  1651.  William,  b.  Jan.  10,  1656;  d.  May  19, 

..  Oct.  20,  1651.  1676. 

b.    Jan.    10,   1653;   d.   July,  Mary,  b.  1657;  d.  unm.  Jan.  25,  1690. 


"apt.  John,  s.  of  Lieut.  William  (1),  a  carpenter  in  Hat., 
at  Braintree,  Mar.  5,  1642 ;  d.  Jan.,  1691 ;  m.  Dec.  14,  1669, 
lau.  of  Thomas  Meekins  and  wid.  of  Nathaniel  Clark.  She 
Samuel  Belden  of  Hat.  abt.  1691. 

jcph,  b.    Nov.    11.    1670;   m.  Lydia,  b.  Aug.  15,  1680;  d.  Aug.  31, 

;  k.  by  Indians,  June  19,  1691. 

John,  b.  May  10,  1682;  m.  (1)  Jan. 

b.  Feb.  25.  1672;  m.  Jan.  23,  29,  1708,  Mary  Lawrence;  m.   (2) 

Iphraim  Wells.  Bethiah  Field. 

b.  Oct.  9,  1673 ;  m.  Samuel  Rebecca,  b.  Apr.  16.  1683 ;  m.  Apr.  30, 

1702,  Nathaniel  Graves. 

h.  July  10.  1675.  William,  b.  Mav  16.  1684. 

b  July  23.  1677;  m.  Mar.  17,  Marv.  b.  Aug.  25,  1687;  d.  Apr.  20, 

femima   Graves   of   Hat. ;  d.  1688. 

2,  1758.  Nathaniel,  m.  .abt.  1705,  Mercy  Dud- 

.  b.  Apr.  4.  1679;  m.  July  13,  ley. 
ames  Bridgman. 

CH.xBOD,  s.  of  Capt.  John  (2).  was  b.  at  Hat,  July  10,  1675; 
9,  1747;  ni.  (1)  abt.  1698,  Marv.  dau.  of  Samuel  Belden,  Jr. 
s  b.  Aug.  27,  1679;  d.  Sept.  9,' 1724.  He  m.  (2)  Nov.  25, 
irah,  dau.  of  Benjamin  Waite  and  wid.  of  John  Belden.  She 
>tured  and  carried  to  Canada  in  1677.     Res.  in  Hat. 

igail.    b.   Feb.   28,    1700;    m.       Martha,   b.    Nov.    19,    1703;   m.    (1) 

iel  Smith  of  Sund.  John  Wells  of  Hat.;  m.    (2)    Na- 

Jan.   7,   1702;   m.   Jan.    13.  thanicl    Hammond    of    Hardwick; 

>aniel  Dickinson:  d.  Oct.  16.  m.  (3)  Nathaniel  Kellogg;  d.  Sept. 

13,  1764. 


370  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

Samuel,  b.  Dec.  12,  1705;  m.  Nov.  4,  Bathsheba,  b.  Jan.  12,  1710;  m.  1734, 

1729,  Hannah  Sheldon;  d.  Dec.  16,  Jonathan  Warner. 

1796.  Abel,  b.  July  21.   1714;   m.   Dec.  14, 

Sarah,  b.  Jan.  11,  1708;  m.  Nov.  14,  1735,  Miriam  Scott. 

1734,  Joseph  Miller.  Elisha,  b.  Dec.  3,  1716. 

4.  Elisha,  s.  of  Ichabod  (3),  was  b.  Dec.  3,  1716,  at  Hat;  was 
in  Somers,  Conn.,  in  1751 ;  d.  Nov.  23,  1784.  He  m.  (1)  Dec.  20, 
1744,  Anna,  dau.  of  John  Marsh  of  Had.  She  was  b.  in  1721.  He 
m.  (2)  wid.  Sarah  Cutler,  dau.  of  Samuel  Reed  of  Burlington,  Vt. 
She  d.  Mar.  25,  1807.     Res.  in  Hat. 

Ch.:  Anna,  m.  July  5,  1774,  Dr.  Josiah  Abel,  b.  1757;  m.  Miss  Allen;  was  a 

Pomeroy  of  Keene,  N.  H.     He  was  doctor. 

a    surgeon    in    the    English    army,  William,  b.   1758;   m.   Oct.   20.  1784, 

1788.  Sophia    Smith;    rem.    to   Lowville, 

Electa,  d.  unm.,  a.  20.  N.  Y. 

Josiah,   b.    1754;   m.    Anna,    dau.    of  Elisha,  b.  1760;  m.  wid.  Mary  (Dick- 

Elisha  Hubbard.  inson)    Ingram,    dau.    of    Obadiah 

John,   b.   Jan.    18,    1756:    m.   Esther,  Dickinson  of  Hat. 

dau.  of  Samuel  Partridge  of  Hat. 

5.  WiLLi.xM,  s.  of  Elisha  (4),  was  b.  in  1758;  m.  Oct.  20,  1784, 
Sophia  Smith.     She  was  b.  in  1765  and  d.  Sept.  24,  1807. 

Ch.:  William.  Dexter,  b.  Feb.  7.  1797;  m.  Xov.  18. 

Sarah.  1824,  Mary  Waite  of  Hat. 

Electa,  b.  Julv  15,  1792;  m.  Dec.  17,       Mary,  b.  Oct.  15,  1799. 

1818.  Jonathan  Porter  of  Hat.  Thomas  Cutler,  b.  Mar.  30,  1802. 

Sophia,  b.  July  9,  1794. 

6.  Dkxter,  s.  of  William  (5),  was  b.  Feb.  7,  1797;  d.  Dec.  28, 
1882:  m.  Nov.  18.  1824,  Marv,  dau.  of  Daniel  Waite  of  Hat.  She 
was  b.  May  27,  1806,  and  d.  July  19,  1886. 

Ch.:   Waitstill.   b.    Oct.    11,    1825;  d.        Elizabeth  Hastings,  b.  Xov.  22.  1831; 

unni.  Feb.  18,  1901.  m.  Jan.  1,  1857,  Samuel  F.  Billing. 

Daniel  Waite.  b.  Aug.  9,  1828.  Marv  Waite,  b.  Oct.  11.  1833;  m.  Oct. 

William  Pcnn,  b.  Apr.  9,  1830.  20,  1858,  Dr.  C.  S.  Hurlbut  of  SpfA 

7.  D.\mi:l  Waite,  s.  of  Dexter  (6),  was  b.  Aug.  9,  1828;  d. 
Dec.  28.  1873 ;  m.  Dec.  7,  1854,  Sarah  Jane  Hurlbut  of  Spfd.  She 
was  I).  Nov.  22,  1834,  and  d.  Jan.  18,  1899. 

Ch.:  Josephine  S.,  b.  Jan.  30.  1858;  d.  Spfd. 

Nov.  22.  1873.  Dexter  Hurlbut,  b.  Aug.  10,  1867:  m. 
Jainis   Hurllmt,   b.    Julv  9,    1862;    d.  Nov.  24,  1904,  Flora  Mav  Castle. 

July  9,  1863.  Edward  Milton,  b.  Dec.  9",  1870:  m. 
Marv  Waite.  h.  Mav  5.  1865 :  ni.  June  Oct.  16,  1901,  Florence  Wightman. 

22,  1904,  Edward  H.  Wilkinson  of 

8  Wir.r.i.xM  TM:xx,  s.  of  Dexter  (6),  was  b.  Apr.  9,  1830;  m. 
Feb',  1860,  Amelia  P.aker. 

Ch.:    Charles,    h.    Mar.    18,    1862;    d.  26,  1863,  at  Wilbraham. 

June  23,  1863.  William  Baker,  b.  June  7,  1866;  m. 
Fanny  .\.  and  .\inia  A.,  twins,  b.  July  Mollie  . 

9.  Joiix,  s.  of  Elisha  (4),  was  b.  Jan.  18,  1756;  d.  Mar.  1.  IS29: 
111.  I^^stlier,  dau.  of  Samuel  Partridge  of  Hat.  She  was  b.  Mar.  26. 
1761.  and  d.  Dec.  22,  1834. 


GENEALOGIES.— ALLIS—BARDWELL,  37 1 

Ch.:    Abigail   b.    Dec.    14,    1779;    m.  John,  b.  Sept.  4,  1786;  d.  Oct.  3,  1807, 

Erastus  Billings;  d.  Oct.  14,  1829.  a.  21. 

Fannie,  b.  Nov.  11,  1781;  d.  Feb.  9,  Josiah,  b.  May  2,  1794. 

1789.  Dwight  Lathrop,  b.  Oct.  13,  1805;  d. 

Sophia,  b.  Nov.  18,  1783;  ni.  Remem-  July  6,  1809. 

brance  Bardwell ;  d.  June  22,  1847. 

10.  JosiAii,  s.  of  John  (9),  was  b.  May  2,  1794;  d.  Xov.  13, 
1866;  m.  (1)  Mav  17, ,  Salome  Osborn.  who  was  b.  June  26, 

'1801,  and  d.  Oct.  29,  1833;  m.  (2)  May  18,  1839,  Louisa  M.  Bard- 
well, who  was  b.  May  3,  1807,  and  d.  May  29,  1875. 

Ch.    (by    Salome    Osborn)  :    Son,    b.  1842;  d.  Jan.  4,  1862. 

Jan.  17,  1822.  Augusta  Salome,  b.  Dec.  29,  1824;  m. 

Harriet  Atwood,  b.  Jan.  17,  1823;  m.  Dec.  14,  1842,  John  D.  Brown. 

James    Morton   of    Hat.,    Nov.  24, 

11.  Dexter  Hurlbut,  s.  of  Daniel  Waite  (7).  was  b.  Aug.  10, 
1867:  m.  Xov.  24.  1904,  Flora  May  Castle.  He  is  now  a  dentist, 
practicing  in  Spfd. 

Ch.:   Catherine  Hurlbut.  b.  Sept.  21,  1905. 

12.  EDW^^RD  Milton,  s.  of  Daniel  Waite  (7),  was  b.  Dec.  9, 
1870;  ni.  Oct.  16,  1901,  Florence  Wightman. 

Ch.:    Milton    Wightman.    b.    July   8,  1905. 

1902;  d.  May  7.  1906.  Marjorie  Wightman,  b.  Dec.  5.  1908. 

Jairus    Searle    Hurlbut.    b.    July    22, 

THE    BARDWELL    FAMILY. 

1.  ROBERT  BARDWELL  of  Hat.  d.  Jan.  9,  1726,  a.  79.  He 
111.  Nov.  29,  1676,  Mary,  dau.  of  William  Gull.  She  d.  Xov.  12, 
1726. 

Ch.:  Ebenezer.  b.  Oct.  19,  1679.  1717,  Joseph  Belding. 

Marv,  b.  Oct.  15,  1681.  Sarah,   m.    May    19,    1713,   Jonathan 

John.  b.  Sept.  16,  1683;  d.  1685.  Barrett  of  Hart. 

Samuel,  b.  Sept.  26,  1685.  Thankful,  m.   May  23,  1717,   Abram 

John,  b.  Aug.  18  or  28,  1687.  Graves. 

Elizabeth,  b.  July  30,  1689.  A])igail,  b.  abt.  1699;  m.  June  6,  1720, 

Thomas,  b.  Dec.  8,  1691.  David  Graves ;  d.  1786,  a.  87. 

Hester,  b.  Aug.  8,  1693;  m.  Oct.  23, 

2.  Ebenezer,  s.  of  Robert  (1),  was  b.  Oct.  19,  1679,  in  Hat. ;  d. 
July  13,  1732;  m.  Apr.  25,  1706,  Mary,  dau.  of  Joseph  and  Joanna 
( Wyatt)  Field  of  Hat.  She  was  b.  July  18,  1684.  They  res.  on 
the  estate  that  descended  from  Robert. 

Ch.   (h.  in  Hat.)  :  Ebenezer,  b.  Sept.  Esther,  b.  1715;  d.  soon. 

10,  1707;  m.  Elizabeth  Gillett;  rem.  Jonathan,  b.  Jan.  5,  1718. 

to  What.  Abigail,  b.   Oct.   14,    1722;   m.   Noah 

Hannah,  b.  Jan.  24,  1709.  Wells;  rem.  to  What. 

Joseph,  b.  1711.  Esther,    b.    Dec.    16.    1723;    m.    1743, 

Remembrance,  b.  1713.  Daniel  Morton;  rem.  to  What. 

3.  Remembraxck.  s.  of  Ebenezer  (2),  was  b.  in  Hat.  in  1713; 
d.  Nov.  9,  1779;  m.  1742,  Hannah,  dau.  of  Ebenezer  and  Hannah 


m 


HISTORY   OF    HATFIELD. 


(Frary)  Dickinson  of  Hat.     She  was  b.  Feb.  17,  !715,  and  d.  Mar. 

16,  1788.     He  res.  on  the  old  homestead  and  was  a  man  of  much 

prominence  and  influence. 

CA-  (b.  in  Hat.)  :  Sarah,  b.  Aug.  30, 
1743 ;  m.  Mar.  14,  17TO,  Jesse  Bill- 
ings. 

Noah,   b.    .^pr.    28,    1748;    m.    Lucy 


Waite ;  rem.  to  Wliat. 
Hannah,  b.  Aug.  4,  1750; 

Dickinson  of  No.  Hat. 
Seih.  b.  Dec.  23, 17S2. 


4.  Setm,  s.  of  Remembrance  (3),  was  b.  in  Hat.,  Dec.  23.  1752; 
k.  by  lightning  June  16,  1795 ;  m.  Aug.  31,  1773,  Hannah  Dickinson, 
dau.  of  Salmon  Dickinson  of  Hat.  He  sett,  on  the  old  Bardwell 
homestead  and  was  an  active  business  man.  She  d.  Dec.  31,  1833, 
a.  81. 


Ch.  (b.  in  Hat.)  :  KHjah.  b.  Nov,  12. 

1775. 
Silas,  b.  Apr.  27,  1777;  m.  Pnmclia, 

dau.  of  William  Morion. 
Lois.  b.   Nov,  7.   1779;  m.  Oct.   18. 

1808.  Alpheus  Longky. 
Remembrance,   h,    Feb,   3,    1782;   m, 

Sopliia,  dau,  of  John  .Allis. 
Sclh,    b.     Mav     18.     1784;    m.     Ann 

Warner   of  ■Williamsburg;  d,   Oct, 

23.  18fi6,    Thfv  !iad  one  child,  Pa- 


melia,  b.   Sept.  7.   1839;   r 

Brown ;  d,  Nov,  26.  1833- 
Hannah.  b.  July  31,  1786:  d, 
William,  b,  Aug.  21.  178?;  m 

1814,  Sabra  Swifi. 
Oliver,  b.  Apr.  25,   1791  ;   d, 

1802. 
Jeremiah,  b.  May  5.  1793;  i 

niond  Harris;  no  ch. 
Salmon  D,.  b,  Feb,  29.  1796; 

.\nn  While, 


I,  JoMah 

^21. 
Dec.  17. 


,  16.  1857 
of  H^it. 


)(  .suth  i4i.  \va.<  1.,  in  Hat,.  Nov.  12.  1775;  d, 
1  1  Ian,  1.  ISOO.  Miriam,  dau.  of  Joseph  Dickin- 
rt-a-  1).  .Aug.  30,  1781.  and  d.  Oct.  7,  1841.    He 


GENEALOGIES.— BARDWELL.  373 

m.  (2)   Luanda  Waite  of  Amh.  in  Aug.,  1842.     She  d.  May  17, 
1871,  a.  81. 

Ch.    (b.   in   Hat.)  :    Hannah,  b.   abt.       Hannah,  b.  May  7,  1812;  m.  Nov.  27, 
1801 ;  d.  Jan.  2,  1803.  1837,  Asahel  Wright  of  Dfd. ;  d. 

Elijah,  b.  Sept.  13,  1802.  May  4,  1874. 

6.  Silas,  s.  of  Seth  (4),  was  b.  in  Hat,  Apr.  27,  1777;  d.  May 
8,  1862 ;  m.  Sept.  16,  1802,  Pamelia,  dau.  of  William  Morton.  She 
was  b.  Dec.  15,  1783,  and  d.  Aug.  22,  1854. 

Ch.:  Oliver,  b.  Dec.  15,  1803;  d.  in  1882. 

infancy.  Louisa,   b.   May  3,   1807;  m.   Josiah 

Oliver,  b.  June  23,  1805 ;  d.  Mar.  9,  Allis ;  d.  May  29,  1875. 

7.  Remembrance,  s.  of  Seth  (4),  was  b.  in  Hat.,  Feb.  3,  1782; 
d.  Dec.  20,  1863;  m.  Apr.  12,  1802,  Sophia,  dau.  of  John  Allis. 
She  was  b.  Nov.  18,  1783,  and  d.  June  22,  1847. 

Ch. :  Eliza,  b.  Oct.  22,  1803 ;  d.  Sept.  Dwight  L.,  b.  1812 ;  d.  Aug.  20,  1832, 

15,  1804.  a.  20. 

Eliza  A.,  b.  Oct.  22,  1804;  m.  Harvey  Sophia  A.,  b.  Jan.  20,  1820;  m.  Nov. 

Graves.  17,  1842,  E.  A.  Dickinson  of  What. 

8.  William,  s.  of  Seth  (4),  was  b.  in  Hat,  Aug.  21,  1788;  d. 
Dec.  24,  1872;  m.  Jan.  21,  1814,  Sabra,  dau.  of  Heman  Swift  of 
What.     She  was  b.  Nov.  29,  1794,  and  d.  Apr.  7,  1868. 

Ch.:  William  E.,  d.  Jan.  7,  1890.  Charles  L,  d.  Oct.  8,  1907. 

Edwin,  b.  Nov.  16,  1822;  d.  Sept.  5,  Lorenzo,  m.  Sarah  Allis. 

1898;  m.  (1)  Mar.  10,  1847,  Dollie  George  W.,  b.  1819;  drowned  Aug.  2, 

Ann  Graves  of  What. ;  m.  (2)  June  1834,  a.  15. 

I,  1871,  Martha  R.  Birde. 

9.  Salmon  D.,  s.  of  Seth  (4),  was  b.  at  Hat.,  Feb.  29,  1796;  m. 
Oct.  13,  1834,  Lucy  Ann,  dau.  of  Elijah  White  of  Hat.  Res.  in 
Margaretta,  Ohio. 

Ch,:  Anna  L.,  b.  July  2,  1835 ;  m.  May  garetta,  Ohio. 

II,  1859,  William  Graves  of  Mar-       Maria  L.,  b.  Feb.  19,  1838. 

10.  Elijah,  s.  of  Elijah  (5),  was  b.  at  Hat,  Sept.  13,  1802;  d. 
Mar.  28,  18i83 ;  m.  Dec.  12,  1833,  Cynthia,  dau.  of  Lucius  Field  of 
Leverett.  She  was  b.  July  28,  1810,  and  d.  Feb.  14,  1878.  He  was 
an  active  business  man  and  much  in  public  life. 

Ch.    (b.  in  Hat.):   Martha  Jane,  b.  Elijah   Ashley,  b.   Feb.    1,    1846;   m. 

July  5,  1838.  Sarah  E.  Dickinson. 

Caleb  Dickinson,  b.   Sept.  28,   1840;  Asahel    Wright,    b.    May   28.    1848; 

m.  Sarah  A  Warner.  drowned  July  28,  1864. 

Henry   Field,    b.    Nov.   6,    1842;   m.  Frederick  Harrison,  b.  Feb.  12,  1854; 

Alice  L.  Brown.  m.  Maria  Irene  Curtis. 

11.  Caleb  Dickinson,  s.  of  Elijah  (10),  was  b.  at  Hat.,  Sept. 
28,  1840;  d.  May  12,  1907;  m.  Sept.  28,  1870,  Sarah  A.,  dau.  of 
James  W.  Warner.  He  was  a  member  of  Co.  K,  52d  Regiment, 
M.V.M.,  in  the  Civil  war. 

Ch.:  Cynthia  Louisa,  b.  Mar.  4,  1874;  polis,  Minn. 

m.  Charles  C.  Crosby  of  Minnea-       Robert  James,  b.  Mar.  5,  1877. 


374  HISTORY    OF    HATFIELD. 

12.  Henry  Field,  s.  of  Elijah  (10),  was  b.  at  Hat.,  Nov.  6, 
1842;  d.  Oct.  4,  1892;  m,  Nov.  4,  1868,  Alice  L.,  dau.  of  John  D. 
Brown.     She  was  b.  Apr.  29,  1848,  and  d.  Oct.  29,  1907. 

Ch.:  Harry  Elijah,  b.  Mar.  24,  1871.  Wilfred  P.  Weaver  of  Hart. 

Martha  Eveline,  b.  May  31,  1873;  m. 

13.  EijjAH  Ashley,  s.  of  Elijah  (10),  was  b.  at  Hat.,  Feb.  1. 
1846;  m.  (1)  Dec.  13,  1871,  Sarah  E..  dau.  of  William  H.  Dickin- 
son. She  d.  Auf2^.  10,  1876.  He  m.  (2)  Sept.  11,  1886,  Lois  Ann 
Wright  of  ^lanchester,  V^t. 

Ch.  (by  Sarah  E.  Dickinson)  :  James  Smith's    Ferry.     They     have    one 

Dickinson,    b.    Mav    10,    1875;    m.  chWd,  Catherine  Dickinson,  h.  Aug. 

Sept.  5,  1899,  Martha  B.  Smith  of  1,  1902. 

14.  Frederick  Harrison,  s.  of  Elijah  (10),  was  b.  at  Hat..  Feb. 
12,  1854:  m.  Dec.  4,  1879.  Maria  Irene,  dau.  of  Lucius  G.  Curtis  of 
Hat.     She  was  b.  Sept.  23,  1857. 

Ch.:   Ruby  Irene,  b.   Mar.   14.   1883;       Arthur  Curtis,  b.  Aug.  10,  1885. 
m.   June   30,    1909,  Albert   J.   Chi-       Homer  Frederick,  b.  Dec.  19,  1887. 
dester.  Curtis  P'ield,  b.  June  9,  1893. 


THE   BELDIXG    OR    BELDEN    FAMILY. 

1.  Of  RICHARD  DEEDING  (or  BELDEN)  of  Wethersfield, 
Conn.,  we  have  no  date  of  birth,